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Sarah Almoaiqel
S e p t e m b e r 1 5 t h , 2 0 1 5
S K E R G S E M I N AR
A Study of the Challenges to Information and Co...
Agenda
 Introduction
 Literature Review
 Research Question & Methodology
 Findings
 Discussion & Recommendations
 Co...
 Information and Communications Technology (ICT) integration in
schools
 The use of hardware and software tools, by teac...
ICT related educational
reform
• Providing
resources
• Mandating
teachers to
become ICT
adopters
(Alenezi, 2014)
• Few gai...
Literature Review
No ICT
Integration
Partial ICT
Integration
Full ICT
Integration
Literature Review
No ICT
Integration
Partial ICT
Integration
Full ICT
Integration
• Traditional
• Teacher centered
• Stude...
Literature Review
No ICT
Integration
Partial ICT
Integration
Full ICT
Integration
• ICT integration to aid conventional te...
Literature Review
No ICT
Integration
Partial ICT
Integration
Full ICT
Integration
• The integration of ICTs into the stude...
Literature Review
 In spite of Information Communications Technology (ICT) projects, several training programs, and
inves...
Literature Review
Saudi Arabia
 Midst of its ICT related educational reform
1
Gap/Motivation
Saudi Arabia
 Previous ICT studies in the Saudi Context
 Interventions and trial studies on ICT integrati...
Gap/ Motivation
No ICT
Integration
Full ICT
Integration
Partial ICT
Integration
Saudi
Schools
Research Question
 What are the socio-technical challenges to the current
partial ICT integration and the future full int...
Methodology
 Qualitative
 Research Design
 30-45 min semi-structured interviews
 Participants
 22 Saudi Arabian femal...
Step 1: Get to know your data
Step 2: Focus the analysis by topic
Step 3: Categorize information
Step 4: Identify patterns...
Methodology
 Validity of Findings
 Member Checking
 Discussed findings of the study with 4 Saudi female teachers and sc...
Findings
 What are the teachers doing in terms of ICT integration?
 Why are the teachers not partially integrating ICTs ...
Findings
 What are the teachers doing in terms of ICT integration?
 Not Integrating ICTs in the Classroom
 “You approac...
Findings
 Why are the teachers not partially integrating ICTs in their classrooms?
 Lack of Formal Training
 New to the...
Findings
 Why are the teachers partially Integrating ICTs in their classrooms?
 Evaluation Requirements
 “Not all teach...
Findings
 What are the teachers’ and school administrators’ views on the challenges for the future full integration of IC...
Discussion
 What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?
 What are the challenges for full ICT integ...
Discussion
 What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?
 Training
 Effectiveness of ICT integratio...
Discussion
…
 What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?
 Awareness of Value
 (Alharbi, 2013; Ale...
Discussion
 What are the challenges for full ICT integration?
 ICT Curricula and ICT-Pedagogy Integration
 Teachers’ ne...
Discussion
…
 What are the challenges for full ICT integration?
 Technical Support
 Teachers’ confidence with technolog...
Discussion
 What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?
 Organizational Culture
 Educational domain autocratic,...
Discussion
…
 What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?
 Curricular Differences Between Genders
 AlMunajjed (...
Discussion
…
 What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?
 Perceived Gender Role
 “If I was responsible in the ...
Discussion
…
 What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?
 Social Customs and Traditions
 Exposure to technolog...
 Challenges to partial ICT integration
 Challenges to full ICT integration
 Underlying cultural influences
Summary of D...
Recommendations
 Policy Makers in the Ministry of Education
 For the current partial ICT integration:
 Training, resour...
Recommendations
 Schools need to:
 Take initiative when challenges arise
 Provide a supportive network for teachers
Recommendations
 Teachers
 Teachers need to make an effort to understand the value of the current ICT integration and th...
Contribution
 Contributions in order to achieve effective partial ICT integration and plan for future full
ICT integratio...
Future Research
 A large-scale study for both girls’ and boys’ schools across the country
 Researchers in education work...
 Questions?
Thank you!
Agterberg, M., & Teeuwes, P. (2007). Een onderzoek naar de inzet van digitale
schoolborden. Retrieved from http://www.icto...
Ball, B. (2003). Teaching and Learning Mathematics with an Interactive
Whiteboard. Micromath (Spring 2003) 4–7. 2003.
Beau...
Fullan, M. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change. London: Cassell.
Grabe, M., & Grabe, C. (2007). Integrating tech...
Lee, M. (2004). Is it time to rethink your ICT and education strategy? The Practicing
Administrator, 26(2), 14-16.
