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HBaseCon 2015: Reusable Data Access Patterns with CDAP Datasets


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In this talk, you'll learn about Datasets, part of the open source Cask Data Application Platform (CDAP), which provide reusable implementations of common data access patterns. We will also look at how Datasets provide a set of common services that extend the capabilities of HBase: global transactions for multi-row or multi-table updates, read-less increments for write-optimized counters, and support for combined batch and real-time access.

Published in: Software

HBaseCon 2015: Reusable Data Access Patterns with CDAP Datasets

  1. 1. Gary Helmling, Software Engineer @gario HBaseCon 2015 - May 7 Reusable Data Access Patterns
  2. 2. Agenda • A brief look at data storage challenges • How these challenges have influenced our work at Cask • Exploration of Datasets and how they help • Review of some common data access patterns and how Datasets apply • A look underneath at the tech that makes it work
  3. 3. Data Storage Challenges • Many HBase apps tend to solve similar problems with common needs • Developers rebuild these solutions on their own, sometimes repeated for each app • Effective schema (row key) design is hard • byte[] conversions, no real native types • No composite keys • Some efforts - Orderly library and HBase types (HBASE-8089) - but nothing complete
  4. 4. Data Storage Challenges • Easy to wind up with many similar, but slightly different implementations
  5. 5. Cask Data Application Platform • CDAP is a scale-out application platform for Hadoop and HBase • Enables easy scaling of application components • Combines real-time and batch data processing • Abstracts data storage details with Datasets • Built from experience by Hadoop and HBase users and contributors • CDAP and the components it builds on are open source (Apache License v2.0): • Tephra, a scalable transaction engine for HBase and Hadoop • Apache Twill, makes writing distributed apps on YARN as simple as running threads
  6. 6. • Encapsulate a data access pattern in a reusable, domain-specific API • Establishes best practices in schema definition • Abstract away underlying storage platform HBase CDAP Datasets Table 1 Table 2 Dataset App 2 App 1
  7. 7. How CDAP Datasets Help • Reusable as data storage templates • Easy sharing of stored data: • Between applications • Batch and real-time processing • Integrated testing • Extensible to create your own solutions • Leverage common services to ease development: • Transactions • Readless increments
  8. 8. Reusing Datasets • CDAP integrates lifecycle management • Centralized metadata provides key configuration • Transparent integration with other systems • Hive metastore • Map Reduce Input/OutputFormats • Spark RDDs
  9. 9. Reusing Datasets /** * Counter Flowlet. */ public class Counter extends AbstractFlowlet { @UseDataSet("wordCounts") private KeyValueTable wordCountsTable; … }
  10. 10. Testing Datasets • CDAP provides three storage backends: in-memory, local (standalone), distributed In-Memory NavigableMap Local Temp Files Local LevelDB Local Files Distributed HBase HDFS Dataset APIs Development Lifecycle
  11. 11. Extending Datasets • Existing datasets can be used as building blocks for your own patterns • @EmbeddedDataset annotation injects wrapped instance in custom code • Operations seamlessly wrapped in same transaction, no need to re-implement public class UniqueCountTable extends AbstractDataset { public UniqueCountTable(DatasetSpecification spec, @EmbeddedDataset("unique") Table uniqueCountTable, @EmbeddedDataset("entry") Table entryCountTable) { … } }
  12. 12. HBase Data Patterns & Datasets • Secondary Indexes • Object-mapping • Timeseries • Data cube
  13. 13. Secondary Indexing • Example use case: Entity storage - store customer records indexed by location • HBase sorts data by row key • Retrieving by a secondary value means storing a reference in another table • Two types: global and local • Global: efficient reads, but updates can be inconsistent • Local: updates can be made consistent, but reads require contacting all servers • IndexedTable Dataset performs global indexing • Uses two tables: data table, index table • Uses global transactions to keep updates consistent
