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What Does The Budget 2005-2006 Have For Children?

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There are over 44 crore children (0-18 years) in India who constitute more than 40 % of the country’s population. Of these, 22 crore are between the age of 6-14 years. Needless to say, development programmes that are meant for the society as at large are also going to benefit children, as they will to all other sections of society. However, from time-to-time the government makes special commitments towards children. A Budgetary analysis is an effective tool for reconciling child specific governmental policy and programme commitments with financial commitments made for the same. Indeed, are we putting our money where our mouth is?

HAQ: Center for Child Rights
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What Does The Budget 2005-2006 Have For Children?

  1. 1. 1 WHAT DOES THE BUDGET 2005-2006 HAVE FOR CHILDREN? 208, Shahpur Jat, New Delhi-110049 Ph: 91-11-26490136; Tel fax: 91-11-26492551 Website:htpp://www.haqcrc.org; E-mail: haqcrc@vsnl.net © HAQ: Centre for Child Rights 2005 All rights reserved. No parts of this paper may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of HAQ: Centre for Child Rights, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization.
  2. 2. 2 A 1 India’s Children and the Union Budget (2005-06) There are over 44 crore children (0-18 years) in India who constitute more than 40 % of the country’s population. Of these, 22 crore are between the age of 6-14 years. Needless to say, development programmes that are meant for the society as at large are also going to benefit children, as they will to all other sections of society. However, from time-to-time the government makes special commitments towards children. A Budgetary analysis is an effective tool for reconciling child specific governmental policy and programme commitments with financial commitments made for the same. Indeed, are we putting our money where our mouth is? Having ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1992) India is obliged to submit periodic reports on its progress towards realising the rights of all children to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Based on its report that came up for review in January 2004, the Committee, in its concluding observations said: ‘Make every effort to increase the proportion of the budget allocated to the realisation of children’s rights to the “maximum extent … of available resources” and, in this context, to ensure the provision, including through international cooperation, of appropriate human resources and to guarantee that the implementation of policies relating to social services provided to children remain a priority’; ‘Develop ways to assess the impact of budgetary allocations on the implementation of children’s rights, and to collect and disseminate information in this regard.’ (Thirty-fifth session vide letter no. CRC/C/15/Add.228, dated 30 January 2004) Realising that ‘Child Budget’ is an important tool for monitoring government’s commitment to children, HAQ: Centre for Child Rights undertook a path breaking decadal analysis of the Union Budget from a child rights perspective in 2000 in the country. This helped in establishing the need for such an analysis and also developing a methodology. Since then HAQ: Centre for Child Rights has been undertaking a similar analysis of the Union Budget every year. This is a quick analysis of the budgetary allocations made specifically for children based on the budget presented by the Finance Minister Shri P. Chidambaram [Expenditure Budget Vols. I & II; Performance Budget & Annual Reports of concerned ministries]. Clearly this has to be read and understood in the context of the status of children in the country and the commitments that have been made to them. Only then will ‘Child Budget’ be an effective tool for monitoring the government’s commitments to child rights and also for policy and media advocacy. A 2 Methodology A 2.1 Who is a child? For purposes of this Child Budget analysis, ‘child’ has been defined in consonance with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Juvenile Justice Act, 2000. For Box A 1.1: Child Budget ‘Child Budget’ is not a separate budget. It is merely an attempt to disaggregate from the overall allocation made, those made specifically for programmes that benefit children directly.
  3. 3. 3 practical purposes we disaggregate all programmes and schemes, from various ministries/departments, that are meant for persons below the age of 18 years. A 2.2 Choice of Sectors, Ministries and Schemes Sectors: The four basic rights of children according to the CRC include the rights to Survival, Development, Protection and Participation. While schemes/programmes addressing the right to participation are yet to find a place on Government of India’s mandate, there are several social sector schemes that fall within the ambit of the other three rights. For purposes of analysis the programmes and schemes have been clubbed under four heads: 1. Early Childhood Care and Development 2. Child Health 3. Child Education (Elementary and Secondary Education) 4. Child Protection Ministries: Schemes and programmes from the following ministries have been used for analysis: 1. Ministry of Human Resource and Development 2. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 3. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 4. Ministry of Labour 5. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports 6. Ministry of Tribal Affairs Programmes and Schemes: Any development programme that aims at development of the community will undoubtedly help in improving the status of children. That would be true of any water, sanitation or primary health care programme, as for any other developmental intervention undertaken. However, it is difficult to disaggregate financial commitments made only to children from such programmes. Bearing this limitation in mind our analysis includes child specific programmes and sectors including Central Government/Centrally Sponsored Schemes. A 2.3 Data Analysis The attempt here is to calculate the budgetary allocation for children in the current fiscal year. Since a number of schemes do not specify the exact age group catered to (especially those that include persons over the age of 18 years), we have decided to err on the side of excess. The whole budgeted amount has been assumed, although only a part of it would, in reality devolve to the persons falling within the relevant age category. Data analysis has been presented sector-wise and also as percentage of the total Union Budget. The increase or decline has been calculated on the basis of last year’s Budgetary Estimates.
  4. 4. 4 A 3 What Does The Union Budget Of 2005-06 Have For Children? The Finance Bill of 2005-06 as presented by the Finance Minister has allocated only 3.77% for children out of its total budget estimates. Will this be enough to meet the needs of 40% of the total population? Table A 3.1: Share of Children in the Union Budget (BE) (In percentage) Year Child Development* Child Health** Education*** Child Protection**** Total 2003-04 0.49 0.34 1.47 0.03 2.33 2004-05 0.42 0.42 1.57 0.03 2.44 2005-06 0.65 0.52 2.56 0.03 3.77 Source: GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-04, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Vols 1&2). * Min. of HRD ** Min. of H &FW. *** Min. of HRD, Min. of SJ&E, Min. of YA&S, and Min. of TA. ****Min. of SJ&E, Min. of Labour and Employment Figure A 3.1: Share of Various Sectors in Union Budget (2005-06) Share of Various Sectors in Union Budget (2005-06) Child Development Child Health Education Child Protection Union Budget Of every 100 Rupee allocated by the government, only Three Rupees and Seventy Seven paise is allocated for children
  5. 5. 5 Table A 3.2: Percentage Share of Various Sectors in the Total Child Budget (BE) Year Total Child Budget % Share of Early Childhood Care and Development % Share of Child Health % Share of Education % Share of Child Protection 2003-04 10264.23 21.3 14.6 62.7 1.3 2004-05 11695.72 17.2 17.3 64.02 1.3 2005-06 19459.22 17.4 13.9 67.7 0.9 Source: GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-04, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Vols 1&2). A 4 Early Childhood Care And Development The analysis is based on budget allocations made by the Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resources Development, the nodal agency for early childhood care and development. Needless to say the largest allocation is for ICDS. This crucial programme addresses the needs of children in the 0-6 age group, who had been left out of the ambit of the 86th Constitutional Amendment (making education a fundamental right only for children in the of 6 to 14 year age group). As per the Annual Report (2004-05) of Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource and Development there are around 15.786 crore children in the of 0 to 6 years age group, which constitutes 15.42% of the total population and 41% of children in the age group of 0 to 18 years. The programmes and schemes that have been selected as child specific in the sector of ‘Early Childhood Care and Development’ have bearing on 15.42% of the total population of the country These programmes are crucial as they are meant to cater to children in the definitive periods of their lives.
