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-A 21st century
Transportation Revolution
Prepared by-
Gyanendra Awasthi
Mechanical Engg. , IIT(BHU)
10/6/2016 1
10/6/2016 2
The current practical mode of transport between two places are:
1. Road (inexpensive, slow, usually not environmentally
sound)
2. Air (expensive, fast, not environmentally sound)
3. Rail (expensive, slow, often environmentally sound)
Hyperloop
Avoids the negative effects of each mode of transport. It is:
1. Ready when the passenger is ready to travel (road)
2. Inexpensive (road)
3. Fast (air)
4. Environmentally sound (rail/road via electric cars)
10/6/2016 3
 Hyperloop consists of low pressure tubes with capsules that are transported at low and
high speed throughout the length of the tube.
The idea of transporting through pneumatic tube is 200 years old.
In 1812, British mechanical Eng. George Medhurst first proposed blowing passengers
carriages through tubes but never implemented.
Currently the reformed and innovated version of that idea of transportation is proposed
by entrepreneur Elon Musk - CEO of Tesla Motors and SpaceX in the form of
Hyperloop.
What is Hyperloop?
10/6/2016 4
Hyperloop
Concorde Air Hockey Rail Gun
@Wikipedia.org
@altair.com
10/6/2016 5
Hyperloop Transportation system
Consists of several components which can be classified into-
1) Capsule
2) Tube
3) Propulsion
4) Route
@hyperloopone.com
10/6/2016 6
Position of several components in proposed geometry
of capsule-
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 7
 Axial compressor is used.
 It avoids the Kantrowitz limit.
 Air is compressed with pressure ratio of 20:1.
 Some air is stored for air bearing.
 An onboard water tank is used for the cooling of the air.
Figure:- Streamline for
capsule travelling at high
subsonic velocities inside
Hyperloop
Compressor:-
10/6/2016 8
Compressor schematic for Hyperloop passenger capsule:-
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 9
Suspension-
Figure- Schematic of air bearing ski that support the capsule
1. Thrust bearing offers stability and extremely lo drag.
2. Compressor pressurized air and aerodynamic lift provide better lift to
capsule (0.5-1.3mm)
3. Independent mechanical suspension are provide for smooth ride of
passengers
@teslamotors.com
10/6/2016 10
Hyperloop capsule specifications:-
Hyperloop passenger
capsule
Hyperloop passenger +
vehicle capsule
Overall structure weight 3100kg 3500kg
Overall cost of structure $245,000 $275,000
Overall interior weight 2500kg 2700kg
Overall cost of interior
components
$255,000 $185,000
Maximum width 1.35m 1.35m
Maximum height 1.10m 1.10m
Frontal area 1.5 sq. m 4.0 sq. m
Aerodynamic power
requirement at 700mph
Around 100kW Around 382kW
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 11
Hyperloop passenger
capsule
Hyperloop passenger
+ vehicle capsule
Suspension system
Air bearing system weight 2800kg 3800kg
Overall cost of bearing
system component
$475,000 $565,000
Total drag generated by 28
bearings at capsule speed
of 760mph
140N 187N
Power loss due to drag 48kW 63kW
Length 1.5m 1.5m
Width 0.9m 1.2m
Flow rate required beneath
the ski
0.2kg/sec at 9.4kPa 0.2kg/s at 11.2kPa
Suspension System:-
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 12
Tubes-
Are made of the steel.
The pressure inside it will be 100Pa( equivalent to flying above
150,000 feet altitude)
Pylons are placed every 30m apart to support the tube.
10/6/2016 13
Solar panes
Interior tubing
Capsule
Reinforced concrete pylon
Hyperloop Overview
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 14
Hyperloop passenger
version
Hyperloop passenger
+ vehicle version
Inner diameter of the
tube
2.23m 3.30m
Tube cross sectional
area
3.91sq.m 8.85sq.m
Capsule/tube area ratio 0.36 0.47
Capsule/tube diameter
ratio
0.60 0.68
Possible wideness of
tube tracks
4.25m 6.60m
Expected max. solar
energy produced
285MW 446MW
Tube specifications:-
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 15
Propulsion system-
Uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and decelerate the capsule
Benefits over permanent magnet motor-
1. Lower material cost
2. Lighter capsule
3. Smaller capsule dimensions
Made of Al
Figure:- Rotor and stator 3D diagram
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 16
Lateral force exerted by the stator on the rotor- 13N
Each accelerator has two 70 MWA inverters: one to accelerate the outgoing
capsule and one to capture the energy from the incoming capsule
Semiconductor switches allow inverters to energize only section of
track occupied by capsule
Gap between rotor and stator is 20mm on each side.