  14. 14. Object-Mapping • Example use case: Entity storage - easily store User instances for user profiles • Easy serialization / deserialization of Java objects (think Hibernate) • Maps property fields to HBase columns • No defined schemas in HBase • Accessing data by other means requires knowledge of object structure • ObjectMappedTable Dataset: automatically persists object properties as columns in HBase • Metadata managed by CDAP • Stores the object's schema • Automatically registers a table definition in Hive metastore with the same schema
  15. 15. Timeseries Data • Example use case: any data organized around a time dimension • System metrics • Stock ticker data • Sensor data - smart meters • Constructing keys to avoid hotspotting and support efficient retrieval can be tricky • TimeseriesTable Dataset: for each data key, stores a set of (timestamp, value) records • Each stored value may have a set of tags used to filter results • Each row represents a time bucket, individual values in that bucket stored as columns • When reading data, projects entries back into a simple Iterator for easy consumption
  16. 16. Data Cube • Example use case: Retail product sales reports, web analytics • Stores “fact” entries, with aggregated values along configured combinations of the “fact” dimensions • Pre-aggregation necessary for efficient retrieval • HBase increments can be costly in write-heavy workload • Querying requires knowledge of pre-aggregation structure • Reconfiguration can be difficult • Need metadata around configuration • Cube Dataset: uses readless increments for efficient aggregation • Transactions keep pre-aggregations consistent • Dataset framework manages metadata
  17. 17. Transactions • Provided by Tephra (, an open-source, distributed, scalable transaction engine designed for HBase and Hadoop • Each transaction assigned a time-based, globally unique transaction ID • Transaction = • Write Pointer: Timestamp for HBase writes • Read pointer: Upper bound timestamp for reads • Excludes: List of timestamps to exclude from reads • HBase cell versions provide MVCC for Snapshot Isolation
  18. 18. Tephra Architecture Tx Manager (active) Tx Manager (standby) HBase RS 1 start / commit Client Client Client read / write RS 2 Tx CP Tx CP
  19. 19. Transactional Writes • Client sets write pointer (transaction ID) as timestamp on all writes • Maintains set of change coordinates (row-level or column-level granularity depending on needs) • On commit, client sends change set to Transaction Manager • If any overlap with change sets of commits since transaction start, returns failure • On commit failure, attempts to rollback any persisted changes • Deletes use special markers instead of HBase deletes • HBase deletes cannot be rolled back
  20. 20. Transactional Reads • TransactionAwareHTable client sets the transaction state as an attribute on all read operations • Get, Scan • Transaction Processor RegionObserver translates transaction state into request properties • max versions • time range • TransactionVisibilityFilter - excludes cells from: • Invalid transactions (failed but not cleaned up) • In-progress transactions • “Delete” markers • TTL’d cells
  21. 21. Increment Performance • HBase increments perform read-modify-write cycle • Happens server-side, but read operation still incurs overhead • Read cost is unnecessary if we don't care about return value • Not a great fit for write-heavy workloads
  22. 22. HBase Increments row:col timestamp value hello:count 1001 1 1002 2 Example: Word count on “Hello, hello, world” counting 2nd “hello” 1. read: value = 1 2. modify: value += 1 3. write: value = 2
  23. 23. Readless Increments • Readless increments store individual increment values for each write • Mark cell value as Increment instead of normal Put • Increment values are summed up on read
  24. 24. Readless Increments row:col timestamp value hello:count 1001 +1 1002 +1 1. write: increment = 1 Example: Word count on “Hello, hello, world” counting 2nd “hello”
  25. 25. Readless Increments row:col timestamp value hello:count 1001 +1 1002 +1 Example: Word count on “Hello, hello, world” reading current count for “hello” read: 1 + 1 = 2 (total value)
  26. 26. Readless Increments • Increments become simple writes • Good for write-heavy workloads (many uses of increments) • Reads incur extra cost from reading all versions up to latest full sum • HBase RegionObserver merges increments on flush and compaction • Limits cost of coalesce-on-read • Work well with transactions: increments do not conflict!
  27. 27. Want to Learn More? Open-source (Apache License v2) Website: Mailing List: Open-source (Apache License v2) Website: Mailing List:
  28. 28. QUESTIONS? Want to work on these and other challenges?