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<ul><li>lab:   2 </li></ul><ul><li>Title :  Effects of Acid Rain on Plant Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturer:  Hassan Moham...
 
<ul><li>Precipitation that has a pH of less than that of natural rainwater (which is about 5.6 due to dissolved carbon dio...
<ul><li>When CO 2  reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2  (g)+H 2 O(l)-  H 2 CO 3 (aq) </li>...
 
<ul><li>Burning coal. Oil and natural gas in power stations makes electricity, giving off sulphur dioxide gas. </li></ul><...
<ul><li>People probably couldn't live without  </li></ul><ul><li>electricity! Therefore coal will continue to be burnt.  <...
<ul><li>Acid rain is an extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects. Forests, tr...
<ul><li>All of this happens partly because of direct contact between trees and acid rain, but it also happens when trees a...
MSN Encarta
<ul><li>Lakes  are also damaged by acid rain. Fish die off, and that removes the main source of food for birds. Acid rain ...
<ul><li>Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings (especially those made out of sandstone or limestone). <...
Currently, both the railway industry and the aeroplane industry are having to spend a lot of money to repair the corrosive...
<ul><li>Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain. One of the major problems that ac...
<ul><li>Acid rain can be absorbed by both plants (through soil and/or direct contact) and animals (from things they eat an...
<ul><li>Research carried out in North America in 1982, revealed that sulphur pollution killed 51,000 people  and about 200...
What are the solutions to acid rain?
<ul><li>1. Sulphur dioxide can be removed from power stations chimneys but this process is expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>2....
 
<ul><li>* Seeds and Seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>* Filter Paper and Petri Dishes </li></ul><ul><li>* pH Solutions (5.5, 4.0...
<ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>1.   Label 3 petri dishes for each pH solution. 2. Place filter paper in each the petr...
<ul><li>1.   Label seedlings pots with each of the pH solutions. 2.   Measure stem and leaf lengths of seedlings. Take pho...
<ul><li>Construct tables and graphs for data. Write a discussion of the data answering the following questions. 1.   What ...
<ul><li>http://www.ec.gc.ca/air/default.asp?lang=En&n=AA1521C2-1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://environment.nationalgeographic.c...
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Acid rain2003