  6. 6. 6 Table A 4.1: Policy Goals (Child Health) The Government has set for itself various targets and goals through various policy and planning papers at various points of time. But as the prevailing status of the children in 0 to 6 years age group reveals, it is a case of shifting goal posts. (See Table A 4.1). In response to a situation when there is an alarming number of hunger deaths and 66.9% percent of children (1-5 years) suffer from anaemia1 a National Nutrition Monitoring Mission (NNM) has been set up under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister and was notified on 31 July 2003. This is a two tier supervisory structure and will serve as an Inter- agency coordination mechanism at the highest level. Minister of State, Department of Women and Child Development is the chairperson of the Executive Committee of the NNM In an important step of nutrition advocacy of policy makers the Secretary of Department of Women and Child Development has written to Chief Secretaries of States, State Secretaries (WCD) and Secretaries of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of Food and Public Distribution and Department of Elementary Education. In the letter she has addressed infant and young child nutrition, importance of re-imposing ban on sale of non- iodised salt, providing iodised salt through Public Distribution System (PDS) and to school children through Mid Day Meal Scheme, and adopting fortification of foods with special emphasis on double fortified salt for controlling the widespread problem of nutritional anaemia. But only a token budget provision of Rs. 3.00 lakhs was made for NNM in the Budget of Department of Women and Child Development. Same provision has been made for the year 2005-06. 1 National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB), 2003 GGOOAALLSS SSEETT BBYY TTAARRGGEETT// GGOOAALLSS National Policy for Children 1974 Policy of the state to provide adequate services to children both, before and after birth to ensure full physical, mental and social development. National Policy on Education 1986 Focus on Early Childhood Care and Education; recognises and reiterates the need for interventions for the crucial 0-6 age group. National Plan of Action 1992 • Reduction in severe and moderate malnutrition among under-5 children by half between 1990 and the year 2000 A.D. • Reduction in incidence of low birth weight babies (2.5 kg or less). • Control of Vitamin 'A' deficiency and its consequence. • Expansion of early childhood development activities including appropriate low-cost family and community-based interventions 10 th Five-Year Plan (2002-07) Universalisation of ICDS will be achieved during the Tenth Plan in all the 5652 blocks of the country.
  7. 7. 7 Table A 4.2: Share of Early Childhood Care and Development in Union Budget (In Crore Rs) Source: DWCD, Min of HRD, GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-04, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Vols 1&2). Figure A 4.1: Early Childhood Care And Development Budget (0-6 Years) A 4.1 ICDS The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) scheme assumes a very special significance in a country like India where the development indicators project an absolutely dismal picture. In India 47 per cent of children in the age group of 0 to 3 years are undernourished, 51 per cent of the children suffer from severe or moderate anaemia, and the number of child deaths (0 to 5 years) are highest in the world. In these circumstances ICDS is the only glimmer of hope for children in the age group of 0 to 6 years. The allocation for ICDS increased from 2003-04 (BE) 2003-04 (RE) 2004-05 (BE) 2004-05 (RE) 2005-06 (BE) 1. Integrated Child Development Services 2120.82 1801.46 1947.44 1934.4 3315.25 2. Day Care Centres 32.50 21.40 41.00 29.25 41.50 3. Contribution to UNICEF 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 4. National Institute of Public Cooperation &Child Development 10.70 10.20 11.75 11.75 11.35 5. Other Schemes 8.69 4.62 14.61 13.56 14.12 6. Balika Samridhi Yojana 13.50 0.01 0.03 48.00 0.03 Child Development Budget—Total 2189.31 1840.79 2017.93 2040.06 3385.35 Union Budget—Total 438795.07 474254.67 477829.04 505791.41 514343.80 Child Dev. Budget as %age of total Union Budget 0.499 0.388 0.422 0.403 0.658 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 BE RE Box A 4.1: Universalisation of ICDS "Universalisation" roughly involves tripling the coverage of ICDS. If expenditure per child is doubled across the board, as an essential first step towards improved quality, the overall resource requirements also double. Tripling the coverage an d doubling unit costs would imply a six-fold increase in ICDS expenditure. As far as the central government is concerned, this would mean raising the annual budget allocation for ICDS from Rs 1,600 crores to Rs 9,600 crores per year. If this increase is spread over a period of two or three years, it is well within the realm of feasibility. Indeed, this is not a high price to pay to protect 15 crore children from hunger and disease. Source: Recommendations on ICDS (based on deliberations of the National Advisory Council on 28 August 2004)
  8. 8. 8 Rs. 1490.40 crore (Revised Estimates 2004-05) to Rs. 3142.25 crore (Budget Estimates 2005- 06). This appears to be a huge increment. However, it is insufficient to cover the cost of universal coverage of all 17 lakh habitations in India. Supplementary nutrition is currently provided to 3.7712 crore2 children, as opposed to the existing 16 crore children (47 per cent of whom are undernourished) in the 0-6 age group. The coverage of settlements is also highly inadequate — there are only 6.923 lakh anganwadis in the country, compared with an estimated 17 lakh required for universal coverage based on existing norms. To implement the Supreme Court’s order in true letter and spirit, the allocation should have been increased six fold, which the National Advisory Council headed by Ms. Sonia Gandhi, also accepts (See Box A 4.1). A 4.2 Crèches/Day Care Centres The Government set up a National Crèche Fund during 1993-94 with a Corpus Fund of 19.90 crores to meet the growing requirement for opening more crèches. In addition, assistance is also provided to convert some of the existing Anganwadis into Anganwadi-cum-Creche Centres from the Fund. Assistance from the fund is provided out of the interest earned on the National Creche Fund. Details of the funds released out of the interest earned on the National Creche Fund are as indicated in Table A 4.3. Table A 4.3: National Crèche Centre Funds (Rs. Lakh) Year Amount released 2002-03 407.14 2003-04 252.98 2004-05 250.86* * Up to 31 December 2004 These allocations are over and above the allocations for the programme, which have been Rs. 2700 lakh, Rs. 3450 lakh and Rs. 4400 lakhs in the years 2002-03, 2003-04 and 2004-05 respectively. The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development in its 160 th report has observed, “Enhancement in allocated funds for the scheme was also meant for starting more crèches” and further goes on to say, “The Committee is not happy with the coverage of children as well as number of crèches in the country.” The number of crèches continues to remain the same, which is 12451 crèches in the whole country. Total number of children benefiting from this programme is 3.11 lakh, which too has remained virtually unchanged over for the last few years. A 4.3 Balika Samriddhi Yojana The allocation for this scheme is just Rs. 3 lakh for the financial year 2005-06. There is a proposal to transfer this scheme to States/UTs. However, in the interim, it was decided that unspent balances lying with State Governments/UTs under the scheme may be utilised for giving benefits to the beneficiaries during financial year 2004-05. It was also decided that states, which have utilised funds already released, may be released further funds. In accordance with this decision Rs. 48 crore was releasedto the states and union territories as 2 Annual Report 2004-05, Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. 3 Ibid.
