˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :
≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´”≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{...
F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”
FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠∏ÌF´¶≥´Ì”ƒ´”˙´”Úe§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ψ„·m|v@”∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆÊyfl...
‡ ¨Ê_§„@”¯˘, ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@”¯˘ B„X~´∏m¨´ ƒ´””_tƒÊ¨´ ^¥[FÊv@”∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´«~´ˆ´ ≥ʘ˙´t|m¨´
F´˚„¨´”ˆ„Xm˚´ ƒ´G˜˛@”©´”≠ ...
≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´...
2.22.22.22.22.2 ≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´”≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{...
zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚...
≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ...
^©„·ˆ´ ~ÊLt∑´{´” ˚´@”MW ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´G¶Ì˘. ^ƒ´I `·˚´”ƒ´ ˆÊ~´w∑´{„m¨´~„,
(^) Ù¨´ˆ„y ƒ´G©´ƒ´ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ^¥...
›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2
≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ...
›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3
* ˚´@”MW∑„ Ó„m∏̃´©´”≠ 3 X·L©Êƒ´◊|∑´{´ƒ´~„∑„ Ïßڑߨ´~´X, ~ÊLt∑´ª∑„...
* B„p–©´ ≥´ms„t@” ƒ´”˙´”Ú B´ÌƒÊ~´” ∏∑„@” ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ˆ„X·≥´”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊|
˙´~´Ó„·˛@”©´”≠ ∏ÌF´¶≥´”ƒ´I...
* n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. ≥´ƒ´””¨Ê@”ˆ„y um¨´” ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ ƒ„·|ˆ„@”©´”≠ u¨´flß, zʧ„∑´{´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B´ÌƒÊ~´”
ƒ´”◊¨´tm˙´~´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ ...
˚´@”MW ‡ σ´””_˙„≈”m¨´ B„X~´∏m¨´” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸wˆ„y ˆ„X˚´”∑„ `·˚´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´©´”≠
~´X°≥´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ BÊ∑´X ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ ...
›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1
e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ :e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´...
3.43.43.43.43.4 Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„...
VII. ≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´...
7.37.37.37.37.3 FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” :FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ...
* Ïz„·∆F´ ˆ„¸·˙´v∑´{´ F´‘w˛Xm|∑„ ∏~´”ƒ´ ≥´B´X·fl∑´{´” ©„·~´ƒÊfl ˚´@”MW©´ ^∑´˙´t∑´ª∑„ ˙´ƒ´”Z
ˆ„X˚´”∑„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”˙ÊÚ~„. u∏»‘∑...
IV. B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”
4.2 B´wˆÊß©´ X·L©„, ≥Êx@”˙´...
±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :
˚´@”MW∑´{´ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ qv@G˙´Zˆ´˙„@”...
V. L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”
Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”...
≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´...
ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ...
* ^◊|ˆÊ~´ z„v·] ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´ B„X~´˙Êfl ≥´m≥„a ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ um¨´ˆ„Xym¨´” ≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˆ´¯N≥´Ì”
^©´”ˆ´XÌ ƒ´G¶¨´”¨´”.
* Ï...
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada
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DIETs Potential and Possibilities, Chamarajanagar DIET project Kannada

  1. 1. ˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ :˚´@”MW√ : ≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´”≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´”≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´”≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´”≥´”F´Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑´{´” Ó„m∑´{´X~´” `@G≥W ≥´m≥„aÓ„m∑´{´X~´” `@G≥W ≥´m≥„aÓ„m∑´{´X~´” `@G≥W ≥´m≥„aÓ„m∑´{´X~´” `@G≥W ≥´m≥„aÓ„m∑´{´X~´” `@G≥W ≥´m≥„a 2007 ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5 ~´m¨´”2007 ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5 ~´m¨´”2007 ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5 ~´m¨´”2007 ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5 ~´m¨´”2007 ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5 ~´m¨´” ©´˚„ߨ´ ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@” σ´~´∑´{´”©´˚„ߨ´ ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@” σ´~´∑´{´”©´˚„ߨ´ ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@” σ´~´∑´{´”©´˚„ߨ´ ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@” σ´~´∑´{´”©´˚„ߨ´ ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@” σ´~´∑´{´” 1
  2. 2. F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@”F´‘›´@” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠∏ÌF´¶≥´Ì”ƒ´”˙´”Úe§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ψ„·m|v@”∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆÊyfl, 1990~´ ±~´m¥Ó´ ≥´ƒ´”@”¨´¯˘ ƒ´G©´ƒ´ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´ ≥´pƒÊÌ@”, e§Ê˘ Õˆ´¸w ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ Ù©W√U¿XtMW∑´{´©´”≠(Ù©´”≠ƒ´””m¨„eÕ˙´^S¨´ƒÊ˚´@”MWÙmfl˘·∆FW©´¯˘)`Ï”Œß˙´”.ˆ„·m¨´v|m¨´Ó„m∏¯˙´ X·L©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ùƒ´I "©´≥´”∑„mF´I F´I≥´Úˆ´'¨´ (¥ÓÊ~´˙´ ≥´ˆÊŒ~´, 1989) ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´ÕŒ ≥´X›´©„∑´{´ ±◊¨Ê~´¨´ ƒ„”·§„ `ƒ´GŒw∑„Xm˚´ƒ´I. ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ ≥ʃ´G©´t ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´ƒ„·©„m¨´~„, Ùƒ´I∑´ª∑„ ≥´ƒ´”S¨´Œ˙„≈”¨´”¤, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ F´¨´H˛@”¯˘ ≥´Xˆ´Ú ≥Êa©´Ï¨´¤~´X, ^m¨´~„ e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘©´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ∏∑„∫ ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´…˙´ƒÊfl¨´¤~´X ≥´B´ Bʯ ^ßÚ˙´x¨´¯˘~´”ƒ´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a∑´{„X˚´©„ B„Xm|ˆ„Xm˚´” B„X·flÌ˘ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^S¨´ŒF´«wŒ ˆ„X˚´”∑„ `·¶Ì˘. ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ ^◊¨´t@”©´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^ƒ´I∑´{„X˚´©„ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ @”˙´≠∑´{Êflƒ„. ‡ ˚´@”MW∑´{´©´”≠ F´I©´~W›„·˙´©´∑„Xª≥´Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ùƒ´I∑´{´ ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@G∑´Ì” ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ±◊¨Ê~´∑´{´©´”≠, ^¥[FÊv@”∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´G¨´‘∑´{´©´”≠ σ´~´ƒÊfl ›´pŒ≥´Ì”, 2007©„· ^ˆ„X‚·∏~W 4 ƒ´”˙´”Ú 5~´m¨´” ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„ ≥´mJU≥´§Êfl˙´”Ú. Ù¯˘ n˙´Ú§Ê¨´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ›´pŒ≥´§Ê¨´ ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´” : * z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ Ó„X·◊¨´©„@” @Gƒ´ ˆÊ@”Œ ≥´ƒ´”S¨´Œ˙„@”©´”≠ ψ„·m|v@”∑„Xª≥´∏B´”¨´” ? * ‡ ≥´m≥„a@”” ~ÊLt ƒ´”˙´”Ú e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„X˚´©„ @Gƒ´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ B„Xm|~´Ó„·ˆ´” ? * "e§Ê˘' ©„§„ nm∏”¨´~´ F´‘fiʃ´”, V|¤z´t∑´{´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ “©Êfl~´”˙´Ú¨„ ? * zÊ§Ê ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ @Gƒ´ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´©´”≠ ˚´@”MW ∑´ƒ´”`≥´∏B´”¨´” ? * ≥´mJ¿©„@” ∑´”‘∑´{´©´”≠ V˙´Úƒ´” ‘·˛ ƒ´””¿‚Ì” @Gƒ´ ≥´mJ¿©Ê˙´Zˆ´ ~´›´©„≈”~´Ó„·ˆ´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú @Gƒ´ ‘·˛ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ´” ? * ˚´@”MW©´ ©Eˆ´~´~´ ∏∑„∫ ˙´˙´x∑´{„·©´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©Eˆ´‘∑„ ≥„·‘߈„X{´” ƒ´ V˙´Úƒ´” Ï◊¨Ê©´ @Gƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú @Gƒ´ ‘·˛ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ B„p–߈„X{´” ƒ´I¨´” ? * B´ÌƒÊ~´” ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~ÊLt∑´{´ X·L©„∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´v›Ê~´∑´{„Xm|∑„ ˚´@”MW B„·∑„ ϔ̩´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„ ? * ≥´ˆÊŒ‘”·˙´~´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ º„X˙„@”¯˘ B„Xm¨Ê]ˆ„ ˚´@”MW B„·∑„ ƒ´G¶ˆ„X{´ ∏B´”¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ¥ÓÊ∑´ƒ´˜≥´Ó„·ˆ´” ? * ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~ÊLt∑´{´” ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´ª∑„ `·˚´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ Ó„m∏̨´ ≥´x~´XF´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~´›´©„∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ Ù~´”ƒ´ F´vz„≠∑´{´” @Gƒ´Iƒ´I ? 2
  3. 3. ‡ ¨Ê_§„@”¯˘, ≥´ƒ´G§„X·›´©„@”¯˘ B„X~´∏m¨´ ƒ´””_tƒÊ¨´ ^¥[FÊv@”∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´«~´ˆ´ ≥ʘ˙´t|m¨´ F´˚„¨´”ˆ„Xm˚´ ƒ´G˜˛@”©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¥[FÊv@”∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´¨´¯˘ F´vX·L©´ˆÊ‘”m¨´” ˆ´m˚´”∏m¨´” ≥´m≥„a∑´{´©´”≠ ∏Ì@””˙´ƒÊfl ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ BÊ∑´X ¨´ˆ´¸˙„ B„p–≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´””_t ≥´ÌB„∑´{´©´”≠ uMÊ‚~„ ≥„·‘ߨ„¤·ƒ„. ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ¨´ˆ´¸˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆÊ@”ŒÏ◊¨Ê©´ƒ´©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|¤F´¶≥´”ƒ´ `·˛ `~´XF´fi„∑„ Ù¨´” ≥´BÊ@”ƒÊ∑´∏Ì˘¨´”. ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ≥ʃ´Œ˛vˆ´ Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ _p˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´tƒ´ßa˙´ ~´XF´ ˆ„X˚´Ì” Ùm|∑´X, ~Ê∆°Ã·@” FÊÔ~´ F´vƒ´›´©´ ›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2005, Ù¨´~´¯˘ F´v˛[m[˙´ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´” ¶. .Ù.U ƒ´”˙´”Ú [.±~W.ß., ß.±~W.ß ~´XF´~„·∆F„∑´{´” ˆ„·m¨´v Ï›Ê~´∑´{Êflƒ„. zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸w¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„, zʧ„∑´ª∑„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´‘∑„ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ Ó„m∏Ì, Ùƒ„Ì˘ƒ´« ∏Ì@””˙´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´””_m˚´˙´x, X·L©„∑´{´” ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„, `@”m˙´vw/ ƒ„”·¯x›Ê~´fi„ ƒ„”·§„ B„Xm|ˆ„Xm¶~´”˙´Ú¨„@”Ì˘¨„ ‡ ˆ„Ì≥´ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´{´” ψ„·m|v·ˆ´…˙´ƒÊfl B„›´”–B„›Ê–fl ƒ´””_tƒÊfl ≥´aª·@” e§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´§Ê˘∑´Ó„·ˆ´”. ¶. .