How To Make Sure You Are Hiring The Right Employees

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This presentation looks at each element in the process for selecting the right employees; from creating job descriptions, to writing job advertisements, to designing and evaluating applications. It also addresses how to legally conduct reference and credit checks, create structured interviews, the methods for avoiding discrimination claims, and for testing and evaluating applicants.

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How To Make Sure You Are Hiring The Right Employees

  1. 1. How To Make Sure You Are Hiring The “Right” Employees By Gordon Walter, SPHR
  2. 2. Today’s Agenda <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Creating Job Descriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Job Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Designing and Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Applications to Uncover </li></ul><ul><li>Information That Could be </li></ul><ul><li>Important </li></ul><ul><li>How to Legally Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Reference and Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Checks </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Process to Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Testing and Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants for Job-Related </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Quantitative Reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each year 30-40% of applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>submit incomplete or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inaccurate resumes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each year nearly 1 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals are victims of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>violent crime while working. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six out of 10 incidents of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>workplace violence occur in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>private companies.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embezzlement accounts for $4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>billion in losses each year.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of business losses are the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>result of acts by employees.  </li></ul></ul>Why spend time on selecting the right employee? <ul><li>Qualitative Reasons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Litigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees lack: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Job fit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor attendance </li></ul></ul>Other Reasons?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Negligent Hiring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dean v. Oppenheim Davidson Enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inc.,Alameda Superior Court No. 809231-1, 2000. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America's Best Carpet Care hired private contractor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Private contractor robbed and murdered home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>America’s Best found negligent in hiring practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and ordered to pay $11.5 million in damages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parties later settled for undisclosed amount </li></ul></ul>Introduction, cont’d Worst Case Situations:
  5. 5. <ul><li>Describes major areas of a job or position </li></ul><ul><li>Begins with careful analysis of important facts about job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P urpose and responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R elationship of job to other jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Q ualifications needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep it dynamic, functional, and current </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible </li></ul>Job Description
  6. 6. <ul><li>A poor job description can keep people from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying new things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to perform jobs better </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A well-written, practical job description will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent refusals to carry out assignments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because &quot; it isn't in my job description. &quot; </li></ul></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  7. 7. <ul><li>When writing job description, remember: </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>personal growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep flexible; encourages employees to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as basis for job training or future job </li></ul><ul><li>evaluations. </li></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  8. 8. <ul><li>A Job Description should include: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Title, Objective or Overall Purpose Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orients reader to general objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes broad function and scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three to four sentences at most </li></ul></ul><ul><li>List Duties or Tasks Performed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>principal duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>continuing responsibilities and accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>essential job duties critical to successful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>performance </li></ul></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  9. 9. <ul><li>Begins with most important </li></ul><ul><li>functional responsibilities and </li></ul><ul><li>continues in order of significance </li></ul><ul><li>Each duty that comprises at least </li></ul><ul><li>five percent of total </li></ul><ul><li>Describe relationships, and include </li></ul><ul><li>supervisory, subordinating and/or </li></ul><ul><li>other working relationships. </li></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  10. 10. <ul><li>When used for recruiting, you may want to attach: </li></ul><ul><li>Job Specifications, Standards and Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications needed to perform the essential functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical skills and expertise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Location </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment used in performance of job </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Bargaining Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Essential Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Salary Range </li></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  11. 11. <ul><li>Keep statements crisp and clear </li></ul><ul><li>Sentences in verb/object phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occupant of job is implied subject, therefore can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., description of receptionist position: &quot;Greets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visitors in a friendly manner.“) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use present tense phrases telling why, how, where </li></ul><ul><li>or how often </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., &quot;Collects all employee time-sheets on a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bi-weekly basis for payroll purposes.“) </li></ul></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  12. 12. <ul><li>Minimize unnecessary articles: &quot;a&quot;, &quot;an&quot;, &quot;the&quot; to point to </li></ul><ul><li>the description </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., &quot;Greets all visitors in a friendly manner“) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Un-biased terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the &quot;he/she&quot; approach or make gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pronouns not required. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid words subject to differing interpretations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g., &quot;frequently,&quot; &quot;some,&quot; &quot;complex,&quot; &quot;occasional,&quot; and &quot;several.&quot; </li></ul></ul>Job Descriptions, cont’d
  13. 13. <ul><li>Job advertisements and recruitment processes should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use AIDA format: Attention, Interest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desire, Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attention (from appropriate job-seekers) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest (establishes relevance in minds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of ideal candidates) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desire (to pursue a great opportunity) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action (clear instruction for next step) </li></ul></ul></ul>Job Advertising/Recruiting Processes
  14. 14. <ul><li>When writing job advertisements, be sure you: </li></ul><ul><li>Use one simple headline, relevant and clear </li></ul><ul><li>Use job title and organization's name as </li></ul><ul><li>secondary headings </li></ul><ul><li>Show organization or brand name prominently </li></ul><ul><li>Make it e asy to read, with simple language, </li></ul><ul><li>avoiding complicated words (unless necessary) </li></ul><ul><li>Less is more. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the same language reader uses </li></ul>Job Advertisement Do’s
  15. 15. <ul><li>Write efficiently </li></ul><ul><li>Use s imple fonts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arial, Tahoma, Times, etc, or equivalents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serif fonts are more traditional and more readable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sans serif fonts are modern-looking, but less easy to read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12-20 point size for headings, 10-12 for text </li></ul></ul>Job Advertisement Do’s, cont’d <ul><li>Involve the reader (“you, yours”) </li></ul><ul><li>Seek best page position: </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., “top right” </li></ul><ul><li>Size ad appropriately </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Overly complex graphics, </li></ul><ul><li>layouts and words </li></ul><ul><li>Font too small or too large </li></ul><ul><li>All upper case font </li></ul><ul><li>Overly intellectual or obscure </li></ul><ul><li>wording </li></ul><ul><li>Words with double meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Too much technical detail </li></ul><ul><li>Too few/many words </li></ul>Job Advertisement Don’ts <ul><li>Boring or uninspiring text </li></ul><ul><li>Over-emphasis on job vs. </li></ul><ul><li>the person </li></ul><ul><li>Too much technical detail </li></ul><ul><li>Overly large ad space </li></ul>When writing a job advertisement, do not use:
  17. 17. <ul><li>Placing files on the Internet as downloadable pdf </li></ul><ul><li>or similar files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>job application form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>job description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Candidate profile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Out-placement organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>A rmed forces resettlement organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Universities, colleges and schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations and membership organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet recruitment resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional recruiters. </li></ul>Other Options to Job Advertising Other options to job advertising include:
  18. 18. <ul><li>Questions based on purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Ask about candidate's work and educational background. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure reduces employment-related exposures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep inquires lawful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask only job-related questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid questions leading to actual or perceived discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Make statements of policy (if necessary) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., a general statement on the application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>about work hours and conditions is acceptable. </li></ul></ul>Job Application
  19. 19. <ul><li>If applicant is a citizen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better to ask if “legally authorized to work in US” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Age, date of birth, or date of graduation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better to ask if over 18 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disabilities, medical treatment, medications, addictions </li></ul><ul><li>Sick leave taken in last position </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates height and weight </li></ul>Job Application: Things to avoid
  20. 20. <ul><li>Applicant must sign to acknowledge statements for: </li></ul><ul><li>Employment verification </li></ul><ul><li>“ At-will&quot; employment </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Employment Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>statement </li></ul>Applicant Signature Needed
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Inform or ask permission from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>candidate prior to checking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make conditional offers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be on “Need to know” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on “Job critical and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relevant”, “business necessity” </li></ul></ul>Conducting Reference and Credit Checks