  9. 9. 9 grant-in-aid at the RE stage of the financial year 2004-05, even though the allocation for the scheme at the BE stage for the financial year 2004-05 was just Rs. 1 lakh. The irony of this scheme is that up to December 2004, total number of beneficiaries was just 3.58 lakhs against a target of 10 lakhs beneficiaries. A 5 Child Health The budget for children’s health has been drawn out of the two departments of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. These programmes target only specific needs of children’s health such as immunisation or adolescent health, etc. most other needs are met under the composite health programmes through the regular health services provided to everyone in the community. The health services for children are provided through a network of sub-centres, Public Health Centres (PHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs). In addition, facilities for children are provided through Post-Partum Centres, District Hospitals and rural and urban Family Welfare Centres. However, for this analysis we have only included those programmes that have been designed specifically for children. Some commitments made towards ensuring every child’s right to health are: Table A 5.1: Child Health (Domestic Commitments) GGOOAALLSS SSEETT BBYY TTAARRGGEETT// GGOOAALLSS National Health Policy, 1983 Health for All by the Year 2000 A.D. through the universal provision of comprehensive primary health care services National Plan of Action for Children, 1992 • Reduction of infant mortality rate to less than 60 per 1000 live births and reduction of child mortality rate to less than 10 by 2000 A.D. • Eradication of Poliomyelitis by the year 2000 and elimination of Neo-natal tetanus by 1995 • Reduction by 95% in measles deaths and reduction by 90% of measles cases compared to pre-immunisation levels by 1995 • Achievement of 100% immunisation coverage for infants and against tetanus for women of child-bearing age • Reduction by 50% in deaths due to diarrhoea in children under the age of 5 years • Reduction of mortality rates due to ARI among children under 5 by 40% by 2000 AD from the present level National Health policy, 2002 • To achieve an acceptable standard of good health among the population by increasing access to decentralised public health system and by establishing or upgrading the infrastructure in the existing institutions • Reduce IMR to 30/1000 and MMR to 100/Lakh by 2010 • Eradicate polio and yaws and eliminate leprosy by 2005 • Improve nutrition and reduce proportion of LBW babies from 30% to 10% by 2010 • Reduce Mortality by 50% on account of TB, Malaria and Other Vector and Water Borne diseases by 2010 • Reduce Prevalence of Blindness to 0.5% by 2010 • Achieve zero level growth of HIV/AIDS by 2007 10 th Five-Year Plan (2002-07) Reduction of infant mortality rates to 45 per thousand life births by 2007 and to 28 by 2012
  10. 10. 10 Table A 5.2: Child Health (International Commitments) GGOOAALLSS SSEETT BBYY TTAARRGGEETT // GGOOAALLSS International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), Cairo 1994 Efforts should be made by all the states to reduce the infant mortality rate by one-third by the year 2000 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) • Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate (goal 4) • Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality rate • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases According to the estimates made by Registrar General of India, infant mortality in 2002 was 63 per 1000 live births while child mortality (0 to 4 yrs) was 17.8 per 1000 live births. Against this the RCH survey carried out in 2002-03 indicates that institutional delivery rate was still only 39.8%. According to the Minister of State, in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Smt. Panabaka Lakshmi the second phase of RCH Programme has been launched on 1 April 2005. This further strengthens the Reproductive and Child Health Services. It is envisaged that the RCH programme will be further strengthened through the National Rural Health Mission through: • Implementation of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) under which cash incentives are provided to pregnant women belonging to, families Below Poverty Line (BPL) if they deliver at a health centre/ hospital. • Appointment of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) for every village with a population up to 1000. ASHA will facilitate in accessing health care services to the community and will have specific responsibility of mobilizing pregnant women for antenatal care, institutional delivery and post-natal checks and immunization to children. • Operationalising 2000 Community Health Centres as First Referral Units (FRU) for providing Emergency Obstetric and Child Health services. • Making 50% Primary Health Centres functional for providing 24-hours delivery services, over the next five Years. • Ensuring quality of services by implementing Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) for Primary Healthcare Facilities. The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) seeks to provide effective health care to rural population of 18 states having weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure. This will operate over a period of seven years from 2005 to 2012. However there is no allocation for NRHM in the Union Budget of financial year 2005-06. In this circumstance it is unclear as to how the envisaged convergence between RCH – II and NRHM will be operationalised. The increase in allocation for RCH from Rs. 485.93 crore (BE 2004-05) to Rs. 1304.60 (BE 2005-06) is primarily for expansion of the package of services to cover Diagnosis and Management of Reproductive Tract Infections/Sexually Transmitted Infections. In the existing context of poverty and the miserable health scenario, access to public health services becomes very critical. Health policy in India since independence has moved from being a comprehensive universal healthcare system (Bhore Committee (1946)), to becoming a selective and targeted programme based healthcare policy. In this, the public domain is limited to family planning, immunisation, selected disease surveillance and medical education and research. The time has come to reclaim public health and make a paradigm shift from a policy-based entitlement to a rights-based entitlement. Further this
  11. 11. 11 rights-based entitlement must also be backed with the necessary financial allocations (See Appendix for a calculation for comprehensive healthcare in public health by Dr. Ravi Duggal). Table A 5.3: Share of Child Health in Union Budget4 (In Crore Rs) Source: Min. of Health & Family Welfare, GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-04, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Vols 1&2). Figure A 5.1: Child Health Budget (0-18 Years) A 5.1 Strengthening of Immunisation Programme and Eradication of Polio Percentage of children not fully vaccinated 58 Percentage of children not vaccinated at all 14 Source: International Institute for Population Sciences - 2001 Children who have not been immunised against vaccine preventable diseases – 46.4 % Source: Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question 2286, 11 August 2003 4 Details of programmes and schemes are i n Anexure2 2003-04 (BE) 2003-04 (RE) 2004-05 (BE) 2004-05 (RE) 2005-06 (BE) 1. Kalawati Saran Children’s Hospital, New Delhi 14.70 15.08 17.25 17.25 18.07 2. BCG Vaccine Laboratory, Guindy, Chennai 5.95 6.33 6.05 6.05 6.05 3. Reproductive and Child Health Project 712.41 442.35 710.51 485.93 1380.68 4. Strengthening of Immunisation Prog. & Eradication of Polio 702.00 763.20 1186.40 1017.48 1304.60 5. Maternity Benefit Scheme 67.50 40.00 101.00 50.00 00.00 Child Health Budget--Total 1502.56 1266.96 2021.21 1576.71 2709.40 Min. of H & FW - Total 7620.08 7470.08 8438.12 8679.29 10687.11 Child Health Budget as %age of Min. of H&FW 19.72 16.96 23.95 18.16 25.35 Union Budget —Total 438795.07 474254.67 477829.04 505791.41 514343.80 Child Health Budget as %age of Union Budget 0.342 0.267 0.423 0.311 0.526 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 BE RE
