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DBA 101 : Calling all New Database Administrators (PPT)


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Today, many businesses around the world are using an Oracle product and in many of these at the core there is an Oracle Database. Many of us who started as a Database administrator where put in this position because we were good PL/SQL programmers or good Sysadmins, but knew very little of what it took to be a DBA. In this session you will learn the core architecture of an Oracle Database in 12c as well as what it takes to administer and apply this new knowledge the day you go back to your office.

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DBA 101 : Calling all New Database Administrators (PPT)

  1. 1. DBA 101 : Calling all New Database Administrators Presented by : Gustavo René Antúnez Oracle DBA The Pythian Group April, 2014
  2. 2. About Pythian •  Recognized Leader: –  Global industry-leader in remote database administration services and consulting for Oracle, Oracle Applications, MySQL and Microsoft SQL Server –  Work with over 250 multinational companies such as, Fox Sports, Nordion and Western Union to help manage their complex IT deployments •  Expertise: –  One of the world’s largest concentrations of dedicated, full-time DBA expertise. Employ 9 Oracle ACEs/ACE Directors. –  Hold 7 Specializations under Oracle Platinum Partner program, including Oracle Exadata, Oracle GoldenGate & Oracle RAC •  Global Reach & Scalability: –  Around the clock global remote support for DBA and consulting, systems administration, special projects or emergency response
  3. 3. About Me –  Oracle DBA –  Part of the First Oracle Associate Group •  Started with Version 9.2 in 2004 –  With The Pythian Group for the last year –  Movie Fanatic –  Music Lover –  Bringing the best from México (Mexihtli) to the rest of the world and in the process photographing it :) – –  @grantunez •  #CLV14
  4. 4. Where do I come from?
  5. 5. How did you get to be a DBA
  6. 6. Happiest Job of 2014!* * Work-life balance Relationship with boss and co- workers Daily tasks Job resources Field will grow by 15% between 2012 and 2022 DBA can be the key driver of success
  7. 7. Happiest Job of 2034? *Oxford University: THE FUTURE OF EMPLOYMENT: HOW SUSCEPTIBLE ARE JOBS TO COMPUTERISATION? •  47 percent of American jobs are at high risk of being taken by computers within the next two decades.* –  1st Wave •  Computers will start replacing people in especially vulnerable fields like transportation/logistics, production labor, and administrative support. –  2nd Wave •  Dependent upon the development of good artificial intelligence. This could next put jobs in management, science and engineering, and the arts at risk.
  8. 8. What is an Oracle database Server ? •  It is comprised of : –  Database –  Database Instance or Instance •  Each of those is independent, meaning that you can have one without the other
  9. 9. What is an Oracle database Server ? •  9i Version Architecture Snnn Users DBWR SGA Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer Dedicated Server Process LCK0RECOPMONSMON CKPT User Process Dnnn LGWR ARCH SNPn Pnnn Online Redo Log 10101 10101 10101 Data Files 10101 10101 10101 Control Files Archived Redo Log
  10. 10. What is an Oracle database Server ?
  11. 11. What is an Oracle database Server ? •  12c Version Architecture:
  12. 12. What is an Oracle database Server ?
  13. 13. Database 101010 Online Redo Log 10100 Data Files Control Files Set of files that store data and metadata; these files are saved on a physical disk Archived Redo Log Flashback Log
  14. 14. •  There is physical and logical viewpoint, and each have their own structures –  Physical •  Control Files •  Online Redo Logs •  Data files –  Logical »  Data block »  Extent »  Segment »  Tablespace Database Segment Database Tablespace Extent Oracle data block Schema Data file OS block Logical Physical
  15. 15. •  Binary file that holds the metadata which specifies the physical organization of your database Controlfiles 10101 Control Files Checkpoint information Current Online Redo Log Sequence RMAN Backup Information Database Name
  16. 16. •  Set of files that record altered data .A redo log is made up of redo records and these records include the following metadata Online Redo Logs Online Redo Log SCN and time stamp of the change Transaction ID of the transaction that generated the change SCN and time stamp when the transaction committed (if it committed) Name and type of the modified data segment Type of operation that made the change
  17. 17. •  File that contains system and user data Data files 10100 Data Files Data File Header Used Free (Formatted, Never Used) Free (Previously Used, Currently Unused)
  18. 18. •  Data block. – It is the smallest logical unit; data is stored in data blocks •  Extent. – A single allocation of a number of logically bordering data blocks. An extent can exist in only one data file. •  Segment. – A set of extents allocated for user, undo or temporary data •  Tablespace. –This is the container of segments, defined as a storage unit that groups related logical structures Logical Segment Database Tablespace Extent Oracle data block Schema Data file OS block Logical Physical
  19. 19. Oracle database Instance •  Set of memory structures and processes that manage database files System Global Area (SGA) Shared Pool Library Cache Shared SQL Area SELECT * FROM employees Private SQL Area (Shared Server Only) Data Dictionary Cache Server Result Cache Other Reserved Pool Large Pool Response Queue Request Queue Database Buffer Cache Redo log Buffer Fixed SGA Java Pool Streams Pool Instance Server Process SQL Work Areas Private SQL AreaSession Memory DBWn CKPT LGWR ARCn RVWR Others MMNL MMON RECO SMON PMON Background Processes Free Memory I/O Buffer Area UGA PGA
