Senior Citizens & forgetfulness   Dr. Dhananjay D. Gambhire MD (Psychiatry) DPM Consultant Psychiatrist
<ul><li>Phase of life cycle characterized by developmental issues, loss of physical agility, mental acuity, friends and lo...
Memory <ul><li>Immediate-e.g.. Repeating words </li></ul><ul><li>Recent-e.g.Food </li></ul><ul><li>Remote-Declarative-Sema...
<ul><li>In the past, doctors dismissed memory loss, confusion, or similar behaviors as a normal part of aging.  </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Some longitudinal studies have demonstrated a rather high stability of intelligence during aging  </li></ul><ul><l...
Components of Intelligence <ul><li>Visuospatial skills.  </li></ul><ul><li>Language. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment or reasoni...
Age associated forgetfullness <ul><li>Simple lapses in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting the name of a person just met. ...
15 % 12 % Depression 20 % 5 % Forgetfulness 25 % 10 % Psychiatric conditions Age >65 yrs General population
Mild cognitive impairment <ul><li>impairment in one a more cognitive domain (typically memory), or an overall mild decline...
Dementia <ul><li>The term dementia describes a group of symptoms that usually are caused by changes in the normal activity...
<ul><li>Dementia is irreversible - it cannot be cured. However, there are many conditions with symptoms that seem like dem...
These reversible conditions <ul><li>Anxiety or Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>High fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition....
Medications that can induce depression &forgetfulness <ul><li>Steroids  </li></ul><ul><li>Painkillers  </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Tests for memory <ul><li>Mini mental status evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Consortium to establish registry in dementia </li...
Causes of depression <ul><li>Loneliness and isolation – Living alone; a dwindling social circle due to deaths or relocatio...
<ul><li>Reduced sense of purpose - Feelings of purposelessness or loss of identity due to retirement or physical limitatio...
<ul><li>Fears – Fear of death or dying; anxiety over financial problems or health issues.  </li></ul><ul><li>Recent bereav...
Symptoms of depression <ul><li>Unexplained or aggravated aches and pains  </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness  </li></ul><ul><l...
Investigations in depression <ul><li>Routine blood investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal imbalances  </li></ul><ul><li...
Treatment <ul><li>Getting out in to the world – Try not to stay cooped up at home all day. Go to the park, take a trip to ...
<ul><li>Connecting to others – Limit the time you’re alone. If you can’t get out to socialize, invite loved ones to visit ...
<ul><li>Taking care of a pet – Get a pet to keep you company.  </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in activities you enjoy - P...
<ul><li>Learning a new skill – Pick something that you’ve always wanted to learn, or that sparks your imagination and crea...
<ul><li>Enjoying jokes and stories – Laughter provides a mood boost, so swap humorous stories and jokes with your loved on...
<ul><li>Maintaining a healthy diet – Avoid eating too much sugar and junk food. Choose healthy foods that provide nourishm...
<ul><li>Exercising - Even if you’re ill, frail, or disabled, there are many safe exercises you can do to build your streng...
<ul><li>maintain daily routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Diary writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Hourly writing </li></ul><ul><li>Revis...
<ul><li>Always make a point to remember things. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if it is something you do not have to memorize. </l...
 
