Research Reveiw of an Article


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Research Reveiw of an Article

  1. 1. Lesson 2 – Task By HATS ( H enry, A my, T erence, S ylvia)
  2. 2. Requirement <ul><li>Field chosen is IT and education </li></ul><ul><li>Professional journal chosen is “Computers and Education” </li></ul><ul><li>Link </li></ul>
  3. 3. Journal – Computers and Education <ul><li>Volume 47, Issue 4, pp465-489 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student perceived effectiveness of computer technology use in post-secondary classrooms </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Journal – Computers and Education <ul><li>Volume 48, Issue 2, pp301-317 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender and cultural differences in Internet use: A study of China and the UK </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Journal – Computers and Education <ul><li>Volume 48, Issue 1, pp119-136 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive use of ICT in school: Developing differences in students’ ICT expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(This article is chosen for review) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. What is the problem for the study? <ul><li>This study aims at examining two issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The development of students’ high-level computer skills and competence (student expertise) in information and communication technology (ICT). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The characteristics of such expertise. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What is the problem for the study? <ul><li>The focus of the study was to examine how intensive use of technology both at school and at home affects students’ expertise in ICT, and to elucidate the characteristics of students’ evolving competence in ICT. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Methodology - participants <ul><li>18 students selected randomly from a voluntary group of 54 lower secondary school students in Finland. </li></ul><ul><li>Both genders and various levels of school achievement were represented equally. </li></ul><ul><li>11 out of the 18 students had a computer at home at the beginning of the study. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodology - environment <ul><li>All students were given a laptop computer and they were followed for a 3-year period. </li></ul><ul><li>The learning environment was designed to foster intensive use of ICT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courses in computer studies and cross-curricula use of computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design tasks such as hypermedia application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities with people and organizations outside the school, such as designing web-pages for the local church. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Methodology – data collection <ul><li>Semi-structured interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Tests on students’ skills </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation questionnaires (4 in total) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom observations by the researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Tests and questionnaires were given scores (SPSS statistical software and Cronbach α ?) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Methodology – interpretation <ul><li>Students were classified into three groups according to the variables of the measures of the third year. </li></ul><ul><li>Kruskal–Wallis U test was used to explore different student groups’ competence and orientation in ICT. </li></ul><ul><li>Mann–Whitney’s U post-hoc test for significance was used for comparisons between the groups. </li></ul><ul><li>SPSS for Windows was used for the analyses. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Results – Development of ICT competence <ul><li>During the first year, researchers’ field notes inferred that some multimedia application tasks increased the differences in students’ ICT skills. </li></ul><ul><li>During the second year, the differences in their technical skills increased. </li></ul><ul><li>During the third year, their differences in ICT skills were stable, sometimes increased. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Results – Characteristics of students’ ICT expertise <ul><li>First group of 6 students (student experts) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 boys were called technically-oriented experts, with special technical interest in ICT. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 girls and 1 boy were called socially-oriented experts, using ICT as a tool for their own creativity and human interests. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Results – Characteristics of students’ ICT expertise <ul><li>Second group of 8 students (Advanced users) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 girls and 4 boys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had good ICT skills, but were not as enthusiastic as the experts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third group of 4 students (Non-interested users) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 girls and 1 boy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had basic or even advanced computer skills, but had no deeper interest in ICT. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>ICT activities supported the development of good ICT skills </li></ul><ul><li>The intensive use of laptops both at school and at home helped all students to become proficient enough in ICT to function in a knowledge society. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conclusions <ul><li>Differences emerged between students based on their orientation to ICT during the 3-year period. Such differences were not obvious at the beginning of the study. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusions <ul><li>Group 2 and 3 supported the development of the experts. They needed help and often gave challenging tasks to the experts. </li></ul><ul><li>This practical appreciation and being needed by classmates supported the motivation and development of the expert students. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>The school context created an environment that supported both individual cognition and the forming of a social community; both were needed to foster the adaptive expertise. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Research Classification <ul><li>Descriptive research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>answer questions regarding the subjects of the study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data are collected through a questionnaire, an interview, or an observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A researcher reports the numerical results for one or more variables on the subjects of the study </li></ul></ul>