A combination of capsule control system and electromagnetic center forces
allows the capsule to safely enter, stay within and exit such a precise gap.
Stator is mounted to bottom od the tube.
Two halves of stator require bracing to resist magnetic force of 300N/m that
try to bring them together
10/6/2016 17
Total cost of both types of Hyperloop transportation versions:-
Cost is calculated for the route between Los Angeles and San Francisco which are
560km apart.
10/6/2016 18
Figure:- Energy cost per
passenger for a journey
between Los Angeles and
San Francisco for various
modes of transport.
Energy cost comparison between various modes of
transportation
@teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
10/6/2016 19
Current scenario:-
Prototype of this system is in its developing state.
The first test of prototype had been performed at Nevada in USA on
11May, 2016.
It was open air test that is without tubes.
The length of the track was 0.5mile.
Maximum speed of prototype was only 116mph.
Prototype achieved its max. speed in 2sec.
Prototype is expected to be completed at the end of year 2016.
Working model of it is expected to be prepared till 2020.
@techinsider.com
10/6/2016 20
Benefits:-
Safer
Faster
Lower cost
Immune to weather
Sustainably self powering
Resistance to earthquake
Not disruptive to those along the route
10/6/2016 21
Expected problems: -
 Small space
 No space for washroom in current design
 Involves a lot of risk of money
 Might be frightening experience to travel by it
 Can not enjoy nature’s view
 Fast acceleration and noisy vibration
10/6/2016 22
Thank you

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Hyperloop- A 21st century transportation revolution

  • 1. -A 21st century Transportation Revolution Prepared by- Gyanendra Awasthi Mechanical Engg. , IIT(BHU) 10/6/2016 1
  • 2. 10/6/2016 2 The current practical mode of transport between two places are: 1. Road (inexpensive, slow, usually not environmentally sound) 2. Air (expensive, fast, not environmentally sound) 3. Rail (expensive, slow, often environmentally sound) Hyperloop Avoids the negative effects of each mode of transport. It is: 1. Ready when the passenger is ready to travel (road) 2. Inexpensive (road) 3. Fast (air) 4. Environmentally sound (rail/road via electric cars)
  • 3. 10/6/2016 3  Hyperloop consists of low pressure tubes with capsules that are transported at low and high speed throughout the length of the tube. The idea of transporting through pneumatic tube is 200 years old. In 1812, British mechanical Eng. George Medhurst first proposed blowing passengers carriages through tubes but never implemented. Currently the reformed and innovated version of that idea of transportation is proposed by entrepreneur Elon Musk - CEO of Tesla Motors and SpaceX in the form of Hyperloop. What is Hyperloop?