Ù.U. ˙„~´©Ê¨´ ≥´m≥„a e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ±˚´ª˙´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a ˆ´˚„ ∑´ƒ´”©´ B´‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´qym˙´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´ ˆ´˚„ ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ≥´Xˆ´Ú nm∏”¨´”. ‡ Ï›Ê~´ƒ´I zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸w ∏ÌF´¶≥´”˙´Ú¨„ nm∏”¨´” Ùm|∑´X ≥´ƒ´G◊¨Ê©´ˆ´~´. uMÊ‚~„ '`~´”F´@””ˆ´Ú˙„'@” ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w∑´{´” :uMÊ‚~„ '`~´”F´@””ˆ´Ú˙„'@” ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w∑´{´” :uMÊ‚~„ '`~´”F´@””ˆ´Ú˙„'@” ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w∑´{´” :uMÊ‚~„ '`~´”F´@””ˆ´Ú˙„'@” ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w∑´{´” :uMÊ‚~„ '`~´”F´@””ˆ´Ú˙„'@” ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w∑´{´” : 1) ~ÊLt¨´Õˆ´¸w`·˛@”^∑´˙´t∑´{´”,~ÊLtÕˆ´¸w≥´mJ¿©„∑´{„Xm|∑„˚´@”MW¨´…∆°‚ƒ´”˙´”Ú¶. .Ù.U. ^m∑´∑´{´ ≥ʃ´”~´≥´tÏÌ˘|~´”ƒ´I¨´”. 2) ≥´mJ¿©Ê˙´Zˆ´ ƒ´”XÌ V¨„¤·z´∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^©´x≈”ˆ´ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´ ∏∑„∫ ≥´N∆F´‚˙„≈”Ì˘|~´”ƒ´I¨´”. 3) FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w `·˚´”ƒÊ∑´Ì” ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ˙´~´Ó„·˛ B„Xm|¨´ Õˆ´¸w ƒ´…m¨´¨´ ˆ„X~´˙„, FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w ^S¨´ƒÊ ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„, Õˆ´¸ˆ´‘∑„ Õˆ´¸w Æ Ùm˙´B´ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´¯˘ ≥´B´ ˙´LÛ~´ ^¥Óʃ´. 4) ˚´@”MW©´ F´v∏Ì ƒ´””_m˚´˙´x¨´ ˆ„X~´˙„. 5) z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ƒÊfl¨´”¤, ˆ´¶ƒ„” ±˚´ª˙Ê˙´Zˆ´ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´, ‡ B´”¨„¤∑´{´©´”≠ ^F„·q¸≥´”ƒ´ƒ´~´ ≥´ms„t ˆ´¶ƒ„”. Ù¨´Ì˘¨„, ±flm¨Ê∑„∫ ˚´@”MW©´ ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´¯˘ sʯ [|¤~´”ƒ´ B´”¨„¤∑´{´” ^◊|ˆ´ƒÊfl~´”˙´Úƒ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑„}~´”BÊL‘@”¯˘@”X F´‘wÏ”≥´”˙´Ú¨„. 6) uMÊ‚~„ ±˚´ª˙´¨´¯˘©´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@” ©´Xt©´˙„@”X ≥´B´ ˚´@”MW ÓÊ◊|≥´”˙´Ú¨„. 7) B´˙´Ú©„· X·L©„ ˆÊ§Êƒ´◊|@”¯˘ ˆ„·m¨´v ¶. .Ù.U. B´wˆÊ≥´” `·¶˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ‡∑´ B´©„X≠m¨´©„ X·L©„@” ˆĘ̂´ÌX˘ B´w `·˚´”ƒ´ X·L©„≈”¨´¤~´X, ˆ„·m¨´v|m¨´ ‡ B´wˆÊß©´ Ó„m∏̨´ ∏∑„∫ `_~´˙„≈”Ì˘ (^`Õ–˙´˙„≈”¨„). 3
  4. 4. ≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙Êw 2.12.12.12.12.1 ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ : ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ~´›´©Ê ˙´˙´x :≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ : ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ~´›´©Ê ˙´˙´x :≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ : ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ~´›´©Ê ˙´˙´x :≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ : ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ~´›´©Ê ˙´˙´x :≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ : ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ~´›´©Ê ˙´˙´x : F´v˛ ˚´@”MW ≥´x˙´m˙´v "≥´m≥„a' nm∏ ^ßÚ˙´xƒ´©´”≠ F´˚„@””ƒ´I¨´~´ º„X˙„∑„ ^m˙´B´ ̈´¸w∑´{´©´”≠ ∑´ªßˆ„Xm˚´”, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ™©´≠˙´tƒ´©´”≠ ≥Ê◊|≥´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ ˙´©´≠ ∑´ƒ´”©´ƒ´©´”≠ ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´‘≥´Ó„·ˆ´”. F´v˛ ˚´@”MW©´”≠ um¨´” ÏÕ∆F´‚ƒÊ¨´ ≥´x˙´m˙´v ≥´m≥„a nm¨´” F´‘∑´]≥´Ó„·ˆ„· B„X~´˙´” e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ^©´”∆FÊ•©´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´ ^m∑´ƒÊfl, ~ÊLt¨´ B´ÌƒÊ~´” ^m∑´∑´{´¯˘ Ù¨´X um¨´” nm¨´” ˛ª@”ÓÊ~´¨´”. Ù¨´©´”≠ ‡ ‘·˛@”¯˘ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´” :Æ ^) ∏…B´©´Z¿‚¨´~ÊLt¨´z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”¶@”¯˘˚´@”MW@Gƒ´FÊ˙´vƒ´©´”≠ƒ´˜≥´Ó„·ˆ´”n©´”≠ƒ´ `‘·ˆ„¸@” ∏∑„∫ ≥´N∆F´‚ p˙´vwƒ´©´”≠ F´˚„@””ƒ´I¨´”. ±) um¨´” ≥´m≥„a@”©´”≠ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ um¨´” ≥´ƒ´”F´Œˆ´ ˙´{´FÊ@”ƒ´©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. Ù¨´~´¯˘ ‡ ˆ„{´fl©´ƒ´I∑´{´” ≥„·‘ƒ„ : * e§Ê˘ ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ≥´m≥„a@Gfl, um¨´” ≥´m≥„a∑„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ƒÊt°Ú∑„ ≥´Xˆ´ÚƒÊ∑´”ƒ´ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ≥Eˆ´@”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ≥´m≥„a@”©´”≠ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´ ¨´…∆°‚≈”m¨´ FÊvmz´”FÊÌ~´©´”≠ ±”y ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ^ƒ´~´©´”≠ ©„·Ï”ß ^ƒ´‘∑„ ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ^ƒ´◊| ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´∆F´”‚/`~´X°ß¨´∆F´”‚ ≥´ms„t@” z´v¨ÊHƒ´m˙´ Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”∆ƒ´∆F´”‚/`~´X°ß¨´∆F´”‚ ≥´ms„t ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ±˚´ª˙´ ß∏»m|@”©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. Ù) F´v˛ ˚´@”MW ˙´©´≠¨„· ±¨´ ≥´xm˙´ ≥´x~´XF´ƒ´©´”≠ ~´X°ßˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G¶, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´, ±S|Œˆ´ ˆ„¸·˙´v∑´{´¯˘ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß∏»m| `·˛@”¯˘ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú F´‘≥´~´ƒ´©´”≠ B„Xm¨´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ ∑´ƒ´”©´ B´‘≥´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´Ì” Ó„m∏Ì `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´”. ‡) ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ©´˚´”ƒ„ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´t˙Êt≥´∑´ª~´”ƒ´m˙„ ^ƒ´I∑´{´©´”≠ F„«v·˙Ê√˜≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ^©´”ƒ´”˛ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„·ƒ´Ì ˆ„̃„«m¨´” ∏…B´˙W F´vƒ´Gw¨´ ˆ„·m|v·@” Ï©Êt≥´¨´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ n›´–~´ƒ´˜≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. 4
  5. 5. 2.22.22.22.22.2 ≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´”≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´”≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´”≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´”≥Êmßaˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t : n~´˚´” F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„∑´{´” F´v≥´”Ú˙´Ï~´”ƒ´ ˚´@”MW Ï©Êt≥´ƒ´I Ï¥[©´≠ ¨´…∆°‚@”©´”≠ B„Xm|~´”ƒ´ ∏B´”ˆÊ@”Œ∑´{´ ≥´x~´XF´ƒ´©´”≠ B„Xm|¨„. Ù¨´‘m¨´ ˚´@”MW ÏÏ◊¨´ |ˆ´”y∑´{´¯˘ n{„@”ÌN˚´”˙´Ú¨„ Æ Ù¨´~´ F´‘fiʃ´”ƒ„m¨´~„ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ∑´”‘∑´{´” ›´¨´”‘B„X·∑´”ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”ƒ´I¨´”. Ù¨´ˆ„y ∏¨´§Êfl ˚´@”MW um¨´” F´«wŒƒÊt° ¨´…∆°‚@”©´”≠ B„Xm|, ^¨„· ^¨´~´ ≥´…∆°‚∑„ ƒ´”X̃Êfl, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ^¥ÓÊt≥´¨´ ±∑´≥´¨´¯˘ ˙´©´≠¨„· ±¨´ ƒ´”B´˙´xF´«wŒ FÊ˙´vƒ´©´”≠ ~´X°ßˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Ù¨´‘m¨´ ˚´@”MW∑„ ˙´©´≠ ÏÏ◊¨´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ^S¨´ƒÊ X·L©„∑´{´©´”≠≥´mX·e߈„X{´ Ì”≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊfl,˙´©´≠¨„·±¨´≥´xm˙´ƒÊ∆°Œˆ´ˆÊ@”ŒX·L©„BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„X˚´©„ ≥´BX·∑´¨´ ˆ„XÔ~´¶∑´{´©´”≠ `Ï”Œßˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Õˆ´¸w¨´ F´vƒ´””_ ƒ„·|ˆ„∑„ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´©´”≠ ˆ´~„˙´~´”ƒ´I¨„· ±¨´t˙„@G∑´Ó„·ˆ´”. ˚´@”MW©´ ƒ´”XÌ z´qÚ nm¨´~„ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@”©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|HF´¶≥´”ƒ´I¨Êfl¨„, Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl ≥„·ƒÊF´«ƒ´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ˆÊ@”Œ,~ÊLt¨´ˆÊ{´e,ˆÊ@”ˆ´ƒ´”˙´”Ú©ÊÏ·©´t˙„∑´{„m¨´~„FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´zʧ„∑´{´F´I©´~´”e‰·ƒ´©´ˆ„yB„p–©´ ∑´ƒ´”©´ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨Êfl¨„. Ùƒ´I∑´{´¯˘ @Gƒ´I¨Ê¨´~„Xm¨´” ≥´m≥„a@” ±¨´t˙„∑„ ±◊¨Ê~´ƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨´”. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl : Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@”^¥[ƒ´…|Hˆ„¸·˙´vƒ´I˚´@”MW©´ƒ´”XÌz´qÚ∑´{´¯˘um¨Êfl¨´”¤,B„p–©´˚´@”MW∑´{´” ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ u{„ @” ¨Ê_§„∑´{´©´”≠ B„Xm|ƒ„. ±¨´”¨´‘m¨´ ‡ ˆ„¸·˙´ƒ´©´”≠ Ù©´X≠ ∏ÌF´¶ß, Ó„{„≥´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. ^Ì˘¨„, e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ≥„·ƒÊF´«ƒ´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| Õˆ´¸w∑´{„~´˚´~´ÌX˘ ^˙´”t˙´Úƒ´” ≥´m≥„a∑´{Êfl ^¥[ƒ´…|H B„Xm¨´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ^˙´”t©´≠˙´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´ª∑Êfl zʧ„∑´{„Xm|∑„ ˆ„}∑´X¶≥´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘¨„ zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@”©´”≠ ˆÊ{´eƒ´˜≥´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ∑´ƒ´”©´ B´‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ ≥´m≥„a∑„ um¨´” ^∑´˙´t ±¨´t˙„¨„X~„˙´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ≥´m≥„a@””@”z´≥´”√ƒ´”˙´”ÚiF´¯˙Êmz´∑´{´©´”≠F´˚„@”Ì”≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨Ê¨´ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘^¨´”ˆÊ@”Œ`ƒ´Œ˜≥´”ƒ´m˙„ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´,≥Ê◊¨´©„@”¯˘^¨´ˆ„y^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´≥´ˆÊ~Ê˙´Zˆ´ ƒ´”©„X·¥Óʃ´ ¨„X~„˙´m˙Êfl um¨´” ≥´m≥„a@” F´«wŒ ψ´≥´©´ˆ„y ©„·~´ƒÊfl ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„ ˆ„¸·˙´v ±”y@G¨´~„, ˚´@”MW∑„ ‡fl~´”ƒ´ F´‘w˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ∑´{´” ^ƒ´I∑´{´ Ï”˛≈”m¨´B„X~´∑„Ù~´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´,^¨´”˙´©´≠©´”≠≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´”˙´”Ú±˚´ª˙´¨´©„·~´ˆ„y˙´m¨´”ˆ„Xm˚´” "^©´”∆FÊ•©´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´' ßa˛@”©´”≠ ˙´Ì”F´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 5