Levy, P...
Shamatha, J. H., Peressini, D., & Meymaris, K. (2004). Technology-supported
mathematics activities situated within an effe...
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A Study of the Challenges to Information and Communications Technology in Girls' Schools in Saudi Arabia seminar presentation

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SKERG Seminar with TA Sarah Almoaiqel on challenges to ICT integration in girl's schools in Saudi Arabia. The synoposis of this presentation is available at https://skerg.ksu.edu.sa/Socio-Technical

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A Study of the Challenges to Information and Communications Technology in Girls' Schools in Saudi Arabia seminar presentation

  1. 1. Sarah Almoaiqel S e p t e m b e r 1 5 t h , 2 0 1 5 S K E R G S E M I N AR A Study of the Challenges to Information and Communications Technology in Girls’ Schools in Saudi Arabia
  2. 2. Agenda  Introduction  Literature Review  Research Question & Methodology  Findings  Discussion & Recommendations  Conclusion
  3. 3.  Information and Communications Technology (ICT) integration in schools  The use of hardware and software tools, by teachers and students for teaching and learning. Introduction
  4. 4. ICT related educational reform • Providing resources • Mandating teachers to become ICT adopters (Alenezi, 2014) • Few gains • Many challenges (Alenezi, 2014) • What are these challenges? • Why do they exist? Demand for integrating ICTs to improve learning and increase achievement (Kozma, 2003; Tubin & Edri, 2004) Previous research shows benefits of ICT integration (Cox, Preston, & Cox, 1999) Introduction
  5. 5. Literature Review No ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Full ICT Integration
  6. 6. Literature Review No ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Full ICT Integration • Traditional • Teacher centered • Students learn by listening and observing
  7. 7. Literature Review No ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Full ICT Integration • ICT integration to aid conventional teaching • Teacher and student centered • Interactive Whiteboards • Projectors • provide more teaching time (Walker, 2003) • support • interaction (Cox et al., 2003) • cooperation (Painter, Whiting & Wolters, 2004) • discussion opportunities (Levy, 2002) • concentration (Beeland, 2002; Kennewell, 2004; Solvie, 2004) • motivation (Levy, 2002; Longman & Hughes, 2006)
  8. 8. Literature Review No ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Full ICT Integration • The integration of ICTs into the students’ curriculum and everyday school activity • Student centered • Hardware and subject specific software • Prepares students to operate technology in today’s workplace (Bingimlas, 2009; Yelland, 2001) • Helps students develop skills, motivation, and knowledge (Grabe & Grabe, 2007) • Reduces teachers’ direct instruction (Iding,Crosby, & Speitel, 2002; Romeo, 2006; Shamatha, Peressini, & Meymaris 2004).
  9. 9. Literature Review  In spite of Information Communications Technology (ICT) projects, several training programs, and investments by schools in ICT resources, there has been a disappointingly slow adoption of ICTs in schools (Cox, Preston and Cox, 1999)  Other factors  Teachers’ perception of ICTs  Teachers’ value of ICT integration (Becker and Riel, 2000; Becker, 1994; Hadley and Sheingold, 1993; Sheingold and Hadley, 1990)  Cultural factors  Different nations need to address their ICT needs based on their specific culture contexts (Somekh, 2008; Albirini, 2006) 1
  10. 10. Literature Review Saudi Arabia  Midst of its ICT related educational reform 1
  11. 11. Gap/Motivation Saudi Arabia  Previous ICT studies in the Saudi Context  Interventions and trial studies on ICT integration in education (Al-Ahmad, 2007; Al-Otaibi 2003; Al-Dayel 2005)  Studies on the challenges to the current ICT integration in education (Alharbi, 2013; Alenezi, 2014)  Few studies  Focus on the socio-technical challenges to ICT integration in Saudi Arabian girls’ schools  Differentiate the challenges to the current partial ICT integration from the challenges to the future full ICT integration 1
  12. 12. Gap/ Motivation No ICT Integration Full ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Saudi Schools
  13. 13. Research Question  What are the socio-technical challenges to the current partial ICT integration and the future full integration of ICT tools in girl’s schools in Saudi Arabia?