  12. 12. 12 When the “child health statistics” project such poor picture of India’s performance, it is worrisome to know that there is abysmally low public health expenditure — around 0.9 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). This is below the average of low-income countries and even Sub-Saharan Africa. 5 The state’s policy objective to provide free universal health care to the entire population is totally divorced from ground realities. The allocation for “Strengthening of Immunisation Programme and Eradication of Polio” is Rs. 1380.68 crore (Budget Estimates 2005-06) as against Rs. 1186.40 crore (Budget Estimates 2004-05) and Rs. 485.93 (Revised Estimates 2004-05). The major share in any allocation for immunisation goes towards eradication of polio. Last year (2004-05), of the allocation of Rs. 1186.40 crore, the share for Eradication of Polio Programme was Rs. 1123 crore (Lok Sabha Unstarred Question No. 359, 7 July 2004). That left only Rs. 63.40 crore for the other 5 vaccine preventable diseases viz. childhood tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertusis, measles and neo-natal tetanus. This has to be looked into against the fact that 46.4% children in the country have not been immunised against vaccine preventable diseases (Rajya Sabha Unstarred Question 2286, 11 August 2003). The point to be noted is that a large majority out of the 53.6% children who have been immunised, are not because of government’s initiative, but because India has one of the highest levels of private financing (87 per cent). Out of pocket expenses are estimated at as high as 84.6 per cent. 6 Therefore based on the simplistic argument of immunising all children on state’s initiative (which is highly recommended as “the highly skewed pattern of health finance in India is a major contributor to the perpetuation of poverty”7 ) the allocation should have been increased 14-fold over the last years Budget Estimates of Rs. 1186.40 crore to Rs. 16609.60 crore. Else, a system should have been put in place to generate the aforementioned amount. The government of India needs to look into this matter seriously as the National Health Policy 2002 itself sets a target of reduction of Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) to 30 by the year 2010, from the present alarming figure of 63. A 5.2 National Maternity Benefit Scheme (Janani Suraksha Yojana) The National Maternity Benefit Scheme is being revised as Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) with the aim of promotion of institutional delivery to bring down the high Maternal Mortality Rate as stated in comment no 8.1 (8th report). Under this scheme, a mother of BPL family will get Rs. 1000 per girl child and Rs. 400 per male child, if delivered in a health institution as against uniform rate of Rs. 500 per child for the first two live births under the earlier scheme. Besides, transport assistance upto Rs. 150 and incentive to dais @ Rs. 200/150 for female/male child has been envisaged in lieu of appropriate antenatal and postnatal care and referral for institutional delivery. The scheme is also aimed to operationalise First Referral units (FRUs) at district levels to ensure 24 hours services for improved delivery. The exercise of revision of this scheme has been going on for the last two years. As a result funds allocated have remained underutilised. Against the allocation of Rs. 500 crore in the Tenth plan, the expenditure for first two years is only Rs. 87.57 crore and the balance available for the remaining period is Rs. 300.43 crore8 . 5 Misra Rajiv, Chatterjee Rachel and Rao Sujatha; ‘India Health Report’, Oxford University Press, 2003 6 Ibid. 7 Ibid 8 Comment 8.2, 8th report, Parliamentary standing committee on Health and Family Welfare
  13. 13. 13 A 6 Child Education The budget of Child Education has been drawn out of Department of Elementary Education and Literacy and the Department of Secondary and Higher Education (Ministry of Human Resources Development. These Departments are primarily responsible for Child Education. Some schemes from Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports linked with the school system, contribute directly towards Child Education and have also been taken into account. An Education Cess of 2% on all central taxes has been levied through the Finance (No. 2) Act, 2004, 'To fulfil the commitment of the Government to provide and finance universalised quality basic education'’. The receipt on this account, according to the Revised Estimates in the financial year 2004-05 will be Rs. 5010.00 crore. According to the Union Finance Minister this collection was to be used for ensuring “Quality Basic Education”. The allocation on elementary education in the proposed budget has seen an increase of Rs. 3991.91 crore. § Rs. 7227.88 crore (Revised Estimates 2004-05) § Rs. 11219.79 crore (Budget Estimates 2005-06). The collection from the Education Cess in the financial year 2004-05 alone has been Rs. 5010.00 crore (Revised Estimate 2004-05). It is therefore a clear case of abdication of state’s responsibility of implementing the fundamental right to education for children in the age group of 6 to 14 years as the allocation has actually gone down by Rs. 1018.09 crore. This has happened in a situation where there is an additional requirement of Rs. 9800 crore per year to fulfil the target of eight years of free and compulsory education to all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years, according to the financial memorandum to the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India. Box A 6.1: Education Cess A cess of 2% has been levied by Government on central taxes and is expected to yield about Rs. 4000 -5000 crore in a full year. The amount collected as cess will be earmarked for elementary education and mid-day meal scheme. Union Minister for Human Resource Development, Mr. Arjun Singh in reply to a question in Rajya Sabha on 6 December 2004 (No. RSSQ 70) Box A 6.2: Prarambhik Skiksha Kosh “It has been decided to create a 'Prarambhik Shiksha Kosh' - a non- lapsable fund into which receipts of the Education Cess would be credited. Details in regard to the Kosh are being worked out. During 2004-05, after the imposition of the Education Cess, outlays for Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan and the Mid Day Meal Schemes were augmented to the extent of Rs. 2000 crores and Rs. 1232 crores respectively:, and these additional outlays were fully' utilized. During 2005 -06, outlay for elementary education schemes has been more than doubled compared to Budget Estimates, 2004-05.” - - Minister Of Human Resource Development Shri Arjun Singh in reply to Rajya Sabha Starre d Question 5533
  14. 14. 14 Article 21A of the Constitution of India makes Right to Education for children in the age group of 6 to 14 years a Fundamental Right. This was introduced in the Constitution via 86th Amendment. The Financial Memorandum to the Amendment mentions that an amount of Rs. 98000 crore is needed over a period of ten years to put all children in the school system and ensure eight years of compulsory and quality schooling, which implies that Rs. 9800 crore should be allocated annually for elementary education over and above the existing levels of expenditure in 2001. On this point too the Honourable Finance Minister has failed to live up to the expectations of those children who are still waiting to avail their right of free and compulsory education of good quality. It is worthy of special mention that the Finance Minister talked about Outcomes as against Outlays. This has to be appreciated, since he has also talked about measurable development indicators. However, measurable development indicators make sense only when the data of the department of elementary education and literacy can be relied upon. This does not seem to be the case at present, as shown by Dr. Shantha Sinha in her paper “The missing children” (See Box A 6.3). This is the response of the government even while targets and goals at different points of time were as under: Table A 6.1: Educational Goals GOALS SET BY TARGET/ GOALS Constitution of India Free compulsory education for all children upto 14 years by 1960 National Policy For Education (NPE) (1986) • All children having attained 11 years age by 1990 will complete 5 years of schooling. • By 1995 all children upto 14 years will