  20. 20. Memory Architecture System Global Area (SGA) Shared Pool Library Cache Shared SQL Area SELECT * FROM employees Private SQL Area (Shared Server Only) Data Dictionary Cache Server Result Cache Other Reserved Pool Large Pool Response Queue Request Queue Database Buffer Cache Redo log Buffer Server Process SQL Work Areas Private SQL AreaSession Memory PGA Contains session- dependent variables Stores copies of data blocks read from data files circular buffer that caches redo entries describing changes made to the database Intended for memory allocations that are larger than is appropriate for the shared pool Group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for one database instance It stores executable SQL and PL/SQL code Holds information about database tables and views An Oracle process that communicates with a client process and Oracle Database to fulfill user requests
  21. 21. Critical Proceses DBWn CKPT LGWR ARCn Others MMNL MMON SMON PMON Background Processes Monitors other background process and performs process recovery Process in charge of several system-level cleanup tasks Writes the contents of the modified database buffers in the buffer cache to the datafiles RECO Resolves failures in a distributed transaction Performs tasks related to the Automatic Workload Repository Updates the control file and data file headers with the checkpoint information Writes the redo entries from one or more redo log buffer strands Copies online redo log files to offline storage after a redo log switch occurs LREG Registers information about the database instance with the Net Listener
  22. 22. What is The Multitenant Architecture? •  Container database (CDB) is an Oracle database that includes zero, one, or many customer-created Containers or Pluggable Databases. •  A pluggable Database (PDB) is a user-created container holding the data and code for your specific applications
  23. 23. What is a Pluggable Database? Root (CDB$ROOT) CDB hrpdb salespdb Seed (PDB$SEED) CDB Administrator Sales Application HR Application PDB Administrator for hrpdb PDB Administrator for salespdb Logical Physical Database Control Files Data Files Online Redo Log 10101 10101 Archived Redo Log Flashback Log
  25. 25. Demo
  26. 26. Multitenant Architecture CDB_view : All of the objects in the CDB across all PDBs. DBA_view: All of the objects in a CDB or PDB All_view Objects accessible by the current user User_view : Objects owned by the current user Container ID Rows Belong to 0 Whole CDB 1 CDB$ROOT 2 PDB$SEED All other IDs User created PDBs
  27. 27. Multitenant Architecture Users •  Common User. – Can connect and perform operations within the root and every existing and future PDBs. •  Local User. – Specific user that can only operate within the PDB. A restriction is that a user cannot begin with c## or C##
  28. 28. Automatic Workload Repository •  Periodically makes a snapshot of essential statistics •  Licensable option within the Oracle Database •  Controlled by the parameter STATISTICS_LEVEL and CONTROL_MANAGEMENT_PACK_ACCESS
  29. 29. Automatic Workload Repository •  It has the following components –  SGA In-Memory AWR statistics –  AWR snapshots Database Instance SGA Statistics SYSAUX AWR MMON
  30. 30. Oracle Database and High Availability •  Availability is percentage of uptime in a year that a designed system in which it guarantees that it will be operational during a pre-established service level of agreement
  31. 31. Oracle Database and High Availability •  A highly available architecture should have the following characteristics: –  Tolerate Failures –  Prevent data loss –  Achieve Recovery Time Objectives (RTO) and Recovery Point Objectives (RPO) –  Detect errors in a timely manner
  32. 32. Oracle Real Application Cluster •  Architecture that has a one Database to many Instances relationship •  All datafiles,control files and redo logs must be in a cluster-aware disks •  One redo thread per instance •  If using Automatic Undo Management also require one UNDO tablespace per instance
  33. 33. Oracle Real Application Cluster Node 1 Instance 1 Node 2 Instance 2 Interconnect Shared Storage Local Disk Local Disk
  34. 34. Oracle Data Guard •  Manage and monitor one or up to 30 geographically dispersed standby databases. •  Only propagates the redo data in the logs, so no disk corruptions are introduced in the standby •  Physical Standby –  Identical copy of the primary database on a block-by- block basis •  Logical Standby –  Contains the same logical information as the primary, and is synchronized through SQL Apply
  35. 35. Oracle Data Guard Standby Redo Logs RFSNSA Primary Online Redo Logs Primary Database LGWR MRP Oracle Net Commit User Transactions Queries, Updates, DDL Queries, Reports Testing & Backups Active Standby Database SGA Redo Buffer Redo Buffer
  36. 36. Oracle Golden Gate •  Logical log based change data capture (CDC) and replication that enables the exchange and manipulation at the transaction level amongst heterogeneous platforms •  Replication may be uni-directional, bi-directional or multi- dimensional •  Considerations should be made: –  Database in archive log mode –  Supplemental logging at the source –  Sufficient disk space to store trail files –  Use a Data Pump when the target connection is via TCP/IP. –  If using RAC, Golden Gate should reside on SAN shared by the RAC servers.