  14. 14. Methodology  Qualitative  Research Design  30-45 min semi-structured interviews  Participants  22 Saudi Arabian female teachers and school administrators  6 girls’ public schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  Data Collection Procedures  Permission from Ministry of Education  Interview Sessions  1- Questions about current partial ICT integration/ challenges  2- Introduction to full ICT integration, demonstration via video  3- Questions about perceptions about challenges to full ICT integration
  15. 15. Step 1: Get to know your data Step 2: Focus the analysis by topic Step 3: Categorize information Step 4: Identify patterns and connections Step 5: Interpretation Methodology Renner and Tyler-Powell's (2003) analysis process
  16. 16. Methodology  Validity of Findings  Member Checking  Discussed findings of the study with 4 Saudi female teachers and school administrators
  17. 17. Findings  What are the teachers doing in terms of ICT integration?  Why are the teachers not partially integrating ICTs in their classrooms?  Why are the teachers partially Integrating ICTs in their classrooms?  What are the teachers’ and school administrators’ views on the challenges for the future full integration of ICTs in the classroom?
  18. 18. Findings  What are the teachers doing in terms of ICT integration?  Not Integrating ICTs in the Classroom  “You approach old blood. I suffer, not just from this [problem]. I suffer, they go about everything traditionally” “For us, anything new, they reject it because it’s new” (A1)  Partially integrating ICTs in the classroom to aid conventional teaching  “We have a room in the school named the resource room. This room has a board named a smart board. It is controlled by touch, like an iPhone. It also has a computer. You can access Internet. The schools usually have 2 resource rooms. I can take my students to this room, but my school only has one…” “For me, it [ICT tool] has saved an effort from talking and the students were more excited because there is audio and picture.” (T.10)
  19. 19. Findings  Why are the teachers not partially integrating ICTs in their classrooms?  Lack of Formal Training  New to the school/ Older, out of school for a long time  “We [my colleagues and I] graduated from college more than 15 years ago. We are not familiar [with the topic of technology].” “We are very new to the school” (T1)  “We didn’t benefit from training but from each other’s experiences… There are teachers who are used to something and do not want to try something new. In terms of age, for those who are older, it’s more difficult to adjust… There are still people using the traditional methods because truly there is not enough training and secondly there are people who still fear trying anything new.” (T10)  Lack of Awareness of ICT’s value  “There are people who are close-minded. They see that these tools will be distracting for them and that there are other [traditional] ways of doing the same thing.” (T10)
  20. 20. Findings  Why are the teachers partially Integrating ICTs in their classrooms?  Evaluation Requirements  “Not all teachers are enthusiastic [about the integration of technology]. Some may not know how to use it at all. But, they are required [by the Ministry and the principal] to use the technology. So, eventually they ask for help from each other...” (T10)  Awareness of ICT’s Value  “Our school doesn’t have [projectors in every room]. Every one of us teachers has purchased her own projector because there is only one resource room and it is usually reserved. I bought my own projector that I can take from class to class…” “For me, it has saved an effort from talking and the students were more excited because there is audio and picture.” (T10)
  21. 21. Findings  What are the teachers’ and school administrators’ views on the challenges for the future full integration of ICTs in the classroom?  Training and Awareness of Value  ICT Curricula and ICT-pedagogy Integration  “Sometimes, they flip it [the ICT tool] in a way, I don’t know if you have gotten the point or not, I mean for chatting and downloading pictures of parties of someone. There has to be monitoring” (T11)  “There has to be rules and regulations before the tool can be used.” (T9)  “The class period itself is 45 minutes and [the technology] is not arranged for a class.” (T10)  Technical Support  “I wish that they would provide in all schools, a person in charge of the resources [ICTs]. And not one, at least two” (T10)  Resources (Hardware and Software)  “I feel that if it was in Arabic, we can use it more innovatively.” (T4)  “The most important thing is that it is flexible, clear…”“But any program that has information sharing, or something, must be provided only academically for academic research and benefit…” “Sometimes, they flip it [the ICT tool] in a way, I don’t know if you have gotten the point or not, I mean for chatting and downloading pictures of parties of someone. There has to be monitoring” (T11)  “Our society doesn’t allow this. I feel that it is very difficult. We have customs and traditions we can’t go beyond.” (T3)
  22. 22. Discussion  What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?  What are the challenges for full ICT integration?  What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?
  23. 23. Discussion  What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?  Training  Effectiveness of ICT integration  (Agterberg & Teeuwes, 2007; Glover & Miller, 2002).  Resources  (Agterberg & Teeuwes, 2007; Alharbi, 2013; Glover & Miller, 2002)  Extent of ICT integration depends on resource … No ICT Integration Partial ICT Integration Full ICT Integration Projectors IWBs
  24. 24. Discussion …  What are the challenges for the current partial ICT integration?  Awareness of Value  (Alharbi, 2013; Alenezi, 2014)  Integrate computers in their classroom more easily (Becker, 1994; Becker & Riel, 2000; Hadley & Sheingold, 1993; Sheingold & Hadley, 1990)  Willingness to completely transform their teaching from traditional pedagogy to an integrated one (Cox, Preston, & Cox, 1999; Pedretti, Smith-Mayer, & Woodrow, 1999)  Teacher Evaluation  Especially important in implementing new educational reform (Stronge, 2005)  BUT reform is imposed on teachers without a training system that is consistent with each evaluative measure  Although teacher evaluations are recognized as a powerful motivator, the Ministry of Education needs to consider both their strength and weakness when applying them to teacher practice.