  22. 22. <ul><li>Basic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Employment reference check </li></ul><ul><li>Credit check </li></ul><ul><li>Background check </li></ul><ul><li>Other Information </li></ul>Conducting Reference and Credit Checks <ul><li>Civil litigation </li></ul><ul><li>Motor-vehicle record </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mode of living&quot; and character </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Expect to receive dates of hire, </li></ul><ul><li>termination, and job title. </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited from confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>If waiver or “hold harmless” agreement </li></ul><ul><li>signed employer may likely specify </li></ul><ul><li>information covered by agreement. </li></ul>Employment Reference Check
  24. 24. Credit check <ul><li>To obtain credit report on </li></ul><ul><li>employee or prospective </li></ul><ul><li>employee, the employer must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide “clear and conspicuous” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>written notice that a credit report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be requested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain written consent from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>applicant or employee </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Employers generally have right to access </li></ul><ul><li>arrest and conviction records that are </li></ul><ul><li>public information, BUT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether employers can use for hiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decisions varies from state-to-state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some states allow employers to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discriminate based on criminal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>convictions, but not arrests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other states apply varying rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>depending on type of position or industry </li></ul></ul>Background Check
  26. 26. <ul><li>Errors are common </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of confidential information </li></ul><ul><li>may leave you vulnerable </li></ul><ul><li>to lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Background checks do not </li></ul><ul><li>always identify potential </li></ul><ul><li>wrongdoers, while disclosing </li></ul><ul><li>much information that is </li></ul><ul><li>irrelevant to job conduct </li></ul><ul><li>May not reduce fraud </li></ul>Problems With Reference Checking
  27. 27. <ul><li>Poor process can result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor selections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher turnover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermines organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes time and money </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why have structured interviews? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Better the process, the better the </li></ul><ul><li>result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases quality of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organization’s people </li></ul></ul>Structured Interviews
  28. 28. <ul><li>Tests validated to job; </li></ul><ul><li>must be Job related </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate to candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Test everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Make reasonable accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Fair and impartial; involve </li></ul><ul><li>third party </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating means disqualification </li></ul><ul><li>Failure means disqualification </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent </li></ul>Pre-Employment Testing Guidelines
  29. 29. Recruitment Process Structure
  30. 30. Issues in Recruiting <ul><li>Lack of recruitment goals </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a recruiting philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruit Internally v. Externally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Countercyclical Hiring </li></ul>
  31. 31. Advantages/Disadvantages of Internal Sources <ul><li>Ability of candidate is known </li></ul><ul><li>Internal promotion motivates employees </li></ul><ul><li>Less training and socialization time </li></ul><ul><li>Internal sources may be insufficient for growth </li></ul><ul><li>Ripple effect, cumbersome procedures </li></ul><ul><li>“ Inbreeding,” loss of flexibility </li></ul>
  32. 32. Advantages/Disadvantages of External Sources <ul><li>Import new ideas and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid ripple effect </li></ul><ul><li>May be necessary in </li></ul><ul><li>turnaround situation </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to evaluate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>candidates </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Internal Recruiting <ul><li>Internal Recruiting for Non- </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job posting and Bidding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Recruiting for </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Succession Planning </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. External Recruiting <ul><li>Planning for External Recruiting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate yield ratios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine when to begin and how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extensively to recruit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare Resume -Tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informal Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask employees to refer potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>candidates (word-of-mouth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider referral bonuses </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Recruiting Sources Used by HR Professionals* *Source: Based on a survey of 303 HR Professionals, from HR Magazine , December 1998, p. 53. Data on Internet recruiting is from HR Focus , May 2004, p. 8
  36. 36. External Recruiting Methods <ul><li>Formal Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruitment Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment Agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public Job Service Agencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private, For-Profit Agencies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. External Recruiting Methods <ul><li>Recruiting Targeted Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive Search Firms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Campus Recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting Older Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting Disabled Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting Disadvantaged Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative Action Recruiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting Passive Job Seekers </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Recruiting Process Evaluation and Benchmarking <ul><li>Measures Used to Evaluate Recruiters </li></ul><ul><li>Measures Used to Evaluate Recruiting Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in Quality of Recruiting Sources </li></ul>
  39. 39. Evaluation of Recruiting Source Data
  40. 40. Benefits of Structured Selection <ul><li>Improved performance </li></ul><ul><li>Effective strategy implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable competitive advantage </li></ul>