  • 4. 10/6/2016 4 Hyperloop Concorde Air Hockey Rail Gun @Wikipedia.org @altair.com
  • 5. 10/6/2016 5 Hyperloop Transportation system Consists of several components which can be classified into- 1) Capsule 2) Tube 3) Propulsion 4) Route @hyperloopone.com
  • 6. 10/6/2016 6 Position of several components in proposed geometry of capsule- @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 7. 10/6/2016 7  Axial compressor is used.  It avoids the Kantrowitz limit.  Air is compressed with pressure ratio of 20:1.  Some air is stored for air bearing.  An onboard water tank is used for the cooling of the air. Figure:- Streamline for capsule travelling at high subsonic velocities inside Hyperloop Compressor:-
  • 8. 10/6/2016 8 Compressor schematic for Hyperloop passenger capsule:- @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 9. 10/6/2016 9 Suspension- Figure- Schematic of air bearing ski that support the capsule 1. Thrust bearing offers stability and extremely lo drag. 2. Compressor pressurized air and aerodynamic lift provide better lift to capsule (0.5-1.3mm) 3. Independent mechanical suspension are provide for smooth ride of passengers @teslamotors.com
  • 10. 10/6/2016 10 Hyperloop capsule specifications:- Hyperloop passenger capsule Hyperloop passenger + vehicle capsule Overall structure weight 3100kg 3500kg Overall cost of structure $245,000 $275,000 Overall interior weight 2500kg 2700kg Overall cost of interior components $255,000 $185,000 Maximum width 1.35m 1.35m Maximum height 1.10m 1.10m Frontal area 1.5 sq. m 4.0 sq. m Aerodynamic power requirement at 700mph Around 100kW Around 382kW @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 11. 10/6/2016 11 Hyperloop passenger capsule Hyperloop passenger + vehicle capsule Suspension system Air bearing system weight 2800kg 3800kg Overall cost of bearing system component $475,000 $565,000 Total drag generated by 28 bearings at capsule speed of 760mph 140N 187N Power loss due to drag 48kW 63kW Length 1.5m 1.5m Width 0.9m 1.2m Flow rate required beneath the ski 0.2kg/sec at 9.4kPa 0.2kg/s at 11.2kPa Suspension System:- @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 12. 10/6/2016 12 Tubes- Are made of the steel. The pressure inside it will be 100Pa( equivalent to flying above 150,000 feet altitude) Pylons are placed every 30m apart to support the tube.
  • 13. 10/6/2016 13 Solar panes Interior tubing Capsule Reinforced concrete pylon Hyperloop Overview @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 14. 10/6/2016 14 Hyperloop passenger version Hyperloop passenger + vehicle version Inner diameter of the tube 2.23m 3.30m Tube cross sectional area 3.91sq.m 8.85sq.m Capsule/tube area ratio 0.36 0.47 Capsule/tube diameter ratio 0.60 0.68 Possible wideness of tube tracks 4.25m 6.60m Expected max. solar energy produced 285MW 446MW Tube specifications:- @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 15. 10/6/2016 15 Propulsion system- Uses a linear induction motor to accelerate and decelerate the capsule Benefits over permanent magnet motor- 1. Lower material cost 2. Lighter capsule 3. Smaller capsule dimensions Made of Al Figure:- Rotor and stator 3D diagram @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 16. 10/6/2016 16 Lateral force exerted by the stator on the rotor- 13N Each accelerator has two 70 MWA inverters: one to accelerate the outgoing capsule and one to capture the energy from the incoming capsule Semiconductor switches allow inverters to energize only section of track occupied by capsule Gap between rotor and stator is 20mm on each side. A combination of capsule control system and electromagnetic center forces allows the capsule to safely enter, stay within and exit such a precise gap. Stator is mounted to bottom od the tube. Two halves of stator require bracing to resist magnetic force of 300N/m that try to bring them together
  • 17. 10/6/2016 17 Total cost of both types of Hyperloop transportation versions:- Cost is calculated for the route between Los Angeles and San Francisco which are 560km apart.
  • 18. 10/6/2016 18 Figure:- Energy cost per passenger for a journey between Los Angeles and San Francisco for various modes of transport. Energy cost comparison between various modes of transportation @teslamotors.com/Hyperloop _Alpha
  • 19. 10/6/2016 19 Current scenario:- Prototype of this system is in its developing state. The first test of prototype had been performed at Nevada in USA on 11May, 2016. It was open air test that is without tubes. The length of the track was 0.5mile. Maximum speed of prototype was only 116mph. Prototype achieved its max. speed in 2sec. Prototype is expected to be completed at the end of year 2016. Working model of it is expected to be prepared till 2020. @techinsider.com
  • 20. 10/6/2016 20 Benefits:- Safer Faster Lower cost Immune to weather Sustainably self powering Resistance to earthquake Not disruptive to those along the route
  • 21. 10/6/2016 21 Expected problems: -  Small space  No space for washroom in current design  Involves a lot of risk of money  Might be frightening experience to travel by it  Can not enjoy nature’s view  Fast acceleration and noisy vibration