be provided free and compulsory education. National Policy for Education (NPE) (modified in 1992) and the Programme of Action Universal Primary education by 1995, which was subsequently, shifted to 2000. Box A 6.3: A case of missing children How serious is the government in implementing its promises and in ensuring that the Prime Minister’s candid acknowledgement is translated into concrete action? The goal of universalisation of elementary education is still elusive and only 47 per cent of children who enter Class I stay on in school up to Class 8. The figures are even lower when the children from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and girl children are examined. What must be done if the children’s right to education is to be assured? First of all, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) must verify that the statistics provided by each of the states to the government of India on the number of children who are in schools and those who are out of schools, are accurate. The numbers consolidated at the government of India level show that there are only eight million children out of about 200 million children in the age group 6-14 years who do not go to school as on December 2004. The State Project Direct ors of SSA submitted this data. This means that only 4 per cent of all children are out of school according to the SSA estimate. Furthermore, the total number of children accounted for by the SSA does not match the number of children enumerated in the 2001 Census of India. For example, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, the SSA has declared that there are 1.53-crore children of school going age while the corresponding figure according to census data is 1.77-crore. The figures simply do not add up. Where have these missing children gone and who accounts for them? - Dr. Shantha Sinha
  15. 15. 15 National Planof Action, 1992 By the end of the current century. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 2001-02 • All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, Back to School Camp by 2003. • 5 years of primary schooling for all children by 2007. • 8 Years of Schooling and Universal Retention by 2010 10th Five-Year Plan (2002-07) • All children in school by 2003. • All children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007 Table A 6.2: Share of Child Education in Union Budget (Rs. Crore) 2003-04 (BE) 2003-04 (RE) 2004-05 (BE) 2004-05 (RE) 2005-06 (BE) Elementary Education (HRD) 1. District Primary Education Programme 1200.00 800.00 600.00 600 600 2. Joint GOI-UN Prog. for Primary Ed. 5.00 1.50 --- --- --- 3. Kasturba Gandhi Swantantra/ Balika Vidyalaya 8.50 1.0 100.00 90.00 225.00 4. Lok Jumbish 70.00 125.00 29.41 29.41 --- 5. Mahila Samakhya 30.00 14.00 30.00 15.00 30.00 6. National Bal Bhavan, New Delhi 6.40 4.83 7.25 6.78 7.03 7. National Council of Teacher Education 6.25 5.82 7.75 0.22 4.50 8. NFE and Alternative Innovative Ed. 0.00 0.00 0.00 --- --- 9. Nutritional Support to Primary Ed. 1175.00 1375.00 1675.00 1507.50 3010.76 10. Operation Black Board 0.00 0.00 0.00 --- --- 11. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 1951.25 2732.32 3057.08 4753.63 7156.00 12. Shiksha Karmi Project in Rajasthan 10.00 10.00 39.04 39.04 6.50 13. Strengthening of Teacher Trainin g Inst. 207.00 150.00 207.00 186.30 180.00 Elem Edu – Other Ministries 14.UNDP Asst. - Child’n with Disabilities 1.00 1.00 0.3 0.30 --- 15.Ashram Schools in Tribal Sub-Plan Area 14.00 7.00 14.00 6.00 --- (A) Elementary Ed.: Sub-total 4684.40 5227.47 5766.83 7234.18 11219.79 Secondary Education (HRD) 16. Access with Equity 20.00 16.51 30.00 5.40 9.00 17. Central Tibetan Schools Society Admn. 16.00 15.97 16.40 16.10 17.40 18. Information Commn. Technologies 111.00 25.00 97.00 24.30 45.00 19. Integrated Ed. for Disabled Children 35.00 38.50 39.00 34.20 40.50 20. Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan 644.00 661.57 644.49 682.29 763.64 21. NCERT 50.00 54.00 55.00 53.35 63.23 22. National Open School 15.00 7.00 7.00 5.40 3.60 23. National Scholarship Scheme 10.18 2.23 9.22 3.06 2.24 24. Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti 490.00 569.56 523.00 524.86 638.85 25. Other Programmes 1.38 1.90 2.38 1.92 1.39 26. Population Education Project 0.00 0.00 0.00 --- --- 27. Quality Improvement in Schools 26.00 7.80 20.00 12.60 9.00
  16. 16. 16 Sec Ed. (Other Ministries) 28.Pre-matric Scholarship Scheme 14.50 10.00 16.00 10.00 0.01 29.Girls Hostels 20.00 20.00 22.0 15.00 0.01 30.Boys Hostels 23.00 33.00 26.0 26.00 0.01 31.Other Programmes for welfare of SC 75.50 21.50 35.70 4.72 21.56 32.Common Programme - SC, ST & OBC 99.66 86.83 74.84 71.75 100.48 33.Schemes--PMS, Bk Bank, etc. 56.49 51.28 65.49 76.99 230.65 34. Schemes of Hostel for ST Girls & Boys 24.00 19.38 24.00 13.00 --- 35. Grant- Rural School for Dev. of Playfield 3.60 3.60 4.50 4.50 --- 36. Incentives- Promotion of Sports Activities 15.06 9.76 9.00 25.30 22.00 (B) Secondary Ed.: Sub-total 1750.37 1655.39 1721.02 1610.74 1968.57 (A+B) Child Education— Total 6434.77 6882.86 7487.85 8844.92 13188.36 Union Budget—Total 438795.07 474254.67 477829.04 505791.41 514343.80 Child Ed. as %age of Union Budget 1.47 1.45 1.56 1.74 2.56 Source: GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-04, 2004-05, 2005-06 (Vols 1&2) Note: Items 1-13 under Dept. of Elementary Education & Lit., Min. of HRD Items 16-25 under Dept. of Secondary & Higher Education, Min. of HRD; Items 14, 26-32 under Min. of SJE Items 15, 33-34 under Min. of Tribal Affairs; Items35-36 under Min. of YA&S Figure A 6.1: Allocation for Education (Elementary, Secondary and Other) 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 Elementary Secondary Other Box A 6.4: Elementary Education vs. Secondary Education One very startling trend observed in financing of education in India after 2001-02 (when right to elementary education was made a fundamental right) is that increased allocation for elementary education has been at the cost of secondary and other education. (See Figure A 6.1).
  17. 17. 17 Figure A 6.2: EDUCATION BUDGET (6-18 years) A 6.1 Mid Day Meal Scheme The allocation for Mid Day Meal scheme has increased from Rs. 1507.50 crore (Revised Estimates 2004-05) to Rs. 3010.76 crore (Budget Estimates 2005-06). This looks nice to read but in light of the requirements after the Supreme Court’s order of April 2004, which directed the Centre to provide for the conversion cost to the states, this falls woefully short of ground requirements. The Centre worked out a mechanism whereby it would provide Rs. 1 per school day per child to the states, towards implementation of the recommendations of the Abhijit Sen Committee (appointed by Government of India to look into sharing of conversion cost of implementing the cooked mid-day meal scheme). The number of school days according to the Supreme Court has to be 200 days. Table A 6.3: Mid Day Meal Scheme (In crores of Rupees) Budget 2004-2005 Revised 2004-2005 Budget 2005-2006 Head Plan Non-Plan Total Plan Non-Plan Total Plan Non-Plan Total Nutritional Support to Primary Education (MDM) 2202 1675.00 1675.00 1507.50 1507.50 1164.70 1164.70 3601 1825.07 1825.07 3602 20.99 20.99 Total 1675.00 1675.00 1507.50 1507.50 3010.76 3010.76 For the programme on Nutritional Support to Primary Education (Mid Day Meal) the major heads 3601 and 3602 are for Grant-in-Aid to states and union territories respectively, which are actually meant to cover the conversion cost which the Centre had worked out as Rs. 1 per school day per child. The total of these allocations that are introduced in this year’s Budget (2005-06) is Rs. 1846.06 crore. However going by the Centre’s commitment to implement the order of Supreme Court it should have been Rs. 2572 crore to provide for 12.86 crore children it has to cover. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 BE RE Box A 6.5: Mid Day Meal and FCI The allocation under the Head 2202 (cost of food grains and their transportation) has decreased from Rs. 1507.50 crore (Revised Estimates 2004- 05) to Rs. 1164.70 crore (Budget Estimates 2005- 06). According to the economists this amount of Rs. 1164.70 crore will cover the transportation cost and the Food Corporation of India will provide the food grains from its own exchequer.