  25. 25. Discussion  What are the challenges for full ICT integration?  ICT Curricula and ICT-Pedagogy Integration  Teachers’ need for control/ monitoring a pedagogical issue  In student-centered learning, students can work without constant instructor monitoring (Lawrence and Deepa, n.d.)  Teachers do not have a well-defined understanding of the integrated-pedagogy (Alenezi, 2014)  Teachers’ need for guidance  Changes to curriculum content and goals to guide the teachers and better support integrated ICT pedagogy practices  (Voogt & Pelgrum, 2005) …
  26. 26. Discussion …  What are the challenges for full ICT integration?  Technical Support  Teachers’ confidence with technology is one of the biggest barriers to ICT integration (Alharbi, 2013)  Additional Resources  Software needs to be designed to fit the integrated pedagogy and the specific subject matter in this specific context  Level of effectiveness of educational technology is influenced by the software design (Sivin-Kachala, 1998)  Teachers need to be provided with the appropriate software (Veen, 1993)
  27. 27. Discussion  What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?  Organizational Culture  Educational domain autocratic, top down, and driven by authority  Support, training, and resources responsibility of Ministry of Education  Schools showed little initiative …
  28. 28. Discussion …  What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?  Curricular Differences Between Genders  AlMunajjed (2009) explained that “The curricula in girls’ schools stress courses that are suitable for the social and biological function of a woman in a traditional society and to prepare her to do what suits her “nature” (i.e., maternity)” (p. 12).  Views of policy makers in the Ministry of Education on women’s roles in society are reflected through the type of curriculum they provide to girls  Limit their potential for progress during a period that is increasingly oriented towards technological advancement. …
  29. 29. Discussion …  What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?  Perceived Gender Role  “If I was responsible in the Ministry of Education, before they [the teachers] apply, they have to have a certificate from the ministry of at least 6 months [of training]… she will have the basic skills I don’t want her to be an expert but the basics.” “We are women, we have circumstances, therefore take her 5 months, train her.” (A1)  “The Saudi Universities Law, the Civil Service Law, and the Labour and Workers Law treat women the same as men with regard to specific considerations such as grade, salary, curricula, opportunities in education, employment, and training, as long as they are consistent with the Shari’a law that is the basis of Saudi law” (AlMunajjed, 2009, p. 8).  BUT, there are patriarchal norms, traditions, and social beliefs linked to gender disparities and the traditional roles of men and women in society. …
  30. 30. Discussion …  What are the effects of culture on ICT integration?  Social Customs and Traditions  Exposure to technology  Exposing themselves  Exposing their students
  31. 31.  Challenges to partial ICT integration  Challenges to full ICT integration  Underlying cultural influences Summary of Discussion
  32. 32. Recommendations  Policy Makers in the Ministry of Education  For the current partial ICT integration:  Training, resources, and support  For future full ICT integration:  Training, resources, and support  New curricula, pedagogy goals, and assessment frameworks  Minimize the gender gap  Provide girls’ with curricula and skills needed for the current labor market
  33. 33. Recommendations  Schools need to:  Take initiative when challenges arise  Provide a supportive network for teachers
  34. 34. Recommendations  Teachers  Teachers need to make an effort to understand the value of the current ICT integration and the future full ICT integration.
  35. 35. Contribution  Contributions in order to achieve effective partial ICT integration and plan for future full ICT integration  Helps understand:  Challenges to current partial ICT integration  Challenges to the future full ICT integration  Helps uncover  Cultural factors that effect successful ICT integration  Provides  Recommendations as guidance for teachers, schools, and policy makers in the Ministry of Education
  36. 36. Future Research  A large-scale study for both girls’ and boys’ schools across the country  Researchers in education work in coordination with IT specialists in Universities in Saudi Arabia, and employees in the department of Curriculum and Instruction in the Ministry of Education, to develop design recommendations for this specific context in terms of user needs and subject specific software and implement the designs to be used for full ICT integration.  Investigation and evaluation of the full integration through observations and interviews
  37. 37.  Questions? Thank you!
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