  6. 6. zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl : zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@”¯˘ ^¨„Xm¨´” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ˆ„¸·˙´vƒ„m¨´” ˙„X˚´fl߈„Xm˚Ê∑´ ≥´m≥„a∑„ F´«wŒ ≥´x~´XF´ u¨´fl≥´Ì” ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ “ˆÊ∑´v˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú |ˆ´X√p ˙„X·~´¨´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Ù¨´‘m¨´ B´ÌƒÊ~´” ∏∑„@” ≥Êmßaˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|HF´¶≥´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ ≥´m¨´¥Ó´Œ∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^{´˙„∑„X·Ì”∑´{´©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´∏B´”¨´Ì˘¨„, ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w, ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ ƒ´hEÌtƒ´GF´©´, F´‘ˆ´~´∑´{´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H, ©ÊÏ·©´t˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú≥´ÌB„∑´{´©´”≠`·˚´”ƒ´BÊ∑´X≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„∑´{´ƒ„”·§„∑´ƒ´”©´ƒ´©´”≠ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´‘≥´Ì”≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˜·∑ʨÊ∑´ ≥´m≥„a@”” ∏…B´©´Z¿‚¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ^¥¥ÓÊt≥´∑´{´ ∏¨´”ˆ´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú zʧ„∑´ªm¨´ ¨´X~´ƒÊfl F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ ˙´°Nߨ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@”¯˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸wƒ´I um¨´” F´vƒ´””_ ^m∑´ƒÊ∑´Ó„·ˆ´”. ±¨´~„, ^¨´ˆ„y ˙´©´≠¨„· ±¨´ um¨´” Ï©Êt≥´ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´ƒ´”S¨´Œ©„@”©´”≠ zÊ§Ê ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„ nm∏ ∏…B´©´Z¿‚¨´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”¨´¶@”¯˘ B´”˚´”qˆ„X{´” ƒ´ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”˙´Ú¨„. `LƒÊfl@”X ˙´~´Ó„·˛@” ~´XF´¨´¯˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ^∑´˙´tƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”©´∑Êw¨„·, ^¨´ˆ„y ∏¨´§Êfl zʧÊ◊¨Ê‘˙´ ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´z´Œ©´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ ºỄ´©´”≠ B„›´”– ≥´ƒ´”mL≥´ nm¨´” ˛ª¨Ê∑´, ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„≥´”ƒ´ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´ÓÊ~´¨´”. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„@Gfl~´”ƒ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ∏…B´©´Z¿‚¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ªm¨´ ¨´X~´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Úƒ„ƒ´”˙´”Ú¨„}©´m|©´˙Ê˛xˆ´›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„@Gflˆ´”mÔ‘˙´∑„Xm˚´”zʧÊe·ƒ´©´¨´¯˘@Gƒ´I¨„· ƒÊ≥´Úψ´ ©„§„@” F´‘Õ·Ì©„∑„ u{´∑Ê∑´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. 2.32.32.32.32.3 ≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒÊt°Ú : FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê ƒ´”¿‚ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒÊt°Ú : FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê ƒ´”¿‚ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒÊt°Ú : FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê ƒ´”¿‚ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒÊt°Ú : FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê ƒ´”¿‚ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒÊt°Ú : FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê ƒ´”¿‚ : ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸wˆ„y ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”˛Ú¨„. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w ˆÊ§„·L”∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú " nn≥WÙ' ∑´{´” (Õˆ´¸w¨´¯˘ ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„¨´ ^◊¨´t@”©´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´”) FEv‹˚´zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´Ô~´tˆ´vƒ´” ˆÊ@”Œ¨´¯˘ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ„}∑„˛Úˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˚´@”MW FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ zʧ„∑´ª∑„ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ ƒ´G˙´v ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„≥´Ó„·ˆ„· ^S¨´ƒÊ ˙´ƒ´”Z ƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑´X Ï≥´Ú‘≥´Ó„·ˆ„· n©´”≠ƒ´ F´vz„≠ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒÊt°Ú@” ƒ„”·§„ F´‘fiʃ´” [·~´”˙´Ú¨„. 6
  7. 7. ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl :≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ FEv‹˚´zʧ„∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ F´~´ƒÊfl : ‡ ≥´m≥„a@”” e§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ um¨´” ≥´ˆÊŒ‘ ≥´m≥„a@Gfl zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸w¨´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a∑„ ≥´ƒ´G©Êm˙´~´ƒÊfl~´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´©´≠ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ n§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚∑´ª∑„ Ï≥´Ú‘≥´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ^m¨´~„, FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ F´«ƒ´Œ ƒ´”¿‚|m¨´ FEv‹˚´zʧ„@” ˙´©´ˆ´. ‡ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´©´”≠ƒ´tƒ´ßa˙´z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´Ó„m∏Ì`·˚´”ƒ´m˙„~´X°≥´Ì”≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. n§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´zʧ„∑´{´¯˘ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ƒ´©´”≠ F´‘Õ·¯≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú n›´–‘≥´”ƒ´m˙´B´ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”. e§„˘@” z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ±˚´ª˙´¨´¯˘ BÊ∑´X n§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ zʧ„∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ ˆÊ{´e≈”~´”ƒ´ ›´”©Ê≈”˙´ F´v˛`◊|∑´ª∑„ ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„, Õˆ´¸wˆ„y F´«~´ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙´B´ e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ≥´m≥„a∑´ªÌ˘|¨´¤~„ ~´›´©Ê ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” V¨´jÏ≥´”˙´Úƒ„. ˚´@”MW FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w¨´¯˘~´”ƒ´ ˙´©´≠ Ïz„·∆F´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú@”©´”≠ Vªßˆ„Xm˚´”, ‡ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ Ïz„·∆F´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´©´”≠ B´Ï”Zˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”BÊ∑´X≥´Xˆ´Ú‘·˛@”¯˘ Ó„m∏Ì`·˚´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´˙´©´≠ˆÊ@”Œ≥´Xp@”¯˘zʧ„∑´{´ ‡ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„∑„ FÊvƒ´””_t˙„@”©´”≠ `·˚´∏B´”¨Êfl¨„. ±¨´~„, Ù¨´~´ º„X˙„∑„ ^¨´” FEv‹˚´zʧ„ Õˆ´¸wˆ„y ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„ X·e≥´”ƒ´I¨´”, F´‘Õ·¯≥´”ƒ´I¨´”, n›´–‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©Ê ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ B´Ï”Zˆ„X{´ ∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MW ƒÊt°Ú@”¯˘ FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ F´«ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ ≥„·‘≥´”ƒ´ ^∑´˙´tϨ„”m¨´” ∏̃Êfl ƒÊ¨´ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”. ± ƒ´”Ẍ´ ÓỄʶ∑´{´ ^S¨´ƒÊ ^m∑´©´ƒÊ¶∑´{´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@” ^¥[ƒ´…|H ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´Ô~´tˆ´vƒ´”¨´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ BÊ∑´X ‡ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ ˆ´”‘˙´m˙„ Ù~´”ƒ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´©´”≠ Ù¨´~´¶@”¯˘ ˙´~´∏B´”¨´”. 2.42.42.42.42.4 ≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ : ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ„y B„Xm|ˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´I¨´qym˙´ ≥´m≥„a@” ¨´X~´¨´ÕŒ˙´x, ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ù˙´~„ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ º„X˙„fl~´”ƒ´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´∑´ª∑„ ≥´Xˆ´ÚƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ^¨´~´ ^∑´˙´t∑´{´” Ï≥´Ú‘≥´Ì” ^©´”ˆ´X̃Ê∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ^ƒ´I∑´{´ ~´›´©„≈”~´Ó„·ˆ´”. ˜·∑ʨÊ∑´ ˚´@”MW©´ "^m∑´∑´{´”' ^S¨´ƒÊ "J¿ˆ´∑´{´”' ∏¨´§Ê∑´”ƒ´ ~´›´©„@”©´”≠ B„Xm|¨´”¤, ^¯˘ ©´˚„@””ƒ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ߨ´m˙„ ^ƒ´I∑´{´©´”≠ ∏¨´§Ê≈”≥´∏B´”¨´”. Ù¨´‘m¨´ um¨´” F´v˙„t·ˆ´ ˚´@”MW∑„ ^˙´tm˙´ ≥´Xˆ´ÚƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙´B´ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@” ƒ„”·§„ F´‘fiʃ´”ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 7
  8. 8. ^©„·ˆ´ ~ÊLt∑´{´” ˚´@”MW ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´G¶Ì˘. ^ƒ´I `·˚´”ƒ´ ˆÊ~´w∑´{„m¨´~„, (^) Ù¨´ˆ„y ƒ´G©´ƒ´ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ≥´pƒÊÌ@”¨´ ^©´”ƒ´”˛≈”Ì˘, ^S¨´ƒÊ, (±) "°mˆW F´I≥´Úˆ´'¨´ ÕiFÊ~´≥´”√∑´{´©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ߨ´ ±S|Œˆ´ `@”ƒ´”∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´z´Œ©´∑´{´ F´vˆÊ~´ Ù¨´” ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ‡ n~´˚´X ¨´…∆°‚ˆ„X·©´∑´{´” ∏¨´§Ê∑´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. °mˆW F´I≥´Úˆ´ ˆ„·ƒ´Ì ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´z´Œˆ´ ˆ„}°¶ ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´v˛ ~ÊLtƒ´I ˙´©´≠ ~ÊLtˆ„y ÏÕ∆F´‚ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^∑´˙´t∑´{´©´”≠ F´«~„}≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´G¨´‘∑´{´©´”≠ X·pß, F´v≥ÊÚÏ≥´”ƒ´ ≥Êx˙´m˙´vbtƒ´©´”≠ B„Xm|¨„. ^m∑´∑´{´©´”≠ u∑´X∫¶≥´∏B´”¨´” ^S¨´ƒÊ ^ƒ´I∑´{´” F´vX·Lˆ´ÏÌ˘ƒ„m¨Ê∑´ ˙„∑„¨´”Bʈ´∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MW u{´fl~´”ƒ´ L©´~´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¯˘@” ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ Ï¥[©´≠ ˙´˙´x∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ≥´mJU≥´∏B´”¨´”. F´‘fiʃ´”ˆÊ‘ ˚´@”MW ˙´˙´x∑´{´” ˚´@”MW©´ ±m˙´‘ˆ´ ≥´mJ¿©„@”©´”≠ ^¯˘ ©´˚„@””˛Ú~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Ì≥´ˆ„y ≥´Xˆ´ÚƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ∏¨´§Ê≈”≥´Ó„·ˆ„· B„X~´˙´” "^m∑´∑´{´ B„≥´~´”'∑´{´©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ß ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´©´”≠ ƒÊtsÊt`≥´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘. ˆ„̃´I ~ÊLt∑´{´” ^m∑´∑´{´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^m∑´¨´ B„≥´‘©´ "^◊|ˆ´…˙´' ƒ´””¨„v@” ^∑´˙´t∑´ª∑„ ^©´”∑´”wƒÊfl BÊ∑´X ^¨´©´”≠ ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„≥´”ƒ´ ‘·˛@”¯˘, Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´©´”≠ ^m∑´∑´{´©Ê≠◊¨´‘ß, Ï¥Ó´eß, °mˆWF´I≥´Úˆ´¨´≥´x~´XF´¨´ƒÊt°Ú@”§„˘·ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´±”y@”©´”≠ƒ´G¶¨„.`LƒÊ¨´›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´” ^S¨´ƒÊ e§„˘@” ∑Ê˙´vƒ´©´”≠ F´‘∑´]ß ˚´@”MW©´ ß∏»m|@” ≥´ms„t@”¯˘ ƒ´G¶¨´ ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„∑´{´” Ù˙Êt|@”©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ß Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´©´”≠ F´I©´~W Ïm∑´¶≥´”ƒ´ ˆÊ@”Œƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´G¶”· ÙÌ˘. uMÊ‚~„ ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„∑„ ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„ ~ÊLt∑´{´¯˘ L˚´˙´x ƒ„”}∑´X¶¨„ n©´”≠ƒ´m˙Êfl¨„. ≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„@” ^∑´˙´tϨ„, “ˆ„m¨´~„ ß∏»m| ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^ƒ´~´ ϨÊtB´Œ˙„∑´{´”/F´‘w˛∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú um¨´” ≥Êx@”˙´Ú ≥´m≥„a@Gfl ˚´@”MW©´ F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ˆÊ@”ŒƒÊt°Ú≈”m¨´ ~´XF´I∑„Xm˚´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ª∑´”wƒÊfl˚´@”MW©´±m˙´‘ˆ´≥´mJ¿©„@G∑´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. ‡‘·˛@”©´ƒ´”t˙„≈”m¨´e§„˘∑„ F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊ¨´ ^∑´˙´t∑´{´” BÊ∑´X Ï›Ê~´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ∑´ƒ´”©´ ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´‘≥´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. V¨Ê: œ”˙´”ƒ´G©´∑´ª∑´©´”∑´”wƒÊfl ƒ´Ì≥„ B„X·∑´”ƒ´ F„«·∆F´ˆ´~´ ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ Õˆ´¸wˆ„y ∑´ƒ´”©´ˆ„X˚´Ì” um¨´” ^m∑´ ^S¨´ƒÊ ±|ƒÊß ≥´ƒ´””¨Ê@”¨´ ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ∏∑„∫ ˆÊ{´eƒ´˜≥´Ì” um¨´” ^m∑´. Ùm˙´B´ ∏¨´§Ê¨´ X·L©„∑´{´©´”≠ ≥´ˆÊ~´wƒÊfl σ´‘ß ˆ„·m¨´vƒ´©´”≠ ≥´mF´qŒß¨´~„, ^ƒ´I∑´{´©´”≠ ^©´”ƒ„X·|ß, F´v˛ ˚´@”MW∑„ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ˆ„·m¨´v ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” ¨„X~´ˆ´”ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 8