  18. 18. 18 There is a shortfall of Rs. 725.94 crore. A 6.2 Pre-Matric Scholarships for the Children of those engaged in Unclean Occupations The objective of this scheme is to provide financial assistance to enable the children of the parents traditionally engaged in unclean occupations like scavengers of dry-latrines, tanners, flayers and sweepers having traditional links with scavenging, to pursue pre-matric education. Under the scheme, Central assistance is provided to the State Governments on a 50:50 basis and 100 percent to UT administrations, over and above their respective committed liabilities to be met by them from their own State/UT budget. Since 1 April 2004 the scheme has been enforced with the following modifications • The rate of scholarship for day scholar, earlier ranging from Rs. 25 to Rs. 50 per month, has been enhanced to Rs. 40 to Rs. 75 per month. • The rate of scholarship for hostellers, earlier ranging from Rs. 200 to Rs. 250 per month, has been revised to Rs. 300 to Rs. 375 per month. • The rate of annual ad-hoc grant, which was earlier Rs. 500 per student for both day scholars and hostellers, has been enhanced to Rs. 550 and Rs. 600 for day scholars respectively. During the year 2003-04, against the allocation of Rs. 14.50 crore, central assistance of Rs. 14.60 crore was released which assisted more than 5 lakh students. An allocation for 2004-05 for this scheme is Rs. 16.00 crore against which Rs. 7.52 crore has been released up to 31 December 2004. The scheme is expected to benefit about 6 lakh students during 2004-05. A token allocation of Rs. 0.01 crore has been made for the year 2005-06. The matter of concern is that children of those who leave their unclean occupation cease to get the benefit of scholarship. Does it mean that the social and economic condition of those people changes immediately after leaving the unclean occupation? Does it not amount to punishment for leaving the unclean occupations? A 6.3 Hostels for Scheduled Castes Girls and Boys Girls Hostel Allocation for 2003-04 was Rs. 20 crore against which Rs. 20.24 has been released for construction of 611 hostels for accommodating 9,277 inmates. Allocation for 2004-05 was Rs. 22 crore against which Rs. 5.37 crore had been released for 14 hostels accommodating 1146 inmates up to 31 December 2004. A token allocation of Rs. 0.01 crore has been made for the year 2005-06. Boys Hostel The allocation for 2003-04 was Rs. 23.00 crore out of which Rs. 35 crore was released to various States/UT’s/Universities for construction of 228 hostels accommodating 8789 inmates. The allocation for 2004-05 was Rs. 26 crore against which Rs. 20.36 crore had been released for construction of 110 hostels accommodating 5608 inmates up to 31 December 2004. A token allocation of Rs. 0.01 crore has been made for the year 2005-06. With a view to provide hostel facilities to the students belonging to weaker sections i.e. SC’s, OBCs and Minorities in a more focussed manner for ensuring and enhancing facilities for pursuit of higher quality education and for integrating the weaker sections within the
  19. 19. 19 mainstream of society, the on-going hostel scheme is to be modified by centrally sponsored scheme of “Sangati Hostels” for student belonging to these sections. A 7 Child Protection There are children who are particularly disadvantaged because of their social, economic, physical or mental conditions. These children are placed under the category of children in special or difficult circumstances and are in need of care and protection. Recognising their special needs, the government has designed programmes for them that fall under the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment and Ministry of Labour. The government includes the following groups of children in this category: • Children engaged as labour • Children in need of adoption • Children who are trafficked • Children who are physically and/or mentally challenged • Street children • Children who are neglected or treated as juvenile offenders • Children who are physically/mentally abused • Children in prostitution • Children of prostitutes • Children affected by conflict situations • Refugee children • Victims of natural and man-made disasters • Children infected/affected by HIV/AIDS • Victims of drugs and substance abuse Table A 7.1: Share of Children in Difficult Circumstances in Union Budget (Rs. Crore) 2003-04 (BE) 2003-04 (RE) 2004-05 (BE) 2004-05 (RE) 2005-06 (BE) 1. Other Schemes of Child Welfare 20.80 14.80 23.60 17.50 30.55 2. Prevention & Control of Juvenile Social Maladjustment 14.40 14.40 18.90 18.90 0.01 3. Improvement in Working Conditions of Child/ Women Labour 72.89 68.26 99.31 98.38 125.05 4. Initiative to Develop Skills, ITIs & Elimination of Child Labour in 10th Plan 0.00 0.0 0.00 --- --- 5. Swadhar 13.50 0.80 2.70 3.69 5.5 6. Short Stay Home 16.00 15.35 15.00 14.40 15.00 Children in Difficult Circumstances--Total 137.59 113.61 159.51 152.87 176.11 Union Budget-Total 438795.07 474254.67 477829.04 505791.41 514343.80 Budget for children in difficult circumstances as % of total Union Budget 0.031 0.023 0.033 0.030 0.034 Source: GOI Expenditure Budget 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005-06 (Vols 1 & 2). Note: Items 1 & 2 under Min. of SJE. Items 3 & 4 under Min. of Labour. Items 5 & 6 under Min. of Min. of HRD (W & CD)
  20. 20. 20 Figure A 7.1: CHILD PROTECTION BUDGET (0-18 years) A 7.1 A Programme for Juvenile Justice The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act 2000 is the primary law for children in conflict with law and children in need of care and protection. The programme for Juvenile Justice endeavours: § To provide for full coverage of services envisaged under the Juvenile Justice Act so as to ensure that no child under any circumstances is lodged in prison; § To bring about qualitative improvement in the juvenile justice services; and § To promote voluntary action for the prevention of juvenile social maladjustment and rehabilitation of socially maladjusted juveniles. Under this scheme, the Ministry provides assistance to State Governments/UT Administrations on 50:50 basis for establishment and maintenance of homes and institutions for neglected and delinquent juveniles. During the year 2003-04, the allocation was Rs. 14.40 crore against which an amount of Rs. 16.33 crore was released to 22 States/UTs. During the tear 2004-05, the allocation is Rs. 18.90 crore out of which an amount of Rs. 16.53 crore has been released to various States/UTs up to 31 December 2004. A token allocation of Rs. 0.01 crore has been provided in BE 2005-06 for the scheme. However, an official in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has confirmed that the allocation has been increased at the Revised Estimate (RE) stage and is in fact more than it was in the last financial year. A 7.2 Central Adoption Resource Agency (CARA) In pursuance of the directives of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India, set up the Central Adoption Research Agency on 20 June 1990 this was subsequently registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 on 18 March 1999. It has a mandate to act as a clearing house of information with regard to abandoned/destitute/neglected/orphan children available for in-country and inter-country adoption and to regulate, monitor and inspect the working of recognised social/child welfare agencies engaged in both in-country and inter-country adoption. So far, 73 Indian Placement Agencies have been recognised by CARA to carry out in-country and inter-country adoptions of children, who are either relinquished by biological parents/unwed mother/guardians or are abandoned/destitute children declared legally free for adoption. 162 foreign agencies in over 25 countries including 45 Government Departments have been enlisted by CARA for 0 50 100 150 200 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 BE RE
