The role of research
when experience rules:
insights from longitudinal
and comparative study of
beginning teachers' learni...
A personal journey:
doing, reading, using research
As a mentor in a new partnership scheme
As a Head of Department respons...
A personal
journey
As a mentor in a new partnership
scheme
As a Head of Department
responsible for my colleagues’
professi...
A personal journey

References

As an educational researcher
interested in the what and how – and
from whom – of beginning...
The DEBT project

Developing Expertise of Beginning Teachers

Focus

What and how are beginning teachers learning?
- as re...
The DEBT project

Developing Expertise of Beginning Teachers

Focus

What and how are beginning teachers learning?
- as re...
Source

Explanation

Proportion

Experience

Learning attributed to the experience of a specific lesson
(usually the one o...
Orientations towards learning from
experience in the PGCE Year
Dimension

Orientation
Orientations towards learning from
experience in the PGCE Year
Dimension

Orientation

Aspiration

More easily
<- - - - sa...
Aspiration
Satisfaction with current
achievement
e.g. ―If I’m honest I’m
looking to the end now of
the course now , and
th...
Intentionality
Reactive
e.g. ―I’m not learning
through a conscious
effort—just through
experience … which may or
may not b...
Frame of reference
Exclusive reliance on the
experience of classroom
teaching
e.g. ―You’re going in and
you’re doing somet...
A conducive environment for
learning: the teachers’ views
• opportunities to observe other teachers’
lessons
• observation...
The relationship between learners and their contexts
Maths

English

Science
Conducive
environment

Hanif

Bridget

← Orie...
How were the teachers positioned as learners?

← Environment for →
professional learning

Conducive
environment

Unhelpful...
How were the teachers positioned as learners?

← Environment for →
professional learning

Conducive
environment

Unhelpful...
(Action) research as a means of
promoting more helpful orientations
Dimension
Aspiration

the extent of their
aspirations ...
A personal journey
As an educational researcher
interested in the what and how –
and from whom – of beginning
teachers’ le...
A personal journey
As a university-based subject
tutor – concerned about
identified weaknesses in history
education

Refer...
A personal journey
As a university-based subject
tutor – concerned about
identified weaknesses in history
education

Refer...
A personal journey
As an external examiner of a
part-time Master’s programme
intended to equip Chartered
Teachers to lead ...
A personal journey
As the editor of a professional
journal seeking to integrate
insights from history teachers,
academic h...
Examples
Counsell, C. (2011): Disciplinary knowledge for all, the secondary history curriculum and
history teachers' achie...
In summary
• Focused on experience
• Promoting higher aspirations: focus for improvement (might
well have to begin with un...
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The role of research when experience rules - Katharine Burn

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This presentation formed part of the HEA-funded workshop 'Research methods for teacher education'.

This event brought together academic experts in educational research methods with school leaders, to debate, share and determine how student teachers and teachers on part-time Masters-level programmes can best be taught to use research methods to better understand and ultimately, improve the quality of their teaching and improve educational outcomes for pupils and schools.

This presentation forms part of a blog post which can be accessed via: http://bit.ly/1m8vkEW

For further details of HEA Social Sciences work relating to teaching research methods in the Social Sciences please see http://bit.ly/15go0mh

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  • Began investigating mentoring as a mentor Makes me feel very old – late 1980s – before the idea of partnership had been formalisedDeMMent – own practice and others
  • Focus on methodology of interviews – asking questions – how would the student teacher/NQT break lesson into sections; their evaluation of it it; if it went well why, if unhappy about aspects why. Why they planned it like that. What they felt they had learned as a result, what they needed to learn, how that related to their learning more generally over time. N.B. Explain how we pursued the issue of how are they learning, before moving on to the next slide.Every specific instance in relation to the observed lesson and their explanation of the planning of it.
  • No surprise – that’s where it acquires meaning. Always someone else’s propositional knowledge until then. Perhaps acutely surprising that I should bother to have become a university tutor after discovering that …Not entirely true – in my doctoral research – actually observed uni sessions and taped mentor meetings so I knew where ideas had first been mentioned – and student teachers rarely attributed them very accurately – but the point is it that where it becomes learning for them is as they test it in the classroom.
  • Reflection – not a helpful idea – if it’s just reflecting the same (limited) perspective back to youPractical theorising
  • The role of research when experience rules - Katharine Burn