  37. 37. Oracle Golden Gate Capture Trail Pump Delivery TrailLAN/WAN Internet TCP/IP Capture: committed transactions are captured (and can be filtered) as they occur by reading the transaction logs. Trail: stages and queues data for routing. Pump: distributes data for routing to target(s). Route: data is compressed, encrypted for routing to target(s). Delivery: applies data with transaction integrity, transforming the data as required. Source Oracle & Non-Oracle Database(s) Target Oracle & Non-Oracle Database(s)
  38. 38. Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) •  Oracle’s generally recommended : –  Oracle Golden Gate for any advanced or granular replication requirements, combined with Oracle RAC and Data Guard
  39. 39. My 12c Top Features •  Online rename and relocation of an active data file. –  ALTER DATABASE MOVE DATAFILE •  DDL logging –  ALTER SYSTEM|SESSION SET ENABLE_DDL_LOGGING=TRUE; –  $ORACLE_BASE/diag/rdbms/DBNAME/log|ddl •  Datapump –  Export View As a Table –  Turn off redo log generation for Datapump Imports •  TRANSFORM=DISABLE_ARCHIVE_LOGGING:Y
  40. 40. My 12c Top Features •  Active Data Guard Far Sync –  Synchronous replication to a far sync instance (repeater) situated at distance (reasonable latency), then asynchronous replication to the final standby SYNC ASYNC
  41. 41. My 12c Top Features •  Oracle Flex ASM –  Enables an Oracle ASM instance to run on a separate physical server from the database servers •  Parallel Upgrade Utility –  $ORACLE_HOME/perl/bin/perl -n 4 -l $ORACLE_HOME/ diagnostics catupgrd.sql
  42. 42. Where is The DBA Job Going in the near future? •  Database as a Service (DBaaS) –  Revenues will grow from 150 million in 2012 to 1.8 billion by 2016 - Forbes –  Paradigm where end users can request database services, consume it for the lifetime of the project, and then have then automatically de-provisioned and returned to the resource pool. –  Elasticity to scale out and scale back database resources
  43. 43. FIT-ACER •  F – Focus (SLOW DOWN! Are you ready?) •  I – Identify server/DB name, time, authorization •  T – Type the command (do not hit enter yet) •  A – Assess the command (SPEND TIME HERE!) •  C – Check the server / database name again •  E – Execute the command •  R – Review and document the results
  44. 44. Pythian at Collaborate 2014 Session ID Session Date Start Time Session Room Session Title Presenter Name 157 4/9/2014 8:30 AM Level 3, Lido 3101B Database Private Clouds with Oracle Database 12c Marc Fielding 574 4/9/2014 8:30 AM Level 3, Lido 3005 DBA 101 : Calling all New Database Administrators Rene Antunez 14408 4/9/2014 4:30 PM Sands, Level 1 - 309What's New in Oracle E-Business Suite R12.2 for Database Administrators? Vasu Balla 158 4/10/2014 3:00 PM Level 3, San Polo 3403 Accelerate Your Exadata Deployment with the Skills You Already Have Marc Fielding 411 4/10/2014 4:15 PM Level 3, Murano 3306 Thou Shalt Not Steal: Securing Your Infrastructure in the Age of Snowden Paul Vallee 544 4/10/2014 11:00 AM Level 3, San Polo 3403 My First 100 days with an Exadata Rene Antunez 135 4/11/2014 9:45 AM Level 3, Lido 3003 Ensuring Your Physical Standby is Usable Michael Abbey 194 4/11/2014 12:15 PM Level 3, Lido 3101B 12c Multi-Tenancy and Exadata IORM: An Ideal Cloud Based Resource Management Fahd Chughtai 546 4/11/2014 8:30 AM Level 3, Lido 3103 RMAN in 12c: The Next Generation ReneAntunez 878 4/11/2014 9:45 AM Level 3, San Polo 3405 Practical Machine Learning for DBAs Alex Gorbachev
  45. 45. Thank you – Q&A To contact us 1-877-PYTHIAN To follow us @pythian We are hiring! Booth 1535