  9. 9. ›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.2 ≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ :≥Êmßaˆ´ ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ©´ƒ´”t˙„ : ±m◊¨´vF´v¨„·z´¨´¯˘˚´@”MWß∏»m|@”©´”≠zʧ„@”F´vƒ´””_Ï∆F´@”ˆ„¸·˙´v∑´{ʨ´¥ÓÊ∆F„,∑´]˙´,ϺÊÛ©´, ≥´ƒ´GL,^◊¨´t@”©´,ˆ´§„,~´m∑´¥Ó´XÏ”ƒ´””m˙ʨ´ƒ´©´”≠±◊¨´‘ß±”yƒ´G¶,≥´mJU≥´§Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. nÌ˘~´X ˚´@”MW©´ ÏÏ◊¨´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ª∑„ ˙´ƒ´”Z ˆ„X˚´”∑„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”˙ÊÚ~„. ≥„·ƒÊ F´«ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w, ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´”, F´Ô~´tˆ´vƒ´”¨´ ƒ´≥´”ÚÏ©´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H, ƒ´hEÌtƒ´GF´©´ Ù˙Êt|. ƒ´”BÊ~Ê∆F´Ã¨´¯˘˚´@”MW©´¯˘ˆ„·ƒ´Ì©ÊÌ”y^m∑´∑´ªƒ„:≥„·ƒÊF´«ƒ´Œƒ´”˙´”Ú≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊|Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´Õˆ´¸w, F´Ô~´tˆ´vƒ´”¨´ ƒ´≥´”ÚÏ©´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´hEÌtƒ´GF´©´, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ˙´m˙´vºÊÛ©´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú X·L©Ê `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ±˚´ª˙´. ƒ´”◊¨´tF´v¨„·z´¨´¯˘ ˚´@”MW©´ ^m∑´∑´{´¯˘ Ùƒ´I ≥„·‘ƒ„ : ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„¸·˙´v F´vqv”, e§Ê˘ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ J¿ˆ´, X·L©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú `ƒ´ŒB´fi„, ©´Ï·©´ ‘·˛@” ≥´mX·L©„, ≥´mF´ˆ´Œ ƒ´G◊¨´tƒ´”∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸w ˙´m˙´vºÊÛ©´, ˆÊ@GŒ©´”¥Ó´ƒ´©´, F´Ô~´tˆ´vƒ´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ´¯ˆÊ ƒ´≥´”Ú∑´{´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H Ï◊¨Ê©´∑´{´” ƒ´G˙´”Ú ƒ´hEÌtƒ´GF´©´, ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ˆÊyfl Õˆ´¸w, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´ÌBÊ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´z´Œ©´, ¨„}˜ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w, ˆ´§„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Em¨´@GŒ©´”¥Ó´ƒ´ Õˆ´¸w. [ˆ´©„·~W©´ ˚´@”MW©´¯˘ §„X·ˆ´ Lm∏”zW ^ƒ´◊|@”¯˘, Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ˙´~´Ó„·˛@”¯˘ ^m∑´∑´{´©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ߨ´ ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´|m¨´, ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´¨´ F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ≥´mX·L©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛@” ∑´”‘∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛@” `ƒ´ŒB´fi„@”m˙´B´ ≥´~´{´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´¯˘ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´ª∑„ ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ÏÌ˘¨´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„ n©´”≠ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ FÊvmz´”FÊÌ~´” ˆ´m˚´”ˆ„Xm˚´~´”.L©´~´¯˘¨´¤"^m∑´∑´{´ƒ´tqÚ˙´x∑´{´”'ƒ´”˙´”Ú"^m∑´∑´{´©Ê≠◊¨´‘ߨ´'∑´”‘∑´{´©´”≠F´ˆ´yˆ„y≥´‘ߨ´ ˆ´X˚´§„· ˙´~´Ó„·˛@” ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ ≥´”◊¨Ê‘ß˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛@” F´‘ˆ´ÌN©„@”©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´ BÊ∑´X ^{´ƒ´¶≥´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ n§Ê˘ Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´ ƒ´…m¨´ uMÊ‚fl ≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ∑´ƒ´”©´B´‘ߨ´~´”. ˆ´©ÊŒ¿ˆ´¨´¯˘ e§Ê˘ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ J¿ˆ´ƒ´©´”≠ e§Ê˘ ≥ʈ´¸~´˙„ ≥´Ï”˛Xm|∑„ ≥„·‘≥´§Ê≈”˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú "ˆÊ@GŒ©´”¥Ó´ƒ´'J¿ˆ´¨´∏¨´§Êfl"∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´J¿ˆ´'∏m˙´”. Ù¨´”~ÊLt¨´∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ƒ´hEÌtƒ´GF´©´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„aXm|∑„ `ˆ´¿ƒÊfl ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´m˙Ê≈”˙´”. n©W nn≥Wƶn≥WÙ±~WU ≥´mX·L©„@”¯˘ ›Êƒ´”~ÊL©´∑´~´ ˚´@”MW ˙´©´≠ e§„˘∑„ F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊfl ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ um¨´” "±|ƒÊß ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ Õˆ´¸w ^m∑´' ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú e§Ê˘ ≥´mF´©´XZÌ J¿ˆ´¨´¶@”¯˘ um¨´” "≥´mF´©´XZÌ J¿ˆ´'ƒ´©´”≠ FÊv~´m¥[ß˙´”. 9
  10. 10. ›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3›Eˆ´¿”‚ 2.3 * ˚´@”MW∑„ Ó„m∏̃´©´”≠ 3 X·L©Êƒ´◊|∑´{´ƒ´~„∑„ Ïßڑߨ´~´X, ~ÊLt∑´ª∑„ ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑Êfl ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@”ƒ´©´”≠ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„≥´”ƒ´¥Ó´~´ƒ´≥„ÙÌ˘. B„p–©´~ÊLt∑´{´B´wˆÊß©´ßa˛ƒ´”˙´”Ú^ßa~´˙„@”©´”≠ ∑´ƒ´”`ߨÊ∑´ ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” zÊz´x˙´ƒÊ¨´ƒ´I nm¨´” ¥ÓÊÏß X·e≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ˆ´∆F´‚ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. * ~ÊLt∑´{´^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´¨´¯˘◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@”ƒ´I`∑´|˙´ƒÊfl¨„X~„˛Ì˘(Ï{´m∏ƒÊfl¨„)ƒ´”˙´”Úe§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ B´w¨´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ BÊ∑´X ∏{´ˆ„ ≥´B´ ≥Êm¨´¥[Œˆ´ƒÊfl¨„. * °mˆWF´I≥´Úˆ´¨´`@”ƒ´”∑´ª∑„B„X~´˙Êfl©´˚„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ƒ´”˙´”Ú§„ˆ´yF´˙´v∑´{´^©´”ƒ„X·¨´©„@”¯˘ Ï{´m∏ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´”mMÊflƒ„. BÊ∑Êfl ~´X°ß~´”ƒ´ `@”ƒ´”∑´{´ ƒÊt°Ú ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~´›´©„@” Ï”˛@”¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´” u{„ @”¨´”. * ˚´@”MW∑„ ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~ÊLt∑´{´ ©´˚´”Ï©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´Ï~´”ƒ´I¨´” ˆ„¸·˙´v Õˆ´¸w¨´ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ ±¨Ê@” ƒ„›´–∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú §„ˆ´yF´˙´v∑´{´ Ï›Ê~´¨´¯˘ ƒ´G˙´v. ˆ„¸·˙´v Õˆ´¸w ˆ„·m¨´vƒ´I FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ≥ʃ´Œ˛v·ˆ´~´wX·L©„@”©´”≠F´v›´”~´F´¶ß¨´~´X,^¨´©´”≠≥Ê◊|≥´”ƒ´`U‚©´¯˘‡≥´m≥„a@””ƒ´”B´˙´x¨´ FÊ˙´v ƒ´˜≥´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´¯˘ ±≥´qÚ ƒ´˜≥´¯Ì˘. * ˆ„·m¨´v `∑´◊|F´¶ß~´”ƒ´ B´wƒ´I Ùm˙´B´ ≥´m≥„a∑„ Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”ƒ´ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ≥Eˆ´@”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´Ì” ≥ʈÊ∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. 11©„· X·L©„@”¯˘ ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ Ó„m∏̃´©´”≠ ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„, ˆ„·m¨´vƒ´I ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ Ù©´X≠ V˙´Úƒ´”ƒÊ¨´ ≥´ˆÊ~Ê˙´Zˆ´ FÊ˙´v ƒ´˜≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´”©„X·¥Óʃ´ƒ´©´”≠ ˙„X·~´”ƒ´I¨´” ^`ƒÊ@”ŒƒÊfl¨„. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ 11©„· X·L©„@”¯˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ Ó„m∏¯≥´Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|HF´¶≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´Ì” z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´ÌBÊ ∑´”mF´©´”≠ ˆ„·m¨´v¨´¯˘ ~´p≥´”ƒ´ F´v≥ÊÚƒ´©„ ƒ´G˚´§Êfl¨„. Ù¨´” : * ≥„·ƒÊF´«ƒ´Œ˙´~´Ó„·˛@”©´”≠∏ÌF´¶≥´”ƒ´I¨´”,≥´BÊ@”ˆ´Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´≥´mˆ´∆F´‚¨´F´‘ßa˛∑„F´v˛qv≈”≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„¸·˙´vƒ´”¿‚¨´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ F´‘Õ∆F´‚ ºÊ˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´‘Õ∆F´‚ ∑´”mF´I BÊ∑´X ^ÌN≥´msÊt˙´ ≥´aª·@” Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ um¨´” ƒ´∑´Œƒ´©´”≠ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. 10