    1. 1. The role of research when experience rules: insights from longitudinal and comparative study of beginning teachers' learning Dr Katharine Burn Department of Education
    2. 2. A personal journey: doing, reading, using research As a mentor in a new partnership scheme As a Head of Department responsible for my colleagues’ professional learning (and part-time Master’s student) As an educational researcher interested in the what and how – and from whom – of beginning teachers’ learning As a university-based subject tutor – concerned about identified weaknesses in history education As an external examiner of a part-time Master’s programme intended to equip Chartered Teachers to lead professional enquiry As the editor of a professional journal seeking to integrate insights from history teachers, academic historians and history education research.
    3. 3. A personal journey As a mentor in a new partnership scheme As a Head of Department responsible for my colleagues’ professional learning (and part-time Master’s student)
    4. 4. A personal journey References As an educational researcher interested in the what and how – and from whom – of beginning teachers’ learning Hagger, H., Burn, K., Mutton, T. & Brindley, S. (2008) Practice makes perfect? Learning to learn as a teacher, Oxford Review of Education, 34 (2) 159-178. Mutton, T., Burn, K & Hagger, H. (2010), Making sense of learning to teach: learners in context, Research Papers in Education, 25 (1) 73-91. Developing Expertise of Beginning Teachers (DEBT project) 3 year longitudinal study tracking student teachers into NQT year and 2nd year of teaching
    5. 5. The DEBT project Developing Expertise of Beginning Teachers Focus What and how are beginning teachers learning? - as reflected in their accounts of practice (planning, teaching and evaluation) - as stated in claims about learning in relation to that lesson - as described in more general reflections on their learning - as reflected in their actual practice (video) Sample Recruited 36 student teachers from two institutions (Oxford and Cambridge) - 12 each in English, Maths and Science. 24 followed into teaching. 17 full sets. Data PGCE year: 4 practice interviews (+ start & yr end) NQT year: 3 practice interviews (+ yr end) 2nd year of teaching: 3 practice interviews (+ yr end) Observations & Interviews
    6. 6. The DEBT project Developing Expertise of Beginning Teachers Focus What and how are beginning teachers learning? - as reflected in their accounts of practice (planning, teaching and evaluation) - as stated in claims about learning in relation to that lesson - as described in more general reflections on their learning - as reflected in their actual practice (video) Sample Recruited 36 student teachers from two institutions (Oxford and Cambridge) - 12 each in English, Maths and Science. 24 followed into teaching. 17 full sets. Data PGCE year: 4 practice interviews (+ start & yr end) NQT year: 3 practice interviews (+ yr end) 2nd year of teaching: 3 practice interviews (+ yr end) Observations & Interviews
    7. 7. Source Explanation Proportion Experience Learning attributed to the experience of a specific lesson (usually the one observed) 72.7% Other in-school sources Feedback Advice Reflection Experimentation Observation Marking From the mentor or regular class teacher following observation of a lesson taught by the student teacher From the mentor (or regular class teacher) given in advance of planning Conscious review of the student-teacher’s practice focused on a specific issue or concern (often conducted some time later, or ranging across several lessons) Deliberate trial of a new teaching strategy conceived of as a conscious experiment The student-teacher’s observation of experienced teachers’ teaching Monitoring or review of pupils’ written work after the lesson University sources University input School-based tasks Literature Unspecified Research 19.0% 4.9% 4.1% 3.4% 2.7% 2.6% 0.5% 2.6% Advice from the tutor offered either during taught sessions in the university or on visits to school Specific teaching or investigative tasks set as part of the jointly planned curriculum programme 1.5% Ideas derived from reading research or professional literature No indication as to how the learning had, or would, come about. Learning attributed to the process of talking through their teaching in response to the interviewer’s questions 0.3% 0.8% 7.0% 0.4%
    8. 8. Orientations towards learning from experience in the PGCE Year Dimension Orientation
    9. 9. Orientations towards learning from experience in the PGCE Year Dimension Orientation Aspiration More easily <- - - - satisfied with their own achievement - - - - - -> High aspirations both as learners and teachers Intentionality Reactive <- - - - - - - - - -> Frame of reference Tendency to rely exclusively on their experience of classroom teaching <- - - - - - - - - -> Deliberative Using other sources to shape and make sense of their experience