  21. 21. 21 processing the application of foreign/NRI parents for promotion of Indian adoption and to formulate, develop and execute programmes and activities for generating awareness in this regard. During the year 2003-04, the budget allocation was Rs. 1.20 crore against which the expenditure was Rs. 1.03. During 2004-05, the budget allocation was Rs. 1.40 crore against which the expenditure was Rs. 0.85 crore up to 31 December 2004. Allocation for 2005-06 is Rs. 1.35 crore. A 7.3 Scheme for Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection In pursuance to the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court vide their orders dated 29 March 2001, the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment formulated a Scheme for the Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection and submitted to the Hon’ble Court on 22 March 2002. The aim of scheme is to provide opportunities including non-formal vocational training, etc. to working children, to facilitate their entry/re-entry into mainstream education in cases where they have either not attended any learning system or where for some reasons their education has been discontinued with a view to prevent their continued or future exploitation. The programme will lend support to projects in urban areas, not already being covered by the existing schemes of the Ministry of Labour, which provides support for the wholesome development of child workers and potential child workers especially those who have none or ineffective family support such as children of slum/pavement dwellers/drug addicts, children working in shops, dhabas, mechanic shops, children engaged as domestic workers, children whose parents are in jail, children or migrant labourers/sex workers, leprosy patients etc. A provision of Rs. 7.00 crore had been kept for the scheme in the year 2004-05. Since the scheme is still under consideration of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India, no expenditure could be incurred up to 31 December 2004. Allocation for 2005-06 for the scheme is Rs. 7.00 crore. A 7.4 Child Labour The Indian Constitution requires the State to protect children against being forced by economic necessity to enter vocations unsuited to their age and strength. In pursuance of the constitutional mandate, the Government announced the National Policy on child labour in August 1987. The action plan comprised a legislative action plan, focusing of general development programmes for benefiting children wherever possible and project based action plans in areas of high concentration of child labour engaged in wage/quasiwageemployment. National Child Labour Project (NCLP) With a view to fulfil the constitutional mandate, NCLP was launched on 15 August 1994 for withdrawing children working in hazardous occupations and rehabilitating them through special schools. As a consequence of this, 64 area-based projects were sanctioned in addition to the 12 continuing projects. The end of the 9th Plan extended NCLP Scheme extended to 100 districts in 13 States. In the year 1996 Supreme Court Judgement dated 10th December 1996 in Writ petition (Civil) No. 465/1986 has given directions regarding the manner in which children working in hazardous occupations are to be withdrawn from work and rehabilitated. Directions were also given as to the manner in which the working conditions of the children working in non-hazardous occupations are to be regulated and improved upon. The need for concerted action on the part of all social partners has been emphasized by the Hon'ble Supreme Court. The Hon'ble Court in it’s
  22. 22. 22 judgement dated 10th December, 1996 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 465/1986 has given certain directions regarding the manner in which the children working in hazardous occupations are to be withdrawn from work and rehabilitated as also the manner in which the working conditions of the children working in non-hazardous occupations are to be regulated and improved upon. Important directions given in the judgement dated the 10th December, 1996 include payment of compensation amounting to Rs 20,000/- by the offending employer for every child employed in contravention of the provisions of the Act, constitution of the Child Labour Rehabilitation-cum- Welfare Fund, giving alternative employment to an adult member of the family in place of the child withdrawn in hazardous employment by the appropriate Government, completion of the survey of children working in hazardous employments, payment of interest on the corpus of Rs. 25,000 (Rs. 20,000 to be paid by the employer and Rs. 5,000 to be contributed by the appropriate Government) to the family of the child withdrawn from work, provision of education in a suitable institution for the child withdrawn from work, constitution of a separate cell in the Labour Department of the appropriate Government for the purpose of monitoring etc. The Government has already taken action to implement these directions in letter and spirit. After the Supreme Court Judgement to eliminate child labour from hazardous industry, NCLP programme objective changed to elimination of child labour (10th Plan), from identified hazardous occupations and processes by the end of the 10th plan period i.e. by 2007. In view of Supreme Court judgement, NCLP has been extended to 150 new districts. During the 10th Plan, therefore, the NCLP scheme covers 250 districts. Outlay in the 10th plan has been fixed at Rs. 602 crore as compared to Rs. 250 crores in the 9th Plan. Apart from the extension, the NCLP Scheme has also been revised in the 10th plan. The revised scheme places emphasis on convergence with other related programmes of the Departments in the Government of India. In the 10th plan, while special schools run by NCLP Project society will mainstream working children in the age group 9-14 years to the formal education system, working children in the age groups 5-8 years will be mainstreamed directly through the Sarva Siksha Abhiyan of the Department of Elementary Education & Literacy, M/O Human Resource Development. Convergence with the on-going schemes of other Departments/Ministries such as Health, Rural Development and Social Welfare at the State, District, Mandal/Block and Micro level would also be critical for the attainment of the objective. Besides this, the revised scheme has also strengthened other components such as health checkups, nutrition needs and vocational training. Assistance to Voluntary organisation Under the grant-in-aid scheme voluntary agencies are being financially assisted to the extent of 75% of the project cost for taking up welfare projects for working children. During 2003- 04, about 87 voluntary organisations were extended assistance under the scheme. Table A 7.2: Expenditure on NCLP(including grant-in-aid to voluntary agencies) (Rs. Lakhs) Year Budget Estimates Revised Estimates Actual Expenditure 2003–04 6738 6690 6672 2004-05 8900 8900 4236 2005-06 10330
  23. 23. 23 Table A 7.3: Physical Target and Achievement of National Child Labour Project Sanctioned Strength Actual Strength MainstreamedYear No. of NCLPs School Enrolment School Enrolment Target Achievement 2003-04 100 4003 208000 3868 198584 2.1 ILakh Children (till March, 2004 2004-05 (a) 150* 3962 207392 3812 189424 50000 3.00 Lakh Children (till Sep. 2004 (b) 250@ 4077 213142 3812 195174 50000 - 2005-06 250 5003 - - I Lakh - Note: *NCLP scheme was launched in the 50 new districts in Jan 2004. Of the 50 new districts, Project Society has been sent up in 33 districts. These districts have been provided funds for carrying out survey and for setting up the office of Project Society. No of schools to be sanctioned to these societies will be decided subsequently after the results of the survey. However, in respect of 4 new NCLPs, where proposals have already been received, 115 Special Schools have been sanctioned. @ 100 additional districts were informed about their inclusion in the NCLP Scheme in October 2004. Project Societies have yet to be formed in these districts. These are likely to be operationalised in 2005-06 (a) April - Sept' 04 (b) Oct'-March' 05 Table A 7.4: Grant-in-Aid to Voluntary Organisation Year No. of NGOs Sanctioned Strength Actual Strength Mainstreamed Rema rks School Enrolment School Enrolment Target Achievement 2003-04 64 160 8000 160 8000 * * - 2004-05 87 202 10100 202 10100 2005-06 $ 100 220 11000 220 11000 Not * No physical targets, as such, are fixed. The Grant-in-aid is sanctioned to all on-going projects as well as new complete proposals duly recommended by the State Government and approved by the Grant-in-aid Committee. $ Projection for 2005-2006.