  11. 11. * B„p–©´ ≥´ms„t@” ƒ´”˙´”Ú B´ÌƒÊ~´” ∏∑„@” ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ˆ„X·≥´”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| ˙´~´Ó„·˛@”©´”≠ ∏ÌF´¶≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ˙ʃ„· ±”y ƒ´G˚´Ì” ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´” (B„X·M„§W∑´{´¯˘~´”ƒ´m˙„), Ù¨´©´”≠ ƒ´G˜˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´mƒ´B´©´ ˙´m˙´vºÊÛ©´¨´ ( ßU) ≥´Xˆ´Ú ∏{´ˆ„ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ≥´B´ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”. * Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´ ß∏»m|∑„ F´I©´z„–·˙´©´ ˆ„X·≥´”Œ∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ„·˙´©´∑´{´©´”≠ `·˚´”ƒ´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ^ƒ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„@”©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ Ó„m∏Ì `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ≥´aª·@” F´‘≥´~´ˆ„y F´«~´ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´ ƒ´≥´”Ú∑´{´¯˘ ˙„X˚´flˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒƒ´©´”≠ ≥´¨´…‹˚´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´”, Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl ≥´m∏m◊|˙´ ¥ÓÊ∆FÊ Ó„X·◊¨´©Ê Ï◊¨Ê©´∑´{´©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ´∑´{´¯˘ Ïz´xϨÊtÌ@”∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„~´˚´X ˙„X˚´flˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´”. F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ˙Êw BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ˙Êw BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ˙Êw BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ˙Êw BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ˙Êw BÊ∑´X Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ : ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t∑´{´ F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ≥Êmßaˆ´ ±¨´t˙„ ^ƒ´I∑´{´§„˘· B´”¨´”fl~´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. ^Ì˘¨„ ^ƒ´I ~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ˆÊ@”Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ±¨´t˙„∑´ª∑„ F´«~´ˆ´ƒÊfl~´Ó„·ˆ´”. e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ e§Ê˘ Õˆ´¸w X·L©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú e§Ê˘ ƒÊt°Ú@” ¨´˙ÊÚmz´∑´{´ (Õˆ´¸w `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ ƒ´G˜˛ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a) ›Eˆ´U‚©´¯˘ Ù¨´” Ù˙´~´ e§Ê˘ ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|∑„ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 3.13.13.13.13.1 n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”m˚´ª) º„X˙„ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”m˚´ª) º„X˙„ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”m˚´ª) º„X˙„ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”m˚´ª) º„X˙„ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´”m˚´ª) º„X˙„ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n©WßÙ±~WU@” ©„·~´ƒÊ¨´ ±˚´ª˙´ˆ„y u{´F´U‚ƒ„. ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆ„Ì≥´≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n©WßÙ±~WU@” ©„·~´ƒÊ¨´ ±˚´ª˙´ˆ„y u{´F´U‚ƒ„. ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆ„Ì≥´≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n©WßÙ±~WU@” ©„·~´ƒÊ¨´ ±˚´ª˙´ˆ„y u{´F´U‚ƒ„. ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆ„Ì≥´≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n©WßÙ±~WU@” ©„·~´ƒÊ¨´ ±˚´ª˙´ˆ„y u{´F´U‚ƒ„. ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆ„Ì≥´≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n©WßÙ±~WU@” ©„·~´ƒÊ¨´ ±˚´ª˙´ˆ„y u{´F´U‚ƒ„. ≥´¨´t ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ˆ„Ì≥´ n©WßÙ±~WU ≈”m¨´ B´‘¨´”∏~´”˛Ú¨„.n©WßÙ±~WU ≈”m¨´ B´‘¨´”∏~´”˛Ú¨„.n©WßÙ±~WU ≈”m¨´ B´‘¨´”∏~´”˛Ú¨„.n©WßÙ±~WU ≈”m¨´ B´‘¨´”∏~´”˛Ú¨„.n©WßÙ±~WU ≈”m¨´ B´‘¨´”∏~´”˛Ú¨„. * ˚´@”MW ƒ´”¿‚¨´§„˘· ≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„@”©´”≠ F„«v·˙Ê√˜≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆÊyfl n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U.∑´{´” ˚´@”MW∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ z„v·]·ˆ´…˙´ƒ´Ì˘¨´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´|m¨´ ¨´X~´ ≥´‘¨´”, ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ƒ´tqÚ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„@”©´”≠F„«v·˙Ê√˜≥´Ì”ƒ´”˙´”ÚF„«·∆°≥´Ì”^ƒ´I∑´{´©´”≠Ó„m∏¯≥´”ƒ´BÊ∑´X≥´”∑´ƒ´”∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´ FÊ˙´vƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´˜≥´Ó„·ˆ´”. 11
  12. 12. * n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. ≥´ƒ´””¨Ê@”ˆ„y um¨´” ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ ƒ„·|ˆ„@”©´”≠ u¨´flß, zʧ„∑´{´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B´ÌƒÊ~´” ƒ´”◊¨´tm˙´~´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ßa˛@”©´”≠ F´‘Õ·¯≥´Ì” uMÊ‚∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”. Ù¨´‘m¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´ FÊvmz´”FÊÌ~´” ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ¨´…∆°‚≈”m¨´ ˚´@”MW©´ Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´ ß∏»m|Xm|∑„ F´~´≥´N~´ F´v˛qv≈”ß ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˛{´”ƒ´ªˆ„@”©´”≠ B´mpˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„.. * n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. ˚´@”MW©´ B´ÌƒÊ~´” z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ª∑„, Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„, Ïz„·∆F´ ƒ´”◊¨´tm˙´~´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ Ï©Êt≥´, ≥´aª·@” ≥´m∏m◊|˙´ ƒ´≥´”Ú∑´{´©´”≠ ^¥[ƒ´…|HF´¶≥´”ψ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´xF´vqv@G ≥„·ƒÊƒ´◊| Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´ª∑„ Ó„m∏Ì ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´‘]˙´ ƒ´G∑´Œ¨´z´Œ©´ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´∏B´”¨´”. Ù¨´” F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú ≥Êmßaˆ´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´‘∑„ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ÏÏ◊¨´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑„ ≥´B´ ±¨´t˙„ `·˚´∏B´”¨´”. * n≥W.ß.Ù.±~W.U. F„v·‘˙´ˆ„̃´IˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´”^S¨´ƒÊ˙´~´Ó„·˛Ï©Êt≥´∑´{´”/ƒ´G¨´‘∑´{´©´”≠ƒ´G˙´v ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ u¨´fl≥´Ó„·ˆ´”. ˚´@”MW ƒÊtsÊt©„@” ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ª∑„ B„›´”– ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒÊt°Ú ¨„X~´ˆ´Ó„·ˆ´”. * ˚´@”MW Ùm˙´B´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ƒ´©´”≠ n≥W. .Ù.nm.U.∑´{´ (~ÊLt Õˆ´¸w `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ≥´m≥„a) º„X˙„ ≥´B´ B„Xm|~´∏B´”¨´”. 3.23.23.23.23.2 e§„˘@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :e§„˘@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :e§„˘@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :e§„˘@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :e§„˘@” Ù˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ : e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ Õˆ´¸w ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ `◊¨ÊŒ~´ ˙„∑„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ƒ´ F´vƒ´””_ ˙Êw∑´ªm¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” σ´””_ƒÊfl, ¨´X~´≥´‘|~´”ƒ´m˙´B´ƒ´”©„X·¥Óʃ´Ï¨„. ¥ÓÊ∑´z´:‡≥´ƒ´”≥„tF´¨´Ï˙´~´∑´˛∑´ª∑„F´vƒ„·z´F´˚„@””ƒ´≥´ƒ´”@”¨´§„˘· ∏…B´©´ZÔ¿‚¨´Õˆ´¸wˆ„¸·˙´v|m¨´F´v˙„t·ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´nÌ˘Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´Õˆ´¸w≥´m≥„a∑´{´¨Ê¤fl¨„.±¨´~„,Ù¨´X≥´B´˚´@”MW©´ "ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„@” ÏiF´Ì˙„' nm∏ ∑´v˜ˆ„≈”m¨´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´” Õˆ´¸w ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@” F´‘◊|@”¯˘ Vª|~´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨Êfl¨„. 12
  13. 13. ˚´@”MW ‡ σ´””_˙„≈”m¨´ B„X~´∏m¨´” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸wˆ„y ˆ„X˚´”∑„ `·˚´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´©´”≠ ~´X°≥´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ BÊ∑´X ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ ≥´ƒ´Œ˙„X·ƒ´””_ ^¥[ƒ´…|H@”¯˘ ˙„X˚´fl~´”ƒ´ Ù˙´~„ e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{„Xm|∑„ ≥´qv@”ƒÊfl qv@GÕ·Ì ≥´m∏m◊¨´ƒ´©´”≠ Ó„{„≥´Ó„·ˆ´”. ˆ„·~´{´¨´¯˘ e§Ê˘ F´‘∆F´˙W©´ e§Ê˘ Õˆ´¸w ^m∑´ƒ´I ˚´@”MW∑´{´” ƒ´~´|∑´{´©´”≠ ≥´¯˘≥´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G¶¨„. ‡ ‘·˛@” e§Ê˘F´‘∆F´˙WÕˆ´¸wÏ›Ê~´∑´{´¯˘,Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊflFÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸wˆ„y≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„˙„X˚´fl߈„X{´” ƒ´F´vqv” nÌ˘ ~ÊLt∑´{´¯˘ FÊv~´m¥Ó´ƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MW∑´{´X ≥´B´ ™F´›Ê‘ˆ´ƒÊfl e§Ê˘ F´‘∆F´˙W º„X˙„ Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl Õˆ´¸w¨´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ˆ„y ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´¯˘ F´~´≥´N~´ F´v˛qv≈”≥´Ì” FÊv~´m¥[ߨ„. FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ^©„·ˆ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´{´¯˘ ˆ´X˚´ ^m˙´~W Ù§Ês„ ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´¨´ ^∑´˙´tϨ„. ≥´ˆÊŒ‘ Ù§Ês„∑´{´¯˘ Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl ≥´ƒ´GL ˆ´§Êtw, ∏”˚´ˆ´¿”‚ L©Êm∑´ ˆ´§Êtw, ^ÌN≥´msÊt˙´~´ Õˆ´¸w, ƒ´”˜{„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´”ˆ´y{´”, ±~„X·∑´t, qv·˚„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú @””ƒ´L©Êm∑´ Ù§Ês„∑´{´” ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ Ù§Ês„∑´{Êfl¨´”¤, ˚´@”MW Ùƒ´I∑´{´ º„X˙„ F´~´≥´N~´ F´v˛qv≈”≥´”ƒ´ ˆÊ@”Œƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ^∑´˙´t BÊ∑´X ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„≈”¨„. Ù¨´‘m¨´ V˙´Úƒ´” ≥ʃ´”~´≥´t¨´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú LmU ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„@” ˆ„X˚´”∑„ zʧ„∑´ª∑„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´”ˆ´yª∑„ ¨„X~„˙´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H@” ±¨´t˙„@”©´”≠ B„Xm|~´”ƒ´ ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ e§Ê˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ≥´mJ∑´{´”, [.n˚W. ƒ´”˙´”Ú¶.n˚W.ˆÊ§„·L”∑´{´m˙´B´Õˆ´¸ˆ´^¥[ƒ´…|Hˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´”ƒ´”˙´”ÚÏz´xϨÊtÌ@”¨´Õˆ´¸wÏ¥ÓÊ∑´∑´{„Xm|∑„ ™F´›Ê‘ˆ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´©´”≠ B„Xm|~´”ƒ´I¨´” ≥´B´ ^`ƒÊ@”ŒƒÊfl¨„. "ÓÊÌ ˆÊÏ”Œˆ´~´”', "ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ B´ˆ´”y∑´{´”', "^m∑´Ïˆ´Ì˙„' ƒ´””m˙ʨ´ Ï›Ê~´∑´ª∑„ ≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´m˙„ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´Ì˘¨„, Ù©´X≠ B´ÌƒÊ~´” ~Ê∆°Ã·@” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„̃„«ƒ„”Z ^m˙´~´~Ê∆°Ã·@” ≥´m≥„a∑´{´X ˆ´X˚´ B„›´”– B„›´”– e§„˘@”¯˘ ƒ´tƒ´B´‘≥´”˛Ú¨´”¤, Ùƒ´I∑´{„X˚´©„ e§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ™F´›Ê‘ˆ´ƒÊfl F´~´≥´N~´ F´v˛qv≈”≥´”ƒ´m˙ʨÊ∑´, ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^ƒ´~´ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´{´ ©´˚´”ƒ„ F´~´≥´N~´ F´vX·L©´ƒÊ¨´m˙Ê∑´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘¨„ ^©´∑´˙´t ˆ„Ì≥´∑´{´ F´I©´~ʃ´˙´Œ©„ ^S¨´ƒÊ Ï~´”¨´H V¨„¤·z´∑´ªm¨´ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ ˙´°N≥´∏B´”¨´”. e§„˘@” V©´≠˙´ Õˆ´¸w ≥´m≥„a∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´qv@” ≥´B´X·∑´¨´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´ Ï∆F´@”ˆ„y ∏m¨Ê∑´, Ù¨´‘m¨´ ≥´B´ ˚´@”MW ˆÊ@”Œ∑´{´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ¨´…∆°‚ Ï≥´Â˙´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 13