    10. 10. Aspiration Satisfaction with current achievement e.g. ―If I’m honest I’m looking to the end now of the course now , and thinking it’s nearly all over. Just going through it, going through the motions, I suppose.‖ Orientation Aspirational in terms of their own and their students’ learning e.g. ―I think if you protect their emotional well-being in the classroom you will get more learning out of them. They will start to learn, they will feel comfortable and confident enough to learn. You have got to keep working on building an environment in which they feel safe to learn.‖
    11. 11. Intentionality Reactive e.g. ―I’m not learning through a conscious effort—just through experience … which may or may not be useful for the future.‖ Orientation Deliberative e.g. ―At the moment, because I’m training, I can take a lot of time over working out what I want to be like and what I want to do and deliberately try new things – and make mistakes! ―
    12. 12. Frame of reference Exclusive reliance on the experience of classroom teaching e.g. ―You’re going in and you’re doing something. If it doesn’t go to plan … you’ve got to do something, rectify it and carry on. And I think that’s something you could only learn from being on your own … So that’s the main way I’m learning at the moment. Just being on your own and having to do it.‖ Orientation Drawing on range of sources to shape and make sense of experience e.g. ―The analogy I use in teaching is a bit like having all these kind of bubbles in the air, and you’re constantly drawing on all of them. You’ve got the school influence here and then you’ve got the college influence here and the theoretical bit and the core studies and the subject studies bits all mixed in with that, and then you have got your own experience of teaching and your own personal experiences. So you are constantly kind of drawing on all these bubbles, drawing them down, drawing on different elements.‖
    13. 13. A conducive environment for learning: the teachers’ views • opportunities to observe other teachers’ lessons • observation of their own teaching • collaborative planning • support for classroom experimentation • responsibility for specific development work focused on teaching and learning Some forms of INSET Not performance management
    14. 14. The relationship between learners and their contexts Maths English Science Conducive environment Hanif Bridget ← Orientations towards → learning from experience Unhelpful ← Contexts for → professional learning Stewart Rhiannon Matt Jim Katherine Helpful Jane Sunil Gill Anita Adam Liz Hannah Rob Lindsay Brian Poor environment
    15. 15. How were the teachers positioned as learners? ← Environment for → professional learning Conducive environment Unhelpful Hanif ‘flourishing’ ← Orientations towards → learning from experience Helpful Adam ‘stunted’ Brian Poor environment ‘wilting’
    16. 16. How were the teachers positioned as learners? ← Environment for → professional learning Conducive environment Unhelpful Lindsay ‘creating a microclimate’ ← Orientations towards → learning from experience Helpful Poor environment
    17. 17. (Action) research as a means of promoting more helpful orientations Dimension Aspiration the extent of their aspirations for their own and their pupils’ learning Intentionality the extent to which learning is planned Frame of reference Orientation Satisfaction with current level of achievement Aspirational both as learners and teachers Reactive Deliberative Exclusive the value ascribed to reliance on looking beyond their the experience - and deeply experience of within it - in order to classroom make sense of it. teaching (Learning about and from pupils) Drawing on a range of sources to shape and make sense of experience (including the pupils)
    18. 18. A personal journey As an educational researcher interested in the what and how – and from whom – of beginning teachers’ learning • • • • • References Burn, K. and Mutton, T. (2013) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Initial Teacher Education, Paper commissioned by BERA Inquiry into Research and Teacher Education, presented at BERA, University of Sussex, 2-4 September Oxford Internship Scheme Professional Development Schools; Teachers for A New Era (USA, Scotland) Melbourne Master of Teaching Realistic or authentic teacher education (Netherlands) Teachers as researchers (Finland) Since teaching involves a process of ‘clinical reasoning’ (rather than pure technical skills or the systematic application of prescribed procedures) effective development of such reasoning depends on close integration (interweaving) of theoretical and practical insights - a single tightly integrated programme