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Acid rain2003

  1. 1. <ul><li>lab: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Title : Effects of Acid Rain on Plant Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturer: Hassan Mohammad </li></ul><ul><li>Subject Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of this subject student should be able to: Understand how the Acid Rain affects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth . </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Content: </li></ul><ul><li>In this subject we will cover important information about Acid Rain emphasizing its sources and effects on plants </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Precipitation that has a pH of less than that of natural rainwater (which is about 5.6 due to dissolved carbon dioxide). </li></ul><ul><li>It is formed when sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides, as gases or fine particles in the atmosphere, combine with water vapor and precipitate as sulphuric acid or nitric acid in rain, snow, or fog. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>When CO 2 reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  H 2 CO 3 (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>When SO 2 reacts with water, sulfurous acid is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>SO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  H 2 SO 3 (aq) </li></ul><ul><li>When NO 2 reacts with water, nitric acid is formed. </li></ul><ul><li>2NO 2 (g)+H 2 O(l)-  HNO 2 (aq)+HNO 3 (aq) </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Burning coal. Oil and natural gas in power stations makes electricity, giving off sulphur dioxide gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Burning petrol and oil in vehicle engines gives off nitrogen oxides as gases. </li></ul><ul><li>These gases mix with water vapour and rainwater in the atmosphere producing weak solutions of sulphuric and nitric acids – which fall as acid rain. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>People probably couldn't live without </li></ul><ul><li>electricity! Therefore coal will continue to be burnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, electricity and energy are constantly </li></ul><ul><li>being overused. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of it this way: every time you turn on a </li></ul><ul><li>light switch or the television set without really </li></ul><ul><li>needing to, you're indirectly contributing to the acid rain problem. </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Acid rain is an extremely destructive form of pollution, and the environment suffers from its effects. Forests, trees, lakes, animals, and plants suffer from acid rain. Trees </li></ul><ul><li>The needles and leaves of the trees turn brown and fall off. </li></ul><ul><li>Trees can also suffer from stunted growth; and have damaged bark and leaves, which makes them vulnerable to weather, disease, and insects. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>All of this happens partly because of direct contact between trees and acid rain, but it also happens when trees absorb soil that has come into contact with acid rain. </li></ul><ul><li>The soil poisons the tree with toxic substances that the rain has deposited into it. </li></ul>
  8. 10. MSN Encarta
  9. 11. <ul><li>Lakes are also damaged by acid rain. Fish die off, and that removes the main source of food for birds. Acid rain can even kill fish before they are born when the eggs are laid and come into contact with the acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish usually die only when the acid level of a lake is high; when the acid level is lower, they can become sick, suffer stunted growth, or lose their ability to reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, birds can die from eating &quot;toxic&quot; fish and insects. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Acid rain dissolves the stonework and mortar of buildings (especially those made out of sandstone or limestone). </li></ul><ul><li>It reacts with the minerals in the stone to form a powdery substance that can be washed away by rain. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Currently, both the railway industry and the aeroplane industry are having to spend a lot of money to repair the corrosive damage done by acid rain. Also, bridges have collapsed in the past due to acid rain corrosion.
  12. 14. <ul><li>Humans can become seriously ill, and can even die from the effects of acid rain. One of the major problems that acid rain can cause in a human being is respiratory problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Many can find it difficult to breathe, especially people who have asthma. Asthma, along with dry coughs, headaches, and throat irritations can be caused by the sulphur dioxides and nitrogen oxides from acid rain. </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>Acid rain can be absorbed by both plants (through soil and/or direct contact) and animals (from things they eat and/or direct contact). When humans eat these plants or animals, the toxins inside of their meals can affect them. Brain damage, kidney problems, and Alzheimer's disease has been linked to people eating &quot;toxic&quot; animals/plants. </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>Research carried out in North America in 1982, revealed that sulphur pollution killed 51,000 people and about 200,000 people become ill as a result of the pollution. </li></ul>
  15. 17. What are the solutions to acid rain?
  16. 18. <ul><li>1. Sulphur dioxide can be removed from power stations chimneys but this process is expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reduce the amount of electricity we use </li></ul><ul><li>- turn TV's off at the mains, don’t leave on standby. </li></ul><ul><li>turn off lights when a room is not in use. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Use renewable energy like wind power, solar panels and geothermal energy. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fit catalytic converters to vehicle exhausts which remove the nitrogen oxides. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Limit the number of vehicles on the roads and increase public transport. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>* Seeds and Seedlings </li></ul><ul><li>* Filter Paper and Petri Dishes </li></ul><ul><li>* pH Solutions (5.5, 4.0, 3.0) and Droppers </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>1.   Label 3 petri dishes for each pH solution. 2. Place filter paper in each the petri dish with 10 seeds. Cover the seeds with another piece of filter paper. Use a dropper to moisten the filter paper through all layers with the appropriate pH solution. Put the dishes in a sealed plastic bag and place them in a dark place. 3.   Four days later, count the number of seeds that have germinated. 4.   Measure the root length of each of the seedlings. Record observations about seedling condition (color and overall growth and appearance of seedling leaves). 5.   Tally class averages for each pH for germination and root length. Graph your data and the class averages. Photograph seedlings. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>1.   Label seedlings pots with each of the pH solutions. 2.   Measure stem and leaf lengths of seedlings. Take photos of plants. 3.   Water the seedlings and moisten them each day with the appropriate pH solution each day for two weeks. 4.   Measure stem and leaf lengths at the end of the week. Compile class data. Calculate averages and graph data. Take photos of plants. 5.   Observe leaf color, lesions and spotting on leafs and stems, presence of dead leafs, and any other signs of damage. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Construct tables and graphs for data. Write a discussion of the data answering the following questions. 1.   What relationship did you see between seed germination and pH? Between seedling growth and damage and pH? 2.   Some rain has been found to be as acidic as pH 2.8. Given what you have observed, what is the likely effect on seed ger­mination, growth rates and plant reproduction?   </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>http://www.ec.gc.ca/air/default.asp?lang=En&n=AA1521C2-1 </li></ul><ul><li>http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/global-warming/acid-rain-overview/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.geography.learnontheinternet.co.uk/topics/acidrain.html </li></ul>

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