  14. 14. ›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.1 e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ :e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ :e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ :e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ :e§„˘@” ≥´mF´©´XZÌ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºĘ̂´ ~´›´©„ : ∑´”L~Ê˙W©´¯˘ F´v˛Xm¨´” ˚´@”MW um¨´” F´‘ßa˛@” ^◊¨´t@”©´ƒ´©´”≠ ˆ„}∑„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ F„«v·˙Ê√≈”≥´§Ê≈”˙´”. ‡ ^◊¨´t@”©´¨´¯˘ ≥´aª·@” Õˆ´¸w ˆÊ§„·L”∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ù§Ês„∑´{´ Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´” ˙„X˚´flˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G¶¨´~´”. Ù¨´‘m¨´ ‡ n~´˚´X ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ©´˚´”ƒ„ F´~´≥´N~´ F´v˛qv≈”≥´”ƒ´I¨´X B„›Ê–≈”˙´”. ƒ´””m¨„ ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„≈”m¨´ B„X≥´ ∏∑„@” ƒ´”◊¨´tm˙´~´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ƒ´~„∑„, ÏÏ◊¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´¯˘ B„p–©´ F´v˛qv”∑´{´ ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑„ ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ƒÊ≈”˙´”. ±m◊¨´vF´v¨„·z´¨´¯˘ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ B´ˆ´”y∑´{´ ƒ„·|ˆ„@Gfl, ^©„·ˆ´ ©´ƒ´©´Ï·©´ƒÊ¨´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú≥´…L©´Õ·Ìpm˙´©„∑´{´˙Êwƒ„m¨´”F´‘∑´]˙´ƒÊ¨´ƒ´I. FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸w¨´≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„∑Êfl©„·~´ƒÊfl ≥´m∏m◊¨´ B„Xm|~´”ƒ´m˙´B´ ˆ„Ì≥´∑´{´” ©´˚„@””˛Ú¨„. ™F´›Ê‘ˆ´ƒÊfl Ùm˙´B´ ƒ„·|ˆ„∑´{´¯˘ ˙„X˚´flˆ„Xm¶~´”ƒ´ ˚´@”MW Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´ ƒ´…m¨´ˆ„y F´vX·L©´ƒÊfl¨„@”Ì˘¨„, ^ƒ´~´X ≥´B´ ˆ„X˚´”∑„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”ƒ´m˙Êfl¨„. 3.33.33.33.33.3 [ ±~W ß∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß ±~Wß∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´” :[ ±~W ß∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß ±~Wß∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´” :[ ±~W ß∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß ±~Wß∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´” :[ ±~W ß∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß ±~Wß∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´” :[ ±~W ß∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß ±~Wß∑´{„X˚´©„ Ù~´”ƒ´ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´” : ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{„X˚´©„ ˚´@”MW∑´{´” n∆F´‚~´ƒ´”U‚∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ƒ´©´”≠ B„Xm|~´Ó„·ˆ´” n©´”≠ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ ¥[©Ê≠¥[FÊv@”∑´ªƒ„. ›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.2›Eˆ´¿”‚ 3.2 ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `@”m˙´vw|m¨´ B„p–©´ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `@”m˙´vw|m¨´ B„p–©´ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `@”m˙´vw|m¨´ B„p–©´ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `@”m˙´vw|m¨´ B„p–©´ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `@”m˙´vw|m¨´ B„p–©´ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨„· ?≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨„· ?≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨„· ?≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨„· ?≥Êmßaˆ´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´∏B´”¨„· ? F´v≥´”Ú˙´ ˆ„¸·˙´v ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∑´”mF´I ≥´mF´©´XZÌ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´ª∑„ ˙´~´Ó„·˛∑Êfl u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´¨´ ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@”ƒ´©´”≠ ˚´@”MW ƒ´”Ẍ´ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´” n©´”≠ƒ´ pm˙´©„@Gfl¨„. BÊ∑„”· ‡ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ ƒ´~´| `·˚´”ƒ´ Ï◊¨Ê©´∑´{´©´X≠ ≥´B´ ˚´@”MW©´ ≥´B´ˆÊ~´¨´¯˘ ±∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ„m∏ Ó„·¶ˆ„≈”¨„. ƒ„X¨´Ì” ‡ ˆ„·m¨´v∑´{´ ß∏»m|@” ƒ„·˙´©´ƒ´©´”≠ ˚´@”MW ƒ´”Ẍ´ Fʃ´˛≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. Ùm˙´B´ B´wˆÊ≥´”ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´≥´ƒ´”©´x@”˙„ƒ„”·§„@Gƒ´F´v¥Óʃ´ƒ´©´X≠[·‘¨´m˙Ê∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ˆ„·ƒ´Ì ≥´m≥„a@” ±˚´ª˙´ B„X~„ ºÊßÚ@G∑´∏B´”¨´”. ≥Êmßaˆ´ ¨´X~´¨´ÕŒ˙´x ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x∑´{´” B„›´”– ƒ´””_t nm¨„`≥´∏B´”¨´”. 14
  15. 15. 3.43.43.43.43.4 Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ :Ù˙´~´ ˆ„·m¨´v FÊvX·e˙´ X·L©„∑´{„Xm|fl©´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ : B„›´”–ˆ´¶ƒ„”±m◊¨´vF´v¨„·z´ƒ´©´”≠B„X~´˙´”F´¶ßÏ”ˆ´y˚´@”MW∑´{´”e§Ê˘FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸wX·L©„@” ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´¯˘ ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”∑„Xm¶Ì˘. ˜·∑„ ~ÊLt ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”¶@”¯˘, e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ e§„˘∑„ ÏÕ∆F´‚ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´m˙„ FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ƒ´tƒ´ßa˙´ƒÊfl ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”∑„Xm¶Ì˘. F´«wŒƒÊt° ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”¨´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ˆ´¯ˆÊ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ó„X·◊¨´ˆ´~´ ^¥[ƒ´…|H BÊ∑´X ≥Êmßaˆ´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´©´”≠ F´«~„}≥´∏B´”¨´”. ≥´¨´t≥´ƒ´ŒÕˆ´¸w^¥[@G©´,z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´Ï›Ê~´∑´ª∑„±¨´t˙„`·˚´”ƒ´^ƒ´ˆÊz´ƒ´©´”≠u¨´flߨ„. ^©„·ˆ´ ~ÊLt∑´{´¯˘ ≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´ ©ÊÏ·©´t˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„X≥´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ Ï©Êt≥´¨´ ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„∑„ ^ƒ´ˆÊz´ƒ´G¶ˆ„XU‚¨„@”Ì˘¨„ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@” `U‚©´¯˘ ≥´qv@”ƒÊfl ˙„X˚´flˆ„X{´” ƒ´∆F´”‚Ó„{„|¨„.e§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘≥´ƒ´ŒÕˆ´¸w^¥[@G©´ƒÊ∆°ŒˆÊ@”ŒX·L©„∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˚´@”MW∑´{´”, Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´ Õˆ´¸wƒ´©´”≠ ‡∑´ B„›´”– ƒ´tƒ´ßa˙´ƒÊfl ≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´¨´ ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´¨´¯˘ ≥„·‘≥´§Êfl¨„. ‡ ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”ƒ´I B„›´”– @Gm˛vˆ´ƒÊ∑´˙„X˚´fl¨„ (V¨Ê: ˆ„¸·˙´vƒ´”¿‚¨´ ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ƒ´””m˙ʨ´ƒ´I∑´ª∑„ ˚´@”MW∑´{´©´”≠ ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@”¨´ ƒ´G∑´Œƒ´©Ê≠fl ƒ´G˚´§Êfl¨„). uMÊ‚~„ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ^∑´˙´t∑´{´ F´vƒ´””_ ^mz´ƒÊfl Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Õˆ´¸w¨´ ƒ„”·¯~´”ƒ´ F´«wŒƒÊt° u˙´Ú˚´ƒ´©´”≠ (∏…B´©´Z¿‚¨´ ˙´~´Ó„·˛@”©´”≠ B„X~´˙´”F´¶ß). ≥´ƒ´ŒÕˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´¨´ ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´¨´ ˆ„·m¨´v[m¨´”ƒ´©Ê≠fl ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. Ù¨´ˆÊyfl ˚´@”MW∑´{´” B„›´”– ƒ´tƒ´ßa˙´ƒÊfl ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚¨´ ≥´”◊¨Ê~´fi„@”¯˘ ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”∑„X{´ Ó„·ˆ´Ì˘¨„ ^ƒ´I um¨´” V¨„¤·z´ƒÊfl ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´©´ƒÊfl ƒ´GF´Œ˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. ≥´m≥„a∑„ Ù¨´‘m¨´ "≥´m∏m◊¨´' B„Xm¨´”ƒ´ `U‚©´¯˘ ∏B´{´ ^∑´˙´tÏ~´”ƒ´ ^ƒ´ˆÊz´∑´{´” ¨„X~„˙´m˙Êfl, ^¨´~´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´¯˘ ±¨´t˙„@”©´”≠ B´”˚´”ˆ´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´ ˚´@”MW©´”≠ um¨´” F´vƒ´””_ ≥´m≥„a@Gfl F´‘∑´]ß, ^¨´©´”≠ |·JŒˆÊ¯ˆ´ ±◊¨Ê~´ƒÊfl~´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´~´ ƒ´””_t F´v@”˙´≠∑´{´” F´«wŒƒÊt° ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”˙„@”©´”≠ ≥Ê◊|≥´”ƒ´m˙„ Ó„{„≥´Ó„·ˆ´”. 15
  16. 16. VII. ≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ?≥´B´X·∑´∑´{´” : “ˆ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„·∑„ ? ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ ™F´›Ê‘ˆ´ ≥´X˙´v∑´{´ Ï”˛@”¯˘ Ï¥[©´≠ ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ~´›´©„∑´{„Xm|∑„ ˆ„Xm¶∑´{´©´”≠ `Ï”Œßˆ„X{´ Ó„·ˆÊ¨´ ^∑´˙´t B„›Ê–∑´”˛Ú¨„. * ˙´ƒ´”Z ˆ´ƒ´›´|m¨´ B„X~´∏~´Ì” * F´v≥´”Ú˙´Ï~´”ƒ´ ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” ^∑´˙´t∑´ª∑„ F´«~´ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´Ì” * F´‘w˙´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ ß∏»m| Ó„m∏̃´©´”≠ F´˚„@”Ì” BÊ∑´X ≥´ƒ´”˙„X·Ì©´∑„Xª≥´Ì” * ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”∑´{´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Êmßaˆ´ F´I©´z„–·˙´©´ˆ„y ≥´Ï”ZÌ©´¨´ ›„·˙´©´ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”X¶≥´Ì”. Ùm˙´B´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ∏B´”ƒ´””o ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” ≥´m≥„a∑´{Êfl~´∏B´”¨´” (^m˙´~´~Ê∆°Ã·@” ≥´m≥„a@” ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ Õˆ´¸w `◊|, ^m˙´~´~Ê∆F´Ã ^¥[ƒ´…|H∑Êfl~´”ƒ´ Ù§Ês„, (Dept. for International Development - DFID), Õˆ´¸w ƒ´”m˚´ª∑´{´”, Ïz´xÓÊtmˆW Ù˙Êt|), ©Ê∑´‘ˆ´ ≥´ƒ´GL ~´›´©„∑´{´” (F„«·∆F´ˆ´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ≥´mJ∑´{´”, zÊ§Ê ^¥[ƒ´…|H ƒ´”˙´”Ú `ƒ´ŒB´fiÊ ≥´Ï”˛∑´{´”, ∑Êvƒ´” Õˆ´¸w ≥´Ï”˛∑´{´”, @””ƒ´ˆ´~´ ≥´mJ∑´{´”, ≥´xÆ≥´BÊ@” ∑´”mF´I∑´{´” Ù˙Êt|) ψ„·m|v·ˆ´~´w∑„Xm˚´›´”©Ê≈”˙´≥´Ï”˛∑´{´”(‡≥´Ï”˛∑´ª∑„≥´m∏m◊|ߨ´F´m›Ê@”˙W~ʺW≥´m≥„a∑´{´”ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Êa≈” ≥´Ï”˛∑´{´”), ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´”, Ïz´xϨÊtÌ@”∑´{´”, ≥´mz„X·◊¨´©Ê ≥´m≥„a∑´{´”, V©´≠˙´ Õˆ´¸w ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” BÊ∑´X ¨Ê©´ ¨´˛Ú ≥´m≥„a∑´{´”. ±∑Ê∑„∫ ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ¨Ê©´¨´˛Ú ≥´m≥„a∑´{´X Õˆ´¸w¨´ q˘∆F´‚ F´‘ßa˛∑´{´©´”≠ `ƒÊ‘≥´”ƒ´ F´v@”˙´≠∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´Ì” ∏@”≥´”˙´Úƒ„. ±¨´~„ ^ƒ´~´ F´‘ˆ´ÌN©„@”¯˘ ˚´@”MW ≥„·‘~´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. Ù¨´” ≥ʃ´G©´tƒÊfl ≥´‘@Gfl ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´¨´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ^S¨´ƒÊ zʧ„ [¿‚ ƒ´”ˆ´y{´ ∏∑„∫ Ù~´”˙´Ú¨„. Ùƒ´I ƒ´hEÌt@””˙´ F´‘ˆ´ÌN©„∑´{„·©´” BE¨´”, ±¨´~„ Ùƒ´I F´«wŒƒÊt°Ú F´‘ˆ´ÌN©„∑´{´Ì˘. zʧ„∑´{´ Ï›Ê~´ˆ„y ∏m¨´~„ ^¯˘ ‡∑Ê∑´§„· n~´˚´” ¨´z´ˆ´∑´{´ ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´Ï¨„. Ù¨´©´”≠ ±◊¨´‘ß ‡ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´©´”≠ B„›´”– ^S¨´ŒF´«wŒƒÊfl ƒ´G˚´Ì” ©Êƒ´I ^ƒ´I∑´{„Xm|∑„ ˆÊ@”Œƒ„≥´∑´”ƒ´ ^∑´˙´t¨´ ∏∑„∫ ≥´xÌN ±{´ƒÊ¨´ ˛{´”ƒ´ªˆ„@”©´”≠ F´˚„@”Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊfl¨„. ±¨´~„ ©Êƒ´I Ù˙´~´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” Ïz„·∆F´ƒÊfl e§Ê˘ ^S¨´ƒÊ e§„˘flm˙´ ˆ„{´ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘~´”ƒ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ∏∑„∫ Ùm˙´B´ ˛{´”ƒ´ªˆ„@”©´”≠ F´˚„@”Ì” FÊv~´m¥[ߨ„¤·ƒ„ ^∆F„‚. FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„≈”m¨´ LmU ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ B„›´”–˙´Ú¨„. ±¨´~„ ^¨„· ≥´ƒ´”@”¨´¯˘ FÊÌ”¨Ê‘ˆ„@” V¨„¤·z´∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ÏÏ◊¨´FÊÌ”∑Ê~´~´FÊ˙´v∑´{´∏∑„∫≥´N∆F´‚˙„n∆F„X‚·≥´ÌÙÌ˘ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. z„v·]∑´{´”/^◊|ˆÊ~´^≥´ƒ´”˙„X·Ì©´∑´{´” ƒ„X¨´§„· ≥´‘@G∑´ `∆F´y∆F´ŒƒÊ∑´¨„ ^©„·ˆ´ FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ˆÊ˚´˙„X˚´∑´”˙´Úƒ„. 16