    19. 19. A personal journey As a university-based subject tutor – concerned about identified weaknesses in history education References Burn, K. (2007) 'Professional knowledge and identity in a contested discipline: challenges for student teachers and teacher educators', Oxford Review of Education 33 (4), 445-467. Burn, K., Childs, A. and McNicholl, J. (2007) 'The potential and challenges for student teachers' learning of subject specific pedagogical knowledge within secondary school subject departments', The Curriculum Journal 18 (4), 429-446. Collaborative action research with mentors but ….
    20. 20. A personal journey As a university-based subject tutor – concerned about identified weaknesses in history education References Burn, K. (2007) 'Professional knowledge and identity in a contested discipline: challenges for student teachers and teacher educators', Oxford Review of Education 33 (4), 445-467. Burn, K., Childs, A. and McNicholl, J. (2007) 'The potential and challenges for student teachers' learning of subject specific pedagogical knowledge within secondary school subject departments', The Curriculum Journal 18 (4), 429-446. • Needs to be accepted that all teachers are learning (and that continuing to learn doesn’t prevent you from leading others) • Value to student teachers - and of student teachers in tackling real problems of concern to experienced teachers - drawing on different kinds of knowledge and engaging in practical theorising and carefully structured professional experimentation • Need for mentoring departments (not just mentors) – to lead and learn
    21. 21. A personal journey As an external examiner of a part-time Master’s programme intended to equip Chartered Teachers to lead professional enquiry References Reeves, J. and Fox, A. (2008) Practice Based Learning: Developing Excellence in Teaching, Dunedin Academic Press. • The value of collaboration in equipping teachers to go on (leading) learning • The importance of learning about the collaborative process and how to manage it (as well as about the process of engaging in professional enquiry) • The value of using naturally occurring data • The interplay between ‘data analysis’ and good assessment for learning
    22. 22. A personal journey As the editor of a professional journal seeking to integrate insights from history teachers, academic historians and history education research References Teaching History • The scope for carefully framed teacher research to move beyond reductive measures of learning • The extraordinary capacity that teachers have to create powerful professional knowledge through rigorous enquiry into the pedagogical challenges they face.
    23. 23. Examples Counsell, C. (2011): Disciplinary knowledge for all, the secondary history curriculum and history teachers' achievement. Curriculum Journal, 22 (2), 201-225. Conway (2006) What they think they know: the impact of pupils' preconceptions on their understanding of historical significance. Teaching History, 125, 10-15. Foster, R. (2011) Passive receivers or constructive readers? Pupils’ experiences of an encounter with academic history, Teaching History, 142, 4-13. • Working out how to use sources as evidence to answer historical questions not to evaluate source • Exploring how an entirely new dimension ‘historical interpretation could be made meaningful at Key Stage 3 • • Examining students’ preconceptions – of the concept of historical significance Exploring how Year 9 students might engage with academic history – and how they understood the nature of historical argument • The extraordinary capacity that teachers have to create powerful professional knowledge through rigorous enquiry into the pedagogical challenges they face.
    24. 24. In summary • Focused on experience • Promoting higher aspirations: focus for improvement (might well have to begin with understanding of the issue so not necessarily ‘action’ research • Promoting a deliberative orientation: hypothesis testing • Widening the frame of reference: drawing on sources beyond the classroom but also within the classroom • Integrating different sources of knowledge together • Taking pupils’ perspectives (existing understandings and experience of learning into account from the very beginning) • Addressing shared problems and generating shared knowledge – in departments in which all teachers are seen as learners • Attending to the process of collaboration and not merely to those of professional enquiry • As far as possible using naturally occurring data • Broadening teachers’ conceptions of ‘assessment for learning’

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