  41. 41. Sructured Selection Process
  42. 42. Questions NOT to Ask Job Candidates
  43. 43. Pre-Employment Tests <ul><li>Testing and EEO </li></ul><ul><li>Paper-and-Pencil or Computerized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests Chosen Based Upon: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Job Required Ability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Test Development Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative Ease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Past Success </li></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Work Sample and Ability to Learn Tests <ul><li>Work Sample Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Judgment Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Learn Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content, Face, and Predictive Validity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Adverse Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic Job Preview </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Personality Tests <ul><li>May have some validity </li></ul><ul><li>Rate on basis of Personality Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Extravert vs. introvert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Friendly, agreeable vs. hostile, non-compliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Neurotic vs.emotionally stable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Dependable, self-control vs. low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dependability, and self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Intellectual, open to new ideas vs. low intellect, low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>openness to new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predicting Violence in the Workplace </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Interviews <ul><li>Unstructured Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low validity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structured or semi-structured Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan with flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be comprised of “funnels” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better validity </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Interviews, cont’d <ul><li>Validity of the Interview can be compromised by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity Error (i.e., “just like me”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast Error (i.e., “not like ____”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overweighting of Negative Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race, Sex, and Appearance Bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First Impression Error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo Error </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty Listening and Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between Interviewers </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Selection Structure “Funnel”
  49. 49. Interviews, (cont’d) <ul><li>Structured Interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterned Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask everyone the same questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be the right questions! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What would you do if _______ happened? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral Description Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell me about a time when _______ happened. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did you do? What was the result? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Interview Best Practices <ul><li>Take good notes </li></ul><ul><li>Base questions on a thorough job analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Use a more structured format </li></ul><ul><li>Use situational and/or behavioral questions </li></ul><ul><li>Interview is conducted by trained interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>Interview attempts to assess only qualities that are visible in interviews </li></ul>
  51. 51. Drug Testing <ul><li>Drug use is NOT a handicap under ADA </li></ul><ul><li>Drug tests can be done prior to a conditional offer, also randomly during employment </li></ul><ul><li>Tests are reliable but expensive and invasive </li></ul><ul><li>Advisable in safety-sensitive jobs </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Reference criteria must be valid to job. </li></ul><ul><li>References must be checked to counter: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Negligent hiring” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resume fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be mindful of defamation suits when giving reference information </li></ul>Reference and Background Checks
  53. 53. Reference and Background Checks, cont’d <ul><li>Obtaining Reference Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written reference or phone interviews are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the most common methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask nominated referees for additional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people to contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask job-related questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate to applicant that you are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seeking reference/background information </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Role Play and Assessment Centers <ul><li>Assessment Center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of Assessment Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May involve multiple: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candidates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exercises: In-basket test, leaderless group discussion, interview, tests </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity and usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Selection Methods for Managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individual assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Criteria for Choosing Selection Devices <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost, Base Rate of Success, Selection Ratio, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incremental Validity, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legality </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability to Managers </li></ul><ul><li>Applicant Reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Societal Impact </li></ul>
  56. 56. Comparison of Selection Devices
  57. 57. <ul><li>Internal Revenue Service www.irs.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Labor www.dol.gov </li></ul><ul><li>Society for Human </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Management www.shrm.org </li></ul><ul><li>State Government Agencies www.statelocalgov.net </li></ul><ul><li>State Tax Agencies www.taxadmin.org </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Citizenship and </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration Services www.uscis.gov </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Small Business Administration www.sba.gov </li></ul>Sources

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