  17. 17. 7.37.37.37.37.3 FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” :FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” :FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” :FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” :FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´G©´ ^mz´∑´{´ ƒ„”·§„ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨´” : * FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„@”¯˘ "≥´ƒ´G©´˙„'@” ^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´ ∏B´{´ ƒ´””_t. @GƒÊ∑´ u∏» FÊÌ”¨Ê~´ ˙´©´≠ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´ ˆÊ@”Œƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”˙„XÚ∏» FÊÌ”¨Ê~´ ±ˆ´vϔ߈„X{´” ˛Ú¨Ê¤~„ nm¨´” ¥ÓÊÏ≥´”˙ÊÚ~„X·, ^¨´” ≥´ƒ´”≥Êt˙´Zˆ´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. @Gƒ´I¨„· ‘·˛@”¯˘ ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„@”Ì” ^©´”ˆ´mF´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´˙´˙´ F´‘z´vƒ´”∑´{´ ^∑´˙´tϨ„.ƒ´””ˆ´Úƒ´”©„X·¥Óʃ´,Ï©´@”,˙„X˚´fl߈„X{´” ƒ´Ù›„⁄∏B´{´ƒ´””_tƒÊ¨´^ƒ´z´tˆ´˙„∑´{Êflƒ„. ^Ì˘¨„ n~´˚´” Ï¥[©´≠ ≥´m≥´Q˛∑´{´” (≥´ˆÊŒ~´Æ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´¨´m˙´B´ƒ´I) ٨ʤ∑´, ©Êƒ´I ≥´m∏m◊¨´∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ´¯N≥´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Ù¨´” ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ì” um¨´” ˙´{´FÊ@”ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. * ≥´m≥„a@”¯˘ ^©„·ˆ´ ¥ÓÊfl·¨Ê~´‘~´”˙ÊÚ~„. Ùƒ´~´” B„X~´fl©´ƒ´~´” ^S¨´ƒÊ u{´fl©´ƒ´~Ê∑´∏B´”¨´”. ‡ ¥ÓÊfl·¨Ê~´~´©´˚´”Ï©´≥´m∏m◊¨´∑´{´”ƒ´”˙´”Ú‡≥´m∏m◊¨´∑´ªm¨Ê∑´”ƒ´F´vqv”∑´{´∏∑„∫≥´N∆F´‚˙„Ù~´Ó„·ˆ´”. * um¨´”ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘˙„X˚´fl߈„X{´” ƒ´≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒƒ´”˙´”Úƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”¯˘∑´”~´”˛ßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”©Ê©´”F´~´≥´N~´ n∆F´”‚ ≥´B´©´Õ·Ì~Êfl¨„¤·ƒ„ n©´”≠ƒ´I¨´qym˙´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ `LƒÊfl n∆F´”‚ ≥´m¥Ó´vÏ”≥´”˙„Ú·ƒ„n©´”≠ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y≥´m∏m◊|ß~´”˙´Ú¨„. um¨´”ˆ´˚„'≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´≥´m≥„a∑´{´”ºÊw~´”,ˆ´∆F´‚F´¿”‚ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ƒ´~´”, ≥´ˆÊŒ~´qym˙´ B„›´”– FÊvƒ´G]ˆ´~´”" ^S¨´ƒÊ ƒ´”˙„XÚm¨´” ˆ´˚„ "≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ ºÊ∑´¨´¯˘ Óʶ∑„≈”~´”ƒ´ƒ´~´” BÊ∑Êfl σ´”zÊŒ˙´Zˆ´ƒÊfl~´ÓÊ~´¨´”' n©´”≠ƒ´ ßa˛∑´{´” ≥´ƒ´”S¨´Œ`·@”ƒ´Ì˘, Ùm˙´B´”¨´©´”≠ ¨´X~´ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. * ≥´ˆÊŒ~´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´ˆÊŒ~„·˙´~´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ~´›´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ›Eˆ´¿”‚∑´{´” ˙´”mÓÊ Ï¥[©´≠ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ FÊÌ”∑Ê‘ˆ„ ¨´”≥´Ú~´ƒÊ¨´”¨´”. z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ "∑´”wƒ´”¿‚' n©´”≠ƒ´ pm˙´©„ n∆F„X‚· ≥´Ì ˆ„·ƒ´Ì ˆ„̃„· ƒ´”m| ^S¨´Œƒ´G¶ˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙´B´ ˆ´ÌN©„, ^Ì˘¨„ ≥ʃ´ŒL`ˆ´~´ uƒ´”Z˙´, ßx·ˆ´…˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^©´”∆FÊ•©´∑´ª∑´©´”∑´”wƒÊfl '∑´”wƒ´”¿‚'ƒ´©´”≠ ƒÊtsÊt`≥´”ƒ´ ≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ ≥´m≥„a∑´ª∑„ Ù¨´” ∏B´{´ ≥´ƒ´”@”ƒ´©´”≠ ˙„∑„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ƒ´ ˆ„Ì≥´. @Gƒ´I¨„· ≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”@” `∏Œm◊|˙´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^◊|ˆÊ~´ ƒ´”©„X·¥Óʃ´¨´ Ó„·¶ˆ„∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˚´@”MW©´ ß∏»m| BÊ∑´X ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@”∑´{´ |·JŒˆÊ¯·©´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´ªm¨Êfl ≥Êmßaˆ´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´” ∏¨´§Ê∑´∏B´”¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^ÌN ≥´ƒ´”@”¨´ ≥´X›´©„∑„ ^©´”≥Ê~´ƒÊflƒ´”~´”ƒÊtsÊt`≥´ÌN˚´∏B´”¨´”,^Ì˘¨„B„p–©´z´qÚn©´”≠ƒ´I¨´”^ÌN≥´xÌNÙ~´”˙´Ú¨„@”∆F„‚. "FÊÌ”¨Ê~´~´”' Õˆ´¸w¨´ z„v·]·ˆ´~´¨´w¨´ V©´≠˙´ ¨´º„Œ∑´ª∑„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^◊|ˆÊ~´ˆ„y F´vƒ„·z´ F´˚„@””ƒ´I¨´” Ï¥[©´≠ ‘·˛@”¨Êfl~´”˙´Ú¨„. ƒ„X¨´§„· Ùm˙´B´ ˆ„̃„«m¨´” ~´›´©Ê˙´Zˆ´ ƒ´t˙Êt≥´∑´{´©´”≠ ßx·ˆ´‘ߨ´~„ ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„@”^≥´ƒ´G©´˙„∑´{´∏∑„∫ƒ´G˙´©Ê˚´”ƒÊ∑´≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˆ„̃„«ƒ„”ZB„X~´fl`m¨´ ≥´B´X·∑´ `·˚´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ FÊÌ”∑Ê~´ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´©´”≠ ƒ´”~´”ƒÊtsÊt©´ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”ƒ´I¨´” ^`ƒÊ@”ŒƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 17
  18. 18. * Ïz„·∆F´ ˆ„¸·˙´v∑´{´ F´‘w˛Xm|∑„ ∏~´”ƒ´ ≥´B´X·fl∑´{´” ©„·~´ƒÊfl ˚´@”MW©´ ^∑´˙´t∑´ª∑„ ˙´ƒ´”Z ˆ„X˚´”∑„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”˙ÊÚ~„. u∏»‘∑„ ^©„·ˆ´ ≥ʃ´G©´t ˆEz´Ì∑´ª¨´¤~„, ^ƒ´I B„›´”– ¨„}©´m|©´ ‘·˛@”¯˘ ∏{´ˆ„@G∑´”˙´Úƒ„. Ù¨´‘m¨´ Ïz„·∆F´ F´v¥Óʃ´ [·~´”ƒ´ ©„§„@”¯˘ @Gƒ´I¨„· ˆ„X˚´”∑„ ¨„X~´ˆ´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ≥´B´X·∑´¨´ FÊÌ”¨Ê~´~´” ˙´ƒ´”Z ˙´ƒ´”Z F´‘w˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ∑´{´©´”≠ `~´X°≥´Ì” ߨ´H‘~´Ó„·ˆ´”. * ≥´m≥„a@” ∏∑„∫ ˛ª¨´”ˆ„X{´ Ì”, ©´m[ˆ„ Ó„{„߈„X{´ Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ÏzÊx≥´ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´”X¶ßˆ„X{´ Ì” ≥´ƒ´”@” Ó„·ˆÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. @Gƒ´I¨„· ≥´B´X·∑´¨´¯˘ Ù¨´” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ ^∑´˙´tƒÊfl~´”˙´Ú¨„. ≥ʃ´G©´t ˆÊ@”Œ≥´Xp∑´{´©´”≠`◊¨´Œ‘≥´”ƒÊ∑´≥´B´¥ÓÊ∑´˙´x¨´^©´”≥´m◊¨Ê©´ˆ´X˚´≥´ƒ´”@”˙„∑„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ƒ´m˙´B´”¨´”. ±¨´~„ ≥´B´X·∑´¨´¯˘ um¨´” ≥Êmßaˆ´ Ï◊¨Ê©´¨´¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆ„m|¨´¤~„ Ù¨´” ^`ƒÊ@”Œƒ„m¨´X ^`≥´”˙´Ú¨„. ±¨´”¨´‘m¨´ ≥´B´X·∑´¨´ FÊÌ”¨Ê~´ ƒ´”˙„Ú ƒ´”˙„Ú ƒ´G˙´©Ê˚´Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˙´©´≠ ±¨´t˙„∑´{´©´”≠ [˚´ÌX ≥´B´ ߨ´H`~´Ó„·ˆ´”. ≥´B´X·∑´¨´¯˘ ˙„X˚´fl~´”ƒ´ƒ´~´” n∆F„X‚· ≥´Ì ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙´B´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´∑´{´©´”≠Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´≥´ƒ´”@”¨´¯˘`~Êz„@”©´”≠^©´”¥Ó´Ï≥´”˙ÊÚ~„. F´~´≥´N~´F´vX·L©´ˆÊyflÙ∏»~´ z´qÚ@”©´”≠ u∑´X∫¶≥´”ƒ´I¨„· ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ƒ´”X§ÊS¨´ŒƒÊfl¨„. ‡ F´vqv”@”¯˘ ¨„}©´m|©´ ˆ„Ì≥´¨´¯˘ ƒ„}@”qÚˆ´ ^©Ê©´”ˆ´XÌ∑´{´”, J∆F´Œfi„∑´{´”, ƒ„}~´”◊¨´t∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú u˙´Ú˚´∑´{´ ©´˚´”ƒ„ ƒ´G˙´”ˆ´˙„∑´{´©´”≠ ©´˚„≥´”ƒ´ ºÊ¶~´”˙´Ú¨„. ˜·∑„ ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„@” ≥´m∏m◊¨´ƒ´I F´‘fiʃ´”ˆÊ‘@G∑´Ó„·ˆÊ¨´~„ ‡ ≥´mq·wŒ˙„@” `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ ^˙´t∑´˙´tƒÊfl¨„. * @Gƒ´I¨´©´”≠ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊfl≥´∏B´”¨„X· ± `U‚©´¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´” u{„ @”¨´”. Ù¨´” ≥´m≥„a@” ¨´…∆°‚ˆ„X·©´|m¨´ F´vƒ´””_ƒ„`≥´”˙´Ú¨„. ≥´m≥„a@”©´”≠ ˆ´¿”‚ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´~´ ̈´¸w∑´{´©´”≠ ∏¨´§Ê≈”≥´”ƒ´m˙´B´ ˆ„Ì≥´∑´{´” V˙´Úƒ´”ƒÊ¨´ƒ´I. ±¨´~„ Ùƒ´I∑´{´¯˘ ˙„X˚´flˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´” ˆ´∆F´‚. Ù¨´ˆ„y B„›´”– ≥´ƒ´”@” Ó„·ˆ´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´xm˙´ Ï›Ê~´∑´ª~´Ó„·ˆ´”. * e§Ê˘ƒ´”¿‚¨´ ^◊|ˆÊ‘∑´{´” ≥´B´X·∑´¨´ F´v@”˙´≠∑´ª∑„ Ó„m∏Ì `·˚´”ƒ´m˙„ ^ƒ´~´©´”≠ ^]∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´ ≥Ê◊¨´t˙„@” ∏∑„∫ pm˛ß, e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´ ≥´B´X·∑´¨´¯˘ ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”∑„X{´” ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´”. ~ÊLtƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ˙„∑„¨´”ˆ„Xm˚´ `◊¨ÊŒ~´∑´{´©´”≠ ≥´”Ì¥Ó´ƒÊfl ƒ´”~´”±¨´t˙„∑„ u{´F´¶ß, e§„˘@” F´vqv”@”¯˘ ˆ„{´ƒ´”¿‚¨´ ±¨´t˙„@”©´”≠ `·˚´”ƒ´I¨´”, ~ʺÊt◊|ˆÊ‘∑´{´” e§Ê˘ ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ ß·Ï”˙´ `@”m˙´vw ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´v¥Óʃ´ƒ´©´”≠ B„Xm|~´”˙ÊÚ~„. * ≥´B´X·∑´ƒ´I ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´G˚´Ó„·ˆÊ¨´~„ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x F´vƒ´””_ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Ù¨´” uMÊ‚~„ ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„@”¯˘ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´m≥„a@”©´”≠ F„v·~„·°≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´¯˘ ≥´B´ ƒ´””_tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. 18
  19. 19. IV. B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´”B´wˆÊß©´ ^mz´∑´{´” 4.2 B´wˆÊß©´ X·L©„, ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú B„Xm¨Ê]ˆ„ : ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ B´w¨´ ƒ´”XÌ ‡∑´ ˜·fl¨„ : 1. MHRD ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” 2. ϨÊtS|Œ∑´ªm¨´ ∏~´”ƒ´ z´”Ìy 3. ≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´ˆ„y ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´” ≥´m≥„a@” ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ `◊¨´Œ‘ß, ±¨´t˙„ F´˚„¨´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´ª∑„ Ó„m∏Ì `·˚´”ƒ´ ÏÏ◊¨´ ƒ´”XÌ∑´{„`߈„X{´ ∏Ì˘ B´wƒ´©´”≠ u{´∑„Xm˚´ ≥´m@””ˆ´Ú ≥´mF´«wŒ ≥Êmßaˆ´ ƒ´”©„X·◊¨´ƒ´”Œ|m¨´ ~´X°≥´”ƒ´ ˆÊ@”Œ X·L©Ê F´vqv”@”¯˘ ˆÊwÌ” ≥Ê◊¨´tÏÌ˘. Ù¨´~´ ∏¨´Ì”, ±@”ƒ´t@”¨´ ƒ´”X̨´ ƒ„”·§„ ±◊¨Ê‘˙´ƒÊfl Ó„·~„ Ó„·~„ X·L©„∑´{´” ˙´@G~Ê∑´”˙´Úƒ„. B´wˆÊß©´ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ ≥´m≥„a@” ˆ„}@”¯˘ ÙÌ˘ nm∏”¨´©´”≠ Ù¨´” ≥´N∆F´‚ƒÊfl ≥´Xp≥´”˙´Ú¨„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú LƒÊÓʤ‘ n©´”≠ƒ´I¨´” B„X~´fl`m¨´ ∏~´”˛Ú~´”ƒ´ `|Œ∆F´‚ ◊¨´©´ ≥´BÊ@”ˆ„y ƒ´G˙´v. ≥´m≥„a@” ˙´”m˚´” X·L©„@” ≥´m≥´Q˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ ±”y BÊ∑´X ^ƒ´I∑´{´ ˆÊ@GŒ›´~´fi„∑„ "B´w _›´”Œ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ‘·˛'∑´{´©´”≠ Ù¨´” `z´–≈”≥´”˙´Ú¨„. ~ÊLt ^S¨´ƒÊ ˆ„·m¨´v B´wˆÊ≥´” ˆ´À„·‘∑´{´¯˘ ~´p˙´ƒÊ¨´ B´wˆÊ≥´” `∏m◊¨´©„∑´{´” ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”©´”≠ `ƒ´Œ˜≥´”˙´Úƒ„. Ù¨´~´ F´‘fiʃ´”ƒÊfl, `|Œ∆F´‚ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ ^∑´˙´t∑´{´©´”≠ F´v˛[m[≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ^≥Ê◊¨´tƒ´«, ≥´”Ì¥Ó´ƒÊfl B„Xm¨Ê]ˆ„@G∑´¨„· Ù~´”ƒ´I¨´X