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Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences (CHI PLAY 17)

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We propose a classification of eight groups of gameful design elements produced from a study of participant preferences out of an online survey. This study provides an overview of which design elements work best for what demographic clusters and how we can apply this knowledge to design effective gameful systems.

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Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences (CHI PLAY 17)

  1. 1. Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences Gustavo F. Tondello Alberto Mora Lennart E. Nacke
  2. 2. Personalized Gamification 2 Selecting the gameful elements preferred for each user • Increased motivation • Increased potential for behaviour change Cards from: Andrzej Marczewski. 2015 (updated 2017). 52 Gamification mechanics and elements. Gamified UK. USER 1 USER 2 USER 3
  3. 3. Mapping user types to game elements 3 PARTIAL Andrzej Marczewski. 2015. User Types. In Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking & Motivational Design. Gamified UK. G. F. Tondello, R. R. Wehbe, L. Diamond, M. Busch, A. Marczewski, and L. E. Nacke. The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale. Proc. of CHI PLAY 2016.
  4. 4. Goal Directly explore user preferences for different gameful design elements 4
  5. 5. Methods 1. List of 59 gameful design elements Based on a literature survey of academic and industry sources 2. Data collection “Please rate how much the following elements motivate you when you use a digital application” (5-point Likert scale from “not at all” to “very much”) 3. Data analysis Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) Hierarchical cluster analysis Correlational analysis 5 196participants aged 15-71 (M = 26.7, SD = 9.7) 124 men, 53 women, 4 transgender, 3 non-binary
  6. 6. Groups of Gameful Design Elements 6 Individual Motivations Immersion Progression External Motivations Risk/Reward Customization Incentive Social Motivations Socialization Assistance Altruism Icons are CC-BY 3.0 by Game-icons.net
  7. 7. Average Scores per Group 7 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Immersion Progression Customization Incentive Risk/Reward Altruism Socialization Assistance
  8. 8. Correlations with other Factors 8 Individual Motivations Immersion Progression External Motivations Risk/Reward Customization Incentive Social Motivations Socialization Assistance Altruism Hexad user types Big 5 personality traits Age Gender significant r are between .165 and .406 significant r are between .194 and .323 significant r are between -.150 and -.175 significant mean diff. are between -.571 and .915
  9. 9. Implications 9 Design • Appealing to specific audiences • Designers can choose elements with similar user preferences • Personalizing the user experience • Tailoring the system with the preferred elements for each user Research • Considering user preferences to better understand gamification’s mechanisms and effects • What is effective to one user might not be effective to others
  10. 10. Link to full paper: Elements of Gameful Design Emerging from User Preferences CONTACT Gustavo F. Tondello gustavo@tondello.com @GustavoTondello http://hcigames.com/ 10

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