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Task of Experimental Research

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Task of Experimental Research

  1. 1. Experimental research <ul><li>Usually conducted to test a hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Contains at least two variables </li></ul><ul><li>One of which is an independent variable that the researcher can manipulate </li></ul><ul><li>The others are dependent variables . Their values (or behavior) depend on the independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled experiments are also performed </li></ul>
  2. 2. Example 1 <ul><li>To study the effect of teaching various number of computer application software to primary school students on their computer literacy results when they are in junior secondary schools </li></ul>
  3. 3. Example 1 <ul><li>[independent variable]: number of application software taught </li></ul><ul><li>[dependent variable]: computer literacy results </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups of primary school students are taught different numbers of computer application software; a controlled group does not receive any lesson in computer application software. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Example 1 <ul><li>The computer literacy test results are collected when these groups of students are in junior secondary schools </li></ul><ul><li>A graph of [mean test results] vs. [number of software taught] can then be plotted to see if there is any relationship between the two variables, such as proportionality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Example 2 <ul><li>To study student’s learning attitudes and performance with different modes of learning of the same course. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Example 2 <ul><li>Studies variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courses offering mode: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditional classroom-based </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>traditional distance learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>distributed learning (combination with traditional classroom-based and traditional distance learning) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student learning attitudes: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Academic performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Example 2 <ul><li>Data Collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mode of learning of the course will be assigned to students by random </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once they have assigned the mode of learning at beginning of course, they could not change it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At the beginning (pre-test), middle and at the end of course (post-test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student self assessment of confidence and motivation by questionnaire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Example 2 <ul><ul><li>At the beginning of course, student may do a simple test about the knowledge of subject (pre-test) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic performance will be measured by quiz or examination at the end of course (post-test) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Example 2 <ul><li>Impact to teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find a mode of learning which are most benefit to student (i.e. high confidence, high motivation and good academic performance), and we may offer more courses on this mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We may consider re-do the research if we could allow student choose their mode of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student choice may be very depended on their personal circumstance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Motivation” and “Confidence” assessment are expected to be higher than those assigned by random </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Example 3 <ul><li>To investigate if cooperative learning could encourage students’ motivation and affect academic performance in learning application software. </li></ul><ul><li>This research will compare the effect of two types of learning styles - cooperative group work learning and traditional instructional practices. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hypotheses <ul><li>The two hypotheses are: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) cooperative learning can effectively encourage students’ motivation and </li></ul><ul><li>(2) cooperative learning can enhance students’ academic performance. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Procedures <ul><li>80 participants from two S1 classes, identified as Class A and Class B that formed the experimental and the control group over a two-week project work on Microsoft PowerPoint. </li></ul><ul><li>In Class A, cooperative learning strategy is applied. Groups of 4 are formed based on different abilities and gender. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Procedures <ul><li>each student in every group may not have the equal opportunity to contribute. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Procedures <ul><li>Class B, is referred as the direct-instruction group in this research. which served as the control group. Again groups of 4 are formed in this class. </li></ul><ul><li>Both classes will receive the same assignment of preparing a multimedia presentation that included specified parameters. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Procedures <ul><li>The parameters include the need to make a storyboard that can be demonstrated using a title slide and a minimum of 9 other slides to present the content of the story. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Procedures <ul><li>The basic assignment sheet including clear guidelines and a rubric that is used to evaluate the project is given to each students in both classes as handouts. </li></ul><ul><li>Every student will be clear of what the assigned task is and how it will be measured. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Procedures <ul><li>They have to finish the projects in two weeks and report them in form of oral presentations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Data Collection <ul><li>There are four different sources of data will be collected: a learning style questionnaire, performance assessments, students’ interviews and class observations. </li></ul><ul><li>[independence variable] : number of students in each group. </li></ul><ul><li>[dependence variable] : academic performance, self confidence boost value </li></ul>
  19. 19. Impacts <ul><li>The formation of each learning group should be carefully designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways to ensure all members in each group will be involved in the project and job allocations should be clearly stated. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair evaluation should be carried by more than one teacher. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You ! <ul><li>HATS </li></ul>

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