  24. 24. 24 Indo- Us Matching Grant (Now Renamed As Indus Project) Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India and the US Department of Labour have launched a child labour project called INDUS (Indo-US) in February 2004 as a follow-up of the Joint Statement on "Enhanced Indo-US Cooperation on Eliminating Child Labour" signed between the Ministry of Labour & Employment and the US Department of Labour in August, 2000. The project aims at ensuring elimination of child labour from identified hazardous industries, in identified districts through effective convergence with the Department of Education. The US Department of Labour would provide US $ 20 million to be matched, with equal funding from the Government of India. The project will be implemented in 21 districts in 5 States namely Government of NCT of Delhi, Maharashtra, M.P., Tamil Nadu and U.P. Table A 7.4: Indo-US Matching Grant (now renamed as Indus Project) (Rs. Lakhs) Year Budget Estimates Revised Estimates Actual Expenditure 2003–04 500 100 57 2004-05 1000 1000 Nil 2005-06 2500 Table A 7.5: Physical Target & Achievement (INDUS Project) Year No. of Indus Districts Sanctioned Strength Actual Strength Mainstreamed Remarks TECs Enrollment TECs Enrollment Target Achievement 2003-04 20 800 80000 - $ 2004-05 (a) 21 410 20500 393 19444 - - # (b) 21 973 48650 973 48650 - - 2005-06 21 973 48650 - - - - Note $ The scheme was initiated in February 2004. The duration of the Project is 3 years from the date of commencement of the project. # Children will be mainstreamed by the end of the project period i.e. in 2007. 80000 children will be mainstreamed at the end of the project period. (a) April - Sept' 04 (b) Oct'-March' 05
  25. 25. 25 Scheme for Welfare of Working Children in Need of Care and Protection In pursuance to the directions of the Hon’ble Supreme Court vide their orders dated 29 March 2001 the Ministry of social Justice & Empowerment formulated a scheme for the welfare of working children in need of care and protection. The programme will lend support to projects in urban areas, not already being covered by the existing schemes to the Ministry of Labour, which provides support for the wholesome development of child workers and potential child workers especially those who have none or ineffective family support such as children of slum/pavement, dwellers/drug addicts, children living on railway platforms/along with railway lines, children working in shops, dhabas, mechanic shops, children engaged as domestic workers, children whose parents are in jail, children or migrant labourers/sex workers, leprosy patients etc. A provision of Rs. 7 crore has been kept for the scheme in the year 2004-05. Since the scheme is still under consideration of the Hon’ble Supreme Court, no expenditure could be incurred up to 31.12.2004. Allocation for 2005-06 for the scheme is Rs. 7 crore. Need Vs Allocation — Child Labour The Budget Estimate 2005-06 for NCLP & Grants in Aid to Voluntary organisation is Rs. 10,330 lakh, for the INDUS Project it is Rs. 2500 lakh and for Strengthening of Child Labour Cell, Rs. 5 lakh. The total allocation for these three programmes amounts to Rs. 12,835 lakh and covers 3,59,650 children. Thus Government of India’s expenditure for mainstreaming one child labour in regular school education is Rs. 3569. According to the Census of India - 2001, the total number of working children in India is 1,25,91,667. It means that for mainstreaming all 1,25,91,667 child labourers in education, which is the commitment of government under the article 21A of Indian Constitution, at the rate of Rs. 3569 per child per year, India will need Rs. 4,49,300 lakh per year. So in the Budget Estimates of 2005-06 there is a huge gap of Rs. 4,36,465 lakh between the need and allocation for elimination of child labour.
  26. 26. 26 Appendix Calculation for comprehensive healthcare in public sector Dr. Ravi Duggal 1. Primary healthcare with following features: • Staff composition for each PHC-Dispensary to include 2 doctors, 1 PHN, 2 nurse midwives, 8 ANMs (females), 4 MPWs (males), 1 pharmacist, 1 clerk/stat asst., 1 office assistant, 1 lab technician, 1 driver, 1 sweeper - this adds up to salaries and benefits of Rs. 3,064,000 (salary structures across states may be different and hence this could vary) • 10 beds per PHC • Average rural unit to cover 20,000 population (range 10-30 thousand depending on density); average urban unit to cover 50,000 population (range 30- 70 thousand population depending on density) • Non-salary costs separately for rural and urban units per unit cost as per table 1 below: Table 1: Non-Salary Costs Line item Rate Rural (20000 popn per unit) Urban (50000 | popn per unit) Medicine and other clinical consumables Rs. 25 per capita per year Rs. 500,000 Rs. 1,250,000 Travel, POL etc. Rs. 6000 pm rural; and Rs. 3000 pm urban Rs. 72,000 Rs. 36,000 Office expenses, electricity, water etc.. Rs.10 and 12 thousand for r u r a l and urban, respectively Rs. 120,000 Rs. 144,000 Maintenance of building and equipment etc. Rs. 100,000 Rs. 200,000 R e n t a n d / o r amortisation Rs. 144,000 Rs. 240,000 CHW honorarium Rural 1 CHW per 500 population @Rs. 1000 pm per CHW; Urban 1 CHWper 1500 population @ Rs. 1250 pm per CHW Rs. 480,000 Rs. 495,000 Total Non-salary Rs. 1,416,000 Rs.2,365,000 Total Primary care Cost per unit Rs. 4,480,000 (Rs. 224 per capita) Rs.5,429,000 (Rs. 109 per capita)
  27. 27. 27 Total Primary care cost for country Rural: 700 million population needing 35,000 PHCs; and urban 300 million population needing 6000 PHCs Rs 15680 crores Rs. 3270 crores 2. Secondary Care In rural areas for every 5 PHCs there would be one 50 bedded hospital and this would cost Rs. 200,000 per bed per annum or Rs. 10 million per such hospital. As per this ratio we would need 7000 rural hospitals and this would translate into Rs. 7000 crores for the country as a whole. In urban areas for each 10 PHCs one 200 bedded hospital would be needed and this would cost Rs. 250,000 per bed per year or Rs. 50 million per hospital. As per this ratio 600 such hospitals would be needed and this would translate into Rs. 3000 crores for the country as a whole. 3. Tertiary care / Teaching Hospitals One such hospital per 2.5 million population, that is 400 hospitals of 500 beds each at a cost of Rs. 350,000 per bed per year translating into Rs. 175 million per hospital or Rs. 7000 crores for the country as a whole. Primary + Secondary + Tertiary = Rs. 35950 crores 4. Other costs § Capital @ 10% or Rs. 3595 Crores § Research @ 4% or Rs. 1438 crores § Admin costs @ 4% or Rs 1438 crores § Audit costs @ 2% or Rs 719 crores Grand Total would be Rs. 43140 crores or Rs. 431 per capita. This works out to 1.7% of GDP and, should take care of 75% of the population as envisaged in the National Health Policy. Table 2: Summary Table Type of Cost Amount in Rs. Crores 1. Primary care 18950 2.Secondary Rural 7000 3. Secondary Urban 3000 4. Tertiary care 7000 SUBTOTAL 35950 5. Capital© 10% 3595 6. Research @ 4% 1438 7. Admin @ 4% 1438 8. Audit @ 2% 719 TOTAL 43140 N.B. This calculation was done for a Jan Swasthya Abhiyan discussion on the NRHM

There are over 44 crore children (0-18 years) in India who constitute more than 40 % of the country’s population. Of these, 22 crore are between the age of 6-14 years. Needless to say, development programmes that are meant for the society as at large are also going to benefit children, as they will to all other sections of society. However, from time-to-time the government makes special commitments towards children. A Budgetary analysis is an effective tool for reconciling child specific governmental policy and programme commitments with financial commitments made for the same. Indeed, are we putting our money where our mouth is? HAQ: Center for Child Rights B1/2, Ground Floor, Malviya Nagar New Delhi - 110017 Tel: +91-26677412,26673599 Fax: +91-26674688 Website: www.haqcrc.org FaceBook Page: https://www.facebook.com/HaqCentreForChildRights

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