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Forgetfulness & Old Age

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Forgetfulness & Old Age

  1. 1. Senior Citizens & forgetfulness Dr. Dhananjay D. Gambhire MD (Psychiatry) DPM Consultant Psychiatrist
  2. 2. <ul><li>Phase of life cycle characterized by developmental issues, loss of physical agility, mental acuity, friends and loved ones, status and power. </li></ul><ul><li>Old age is not a disease </li></ul><ul><li>Old age not numbers-mind set </li></ul><ul><li>>65 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Memory <ul><li>Immediate-e.g.. Repeating words </li></ul><ul><li>Recent-e.g.Food </li></ul><ul><li>Remote-Declarative-Semantic e.g. Name </li></ul><ul><li>Episodic e.g. life event </li></ul><ul><li>Nondeclarative-Procedure </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In the past, doctors dismissed memory loss, confusion, or similar behaviors as a normal part of aging. </li></ul><ul><li>However, scientists now know that most people remain alert and capable as they age </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Some longitudinal studies have demonstrated a rather high stability of intelligence during aging </li></ul><ul><li>World leaders are usually 60+ </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the rich people & owners are 60+ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Components of Intelligence <ul><li>Visuospatial skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Language. </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment or reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Community affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Home. </li></ul><ul><li>Hobbies. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal care. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul>
  7. 7. Age associated forgetfullness <ul><li>Simple lapses in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Forgetting the name of a person just met. </li></ul><ul><li>Not finding the right word or expression while communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Taking more time to learn a new things </li></ul><ul><li>Taking longer time to react or respond </li></ul>
  8. 8. 15 % 12 % Depression 20 % 5 % Forgetfulness 25 % 10 % Psychiatric conditions Age >65 yrs General population
  9. 9. Mild cognitive impairment <ul><li>impairment in one a more cognitive domain (typically memory), or an overall mild decline across all cognitive abilities that is greater than would be expected for individual age or education but insufficient to interfere with social and occupational functioning as is required for a dementia syndrome . </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of conversion to dementia </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 2 % to 10 to 15 % </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dementia <ul><li>The term dementia describes a group of symptoms that usually are caused by changes in the normal activity of very sensitive brain cells. Dementia seriously interferes with a person's ability to carry out daily activities. </li></ul><ul><li>3% at 60 yrs </li></ul><ul><li>40% at 80 yrs </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Dementia is irreversible - it cannot be cured. However, there are many conditions with symptoms that seem like dementia but aren't. </li></ul>
  12. 12. These reversible conditions <ul><li>Anxiety or Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>High fever. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor nutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad reaction to a medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Minor head injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Medications that can induce depression &forgetfulness <ul><li>Steroids </li></ul><ul><li>Painkillers </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Arthritis medication </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease medication </li></ul><ul><li>Tranquilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer drugs  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Tests for memory <ul><li>Mini mental status evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Consortium to establish registry in dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Global deterioration scale </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Executive functioning </li></ul>
  15. 15. Causes of depression <ul><li>Loneliness and isolation – Living alone; a dwindling social circle due to deaths or relocation; decreased mobility due to illness or loss of driving privileges. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Reduced sense of purpose - Feelings of purposelessness or loss of identity due to retirement or physical limitations on activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Health problems – Illness and disability; chronic or severe pain; cognitive decline; damage to body image due to surgery or disease. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Fears – Fear of death or dying; anxiety over financial problems or health issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Recent bereavement - The death of friends, family members, and pets; the loss of a spouse or partner </li></ul>
  18. 18. Symptoms of depression <ul><li>Unexplained or aggravated aches and pains </li></ul><ul><li>Hopelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Helplessness </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety and worries </li></ul><ul><li>Memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of feeling of pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Slowed movement </li></ul><ul><li>Irritability </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest in personal care (skipping meals, forgetting medications, neglecting personal hygiene) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Investigations in depression <ul><li>Routine blood investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid problems </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Other nutritional deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte imbalances or dehydration </li></ul><ul><li>CT Scan </li></ul>
  20. 20. Treatment <ul><li>Getting out in to the world – Try not to stay cooped up at home all day. Go to the park, take a trip to the hairdresser, or have lunch with a friend. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Connecting to others – Limit the time you’re alone. If you can’t get out to socialize, invite loved ones to visit you, or keep in touch over the phone or email. </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteering your time – Helping others is one of the best ways to feel better about yourself and regain perspective. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Taking care of a pet – Get a pet to keep you company. </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in activities you enjoy - Pursue whatever hobbies or pastimes bring or used to bring you joy </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Learning a new skill – Pick something that you’ve always wanted to learn, or that sparks your imagination and creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an autobiography </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Enjoying jokes and stories – Laughter provides a mood boost, so swap humorous stories and jokes with your loved ones, watch a comedy, or read a funny book. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Maintaining a healthy diet – Avoid eating too much sugar and junk food. Choose healthy foods that provide nourishment and energy. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Exercising - Even if you’re ill, frail, or disabled, there are many safe exercises you can do to build your strength and boost your mood—even from a chair or wheelchair </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>maintain daily routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Diary writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Hourly writing </li></ul><ul><li>Revising </li></ul><ul><li>High mental activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Sodoku </li></ul><ul><li>Antakshari </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Always make a point to remember things. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if it is something you do not have to memorize. </li></ul><ul><li>Read-Write-Repeat do it anyways. </li></ul>

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