ˆ´m˚´”∏~´”˙´Ú¨„. ˚´@”MW ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘ B´w¨´ ∏@”ˆ„ ˆ´¶ƒ„”@G∑´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y ƒ´””_t ˆÊ~´w Ù¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∏B´{´ ˆ´¶ƒ„” ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” BÊ∑´X ≥´ƒ´”@”ˆ„y ≥´‘@Gfl ±∑´|~´”ƒ´I¨´”. ≥´m≥„a∑´{´ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ó„{´ƒ´]∑„∑„ B´wˆÊß©´ ≥Êx˙´m˙´vbt Ó„m∏̃Êfl~´Ó„·ˆ´”. ˆ´vƒ´”ƒÊfl Ó„{„¨´”, ≥´m≥„a@” X·L©„Xm¨´©´”≠ B´”¿”‚Bʈ´Ì” BÊ∑´X ≥´m≥„a@” ∑´”‘≥Ê◊¨´©„∑„ ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙´B´ B´wˆÊß∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ `◊¨ÊŒ~´∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ„}∑„X{´ Ì” FÊvmz´”FÊÌ‘∑„ ≥Êx˙´m˙´vbt¨´ ^∑´˙´tϨ„. ˙´ƒ´”Z ƒ´”¿‚¨´§„˘· ^ƒ´~´” `wŒ@”∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ„}∑„X{´ Ó„·ˆ„ B„X~´˙´” (1) DSERT ∑„ Ï∆F´@”∑´{´©´”≠ ÕiFÊ~´≥´”√ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨Ê∑´¯·, (2) [fl@G¨´ `∏m◊¨´©„∑´ªm¨Êfl ˆ„}ˆ´U‚ ˆ´X~´”ƒ´m˙Ê∑´¯· ±∑´ÓÊ~´¨´”. ˚´@”MW FÊvmz´”FÊÌ‘∑„ B´wˆÊß©´ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„@”©´”≠ `·˚´Ì” ^◊|ˆÊ~´ƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´∑ÊŒ≈”≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ^∑´˙´tƒÊfl¨„. `∏m◊¨´©„∑´ªm¨´ ›Ê¯˙´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´…˙´ B´wˆÊ≥´” ƒ´tƒ´≥„a `¥ÓÊ≈”≥´Ì” ≥´”Ì¥Ó´ƒÊfl~´∏B´”¨´”, ±¨´~„, ‡ [fl˙´∑´{´”, ~´›´©„@”¯˘ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ˆÊ@”Œ∑´˙´∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´¯˘ Ù~´Ó„·ˆÊ¨´ ¨´ˆ´¸˙„@”©´”≠ ∏¯˙„∑„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ˙´Úƒ„. 19
  20. 20. ±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ :±S|Œˆ´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„ : ˚´@”MW∑´{´ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ qv@G˙´Zˆ´˙„@”©´”≠ F´I©´:≥Êa°≥´Ì” ≥´ƒ´”X·p˙´ B´w¨´ B´‘ƒ´I `fiÊŒ@”ˆ´ƒÊfl¨„. |©´`˙´t¨´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ `ƒ´Œ˜≥´”ƒ´¯˘ ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ Ù¨´” Ó„m∏̃Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ‡ Ó„m∏Ì|m¨´@””ˆ´ÚƒÊ¨´‘·˛@”¯˘›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´”©´˚„@””˙´Úƒ„”·B„X~´˙´”B´wˆÊß©´ƒ´∆F´Œƒ´””fl@””˙´Ú¨„ nm¨´” ^ƒ´≥´~´ƒÊfl ƒ´””fl≥´”ƒ´ z´vƒ´” Ù~´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ˜·∑ʨ´~´X, ¨„·z´¨´ ∏B´”FÊÌ” ¥ÓÊ∑´∑´{´¯˘, ˚´@”MW∑´{´” ˙´ƒ´”Z ˆ„}@”¯˘ ±∑´”ƒ´m˙´B´¨´∆F´‚©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´ÌX ≥´B´ ±∑´|~´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„y Ù¨„· F´vƒ´””_ ˆÊ~´w. ‡∑´ÌX ≥´B´ B´©„X≠m¨´©„· ±@”ƒ´t@”¨´ X·L©„∑„ ˆ„·m¨´v u°N∑„ ∏~´Ì” ˙´˚´ƒÊfl~´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ ¨´@”MW ß∏»m|@” ƒ„·˙´©´ ÓÊ~´¨„ ±∑´§„· 6 ˛m∑´{´”∑´{Êflƒ„. ‡ ◊¨´©´≥´BÊ@” ˆ„·m¨´v¨Ê¤fl, X·L©„∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´U‚¨´¤‘m¨´ ~ÊLt∑´{´” ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ ˙„Xm¨´~„≈”Ì˘¨„ B´w¨´ B´‘ƒ´I ±∑´”ƒ´m˙„ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´” ^∑´˙´t. ^¨´~„Xm|∑„ ‡ B´w¨´ B´‘Ï∑„ ^˚„˙´˚„@G∑´¨´m˙„ ≥´Xˆ´ÚƒÊ¨´ ±S|Œˆ´ Ï¥ÓÊ∑´∑´{´ ~´›´©„@”©´”≠ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨´” ^˙´tƒ´z´tˆ´ƒÊfl¨„. ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ≥´ƒ´”X·p˙´ƒÊfl ©´˚„≥´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˆ„X©„∑„ ^ƒ´I∑´{´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚ `fiÊŒ@”ˆ´ƒÊfl Ù¨´©´”≠ ^ƒ´Ìm[ß~´”˙´Ú¨„. ˆ´m˙´”∑´{´¯˘B´wƒ´©´”≠≥´ƒ´”X·p˙´ƒÊfl[˚´”∑´˚„@G∑´”ƒ´m˙„ƒ´G˚´Ì”B´wˆÊß©´`ƒ´ŒB´fi„∑„um¨´” ≥´ƒ´”∑´v ~ÊLtƒ´”¿‚¨´ ~´›´©„@” ^∑´˙´tϨ„. "≥´ƒ´Œ Õˆ´¸w ^¥[@G©´'¨´m˙´B´ X·L©„∑´ª∑Êfl ≥´…∆°‚≥´ÌN¿‚ ~´›´©„∑´{´” ∏…B´˙´∂ƒ´Gw¨´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”©´”≠ ≥´‘F´¶≥´Ì” ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘, ±¨´~„, ^ƒ´I Ó„·~„ ^¥ÓÊt≥´ˆ„y ≥´wÿ¨„Xm¨´” ©„§„@”©´”≠ ≥´…∆°‚≥´”˙´Úƒ„. X·L©„@” ƒ´””ˆÊÚ@”¨´¯˘, X·L©„∑Êfl ≥´…∆°‚ߨ´ ‡ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a∑´{´X ^¨´~„Xm|∑„ ƒ´””ˆÊÚ@”∑„Xm˚Ê∑´, ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”” z´qÚ∑´”m|¨´m˙„ ±∑´∏B´”¨´”. 20
  21. 21. V. L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´”L©´˙„ ∑´ƒ´”©ÊB´Œ~´” Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”ˆ´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Vªßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”ˆ´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Vªßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”ˆ´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Vªßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”ˆ´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Vªßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´ŒˆÊyfl B´”˚´”ˆ´”ƒ´I¨´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú Vªßˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´” FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´Õˆ´¸w¨´¯˘^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´ƒ´”˙´”ÚF´‘w˛@”©´”≠F´˚„¨´m˙´B´ƒ´~´©´”≠˚´@”MW∑Êflz„X·◊|≥´”ƒ´I¨´X um¨´” ≥´ƒ´”≥„t”·. Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œˆ„y ≥„·~´Ì” ‡fl~´”ƒ´ BÊ|∑´{´” ≥´ƒ´”≥Êt˙´Zˆ´ƒÊflƒ„. F´v≥´”Ú˙´¨´¯˘ ˚´@”MW©´ u{´∑„, FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸w¨´ ºÊÛ©´ƒ´I ¶. n˚W. F´‘·ˆ„¸@” ƒ´”Ẍ´ƒÊ∑´¯·, ÙÌ˘ FÊvS¨´Ï”ˆ´ zÊ§Ê Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´¨´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ƒÊ∑´¯· ¨„X~´ˆ´”ƒ´m˛Ì˘. ^¨´X ^Ì˘¨„, Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ @Gƒ´ FÊ˙´v ƒ´˜≥´Ó„·ˆ´” nm¨´” ≥´N∆F´‚ƒÊfl ©„·ƒ´”ˆÊ˛@” ◊¨„X·~´fi„∑´{´” ˛ª≥´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ^ƒ´~´” "F´‘w˛' F´˚„¨´ƒ´~´” nm¨Ê¨´~„, ^ƒ´~´ FÊÔ~´¨´Ï∆F´@”∑´{´¯˘^S¨´ƒÊÕˆ´¸wˆ„¸·˙´v¨´§„˘·(≥´mz„X·◊¨´©„ƒ´”˙´”Ú^¥ÓÊt≥´)˙´ˆ´yFÊm¶˙´tƒ´©´”≠F´˚„|~´”ƒ´I¨´” ^∑´˙´t. ˚´@”MW Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´©´”≠ ˙Ê©„· ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´I¨„X· ÙÌ˘ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ˆ„Ì≥´¨´ `ƒ´ŒB´fi„@” LƒÊÓʤ‘@”©´”≠ B„X~´”ƒ´I¨„X· ? nm∏”¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ ≥´N∆F´‚ƒÊ¨´ ˆ´ÌN©„ ©´ƒ´”fl~´Ó„·ˆ´”. z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ˆ„Ì≥´ˆ„y ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚m˙„ Õˆ´¸ˆ´ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ FÊ˙´v “©Êfl~´Ó„·ˆ´” nm∏”¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ ≥´N∆F´‚˙„ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´ ©´ˆ„¸ ƒ´”˙´”Ú FÊv~´m¥[≥´”ƒ´ ‘·˛∑„ ^˙´t∑´˙´tƒÊfl¨„. ©„·~´ ©„·ƒ´”ˆÊ˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´m¨´z´Œ©´¨´ ≥Êa©´/B´”¨„¤∑´{´” ˚´@”MW ≥„·~´Ì” Ùp⁄≥´”ƒ´ L©´‘∑„ B„X≥´ ƒ´G∑´Œ∑´{Ê∑´”˙´Úƒ„. ≥´xÌN ˆÊ§Êƒ´◊|∑„m¨´” ¨´@”MW∑„ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´”, [.±~W.°. ∑´{´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ß.±~W.°. ∑´{´” ∏~´Ì”Ù¨´‘m¨´≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. Ïz´xϨÊtÌ@”¨´L©´˚´@”MW∑„Õˆ´¸ˆ´~Êfl∏~´Ì”≥´m¨´z´Œˆ´~´≥Êa©´Ï¨´¤¯˘ VF´@””ˆ´ÚƒÊfl~´”˙´Ú¨„. ≥´ˆÊŒ~´¨´ ∏…B´˙´∂ƒ´Gw¨´ zÊ§Ê ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´ Ïz´xϨÊtÌ@”∑´{´” F´v˙„t·ˆ´∑„Xm¶~´”ƒ´ Ùm|©´ ßa˛@”X ˆ´X˚´ Ù¨´‘m¨´ ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„ B„Xm¨´”˙´Ú¨„. Ù¨„· ‘·˛, Ïz´xϨÊtÌ@”¨´ Ó„·~„ Ï¥ÓÊ∑´∑´ªm¨´ BÊ∑´X p˙´vˆÊ~´~´” ^S¨´ƒÊ ~´m∑´¥Ó´XÏ” ˆ´§ÊϨ´~´” Ùƒ´~´©´”≠ ˚´@”MW ^˛S|∑´{Êfl ∏~´ƒ´G¶ˆ„X{´ ∏B´”¨´”. Ùƒ´~´” Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´”ˆ´y{„Xm|∑„ ≥´”ƒ´G~´” 6 ˛m∑´{´” ˆ´{„@”∏B´”¨´”. B„X≥´ ‘·˛@” L©´ u{´∑„ ∏m¨Ê∑´, ≥´m≥„a@” ƒ„}Õ∆∆F´‚btˆ„y ©„~´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„ BÊ∑´X Õˆ´¸ˆ´‘∑„ ˙´ƒ´”Z ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ Ó„{´ƒ´]∑„@” ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ ƒÊt°Ú∑´X ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˚´@”MW`m¨´ u{´∑„, B„X~´∑„ `~´m˙´~´ƒÊfl L©´ ›´¯≥´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ ƒ´”XÌ¥Ó´X˙´ƒÊfl ≥´m≥„a∑„ ^ßa~´˙„ ≥´…∆°‚@Gfl¨„. ±˚´ª˙´ ˆ„¸·˙´v B„›´”– ±ˆ´∆F´Œ]·@”ƒÊfl¨´”¤ (z´qÚ@””˙´ BÊ∑´X §Ê¥Ó´¨Ê@”ˆ´) L©´, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ±˚´ª˙´ ≥Êa©´∑´{´ ©´˚´”ƒ„ ›´¯≥´”˛Ú~´”˙ÊÚ~„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ‡ ßa˛ B„›´”– ˆ´¶ƒ„” n§Ê˘ ~ÊLt∑´{´ÌX˘ Ù¨„ n©´≠∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ ≥´ƒ´”F´Œw ¥Óʃ´|m¨´ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘|~´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑„ F´‘BÊ~´ƒÊfl Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ Ó„·~„ F´˚„@”©„≠· ≥´L”‰∑„Xª≥´”ƒ´I¨„· ? 21
  22. 22. ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” :≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m| ÙÌ˘¨„ VmMÊ∑´”ƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” : `~´m˙´~´ƒÊfl ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ß∏»m|∑´{´” ÙÌ˘|~´”ƒ´I¨´” ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ ƒ´”˙„XÚm¨´” ≥´ƒ´”≥„t@Gfl¨„. ≥´”ƒ´G~´” z„·.50~´∆F´”‚ B´”¨„¤∑´{´” ˚´@”MW∑´{´¯˘ sʯ≈”~´”˙´Úƒ„. ~ÊLt ≥´ˆÊŒ‘ ≥´m≥„a∑´{´” ˙´ƒ´”Z¨„· ˙´~´Ó„·˛∑´ª∑„, F´Ô~´tF´I≥´Úˆ´∑´{´©´”≠ ∏~„@”Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥´ƒ´”©´x@”¨´ ^∑´˙´t∑´ª∑„ Ù~´”ƒ´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´©´”≠ F´¨„· F´¨„· n{„¨´”ˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´” ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´ª∑„ ƒ´”˙„XÚm¨´” ≥„·‘ߨ´m˙Êfl¨„. Ù¨´~´ F´‘fiʃ´”ƒÊfl, ˚´@”MW ˙´©´≠ ˆ„Ì≥´ƒ´©´”≠ F´«wŒ∑„Xª≥´Ì” ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ≥´ms„t@”¯˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´” ÙÌ˘|~´”ƒ´ ßa˛ ±∑Ê∑´ VmMÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” F´~´ƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” F´~´ƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” F´~´ƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” F´~´ƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” F´~´ƒÊfl : ˚´@”MW©´¯˘~´”ƒ´ ≥„·ƒ„∑´ª∑„ ≥´ƒ´”°Œ˙´~Êfl~´”ƒ´ um¨´” ∑´”mF´I L©´~´©´”≠ ≥´…∆°‚≥´”ƒ´ ^∑´˙´tϨ„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ù¨´‘m¨´ ≥´m∏m◊¨´Ï~´”ƒ´ ^B´Œ˙„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú F´‘w˛≈”~´”ƒ´ um¨´” ≥´ƒ´”XB´ ˚´@”MW©´ ˆ„}ˆ„{´∑„ ∏m¨´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ‡ ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œˆ„y ≥„·‘¨´ƒ´~´” B„X~´fl©´ B´”¨„¤∑´ª∑„ B„X·∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ƒ´Ì˘¨´ B´”¨„¤∑´ª∑„ B„X·∑´”ƒ´I¨´” ‡∑´ ^¥ÓÊt≥´¨´¯˘¨„; ^¨´X ≥´B´ `Ì”˘˙´Ú¨„. ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨„X{´∑„ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´‘m¨´ ˚´@”MW∑´ª∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ ˆ„Ì≥´ˆ„y ©„·~´ƒÊfl ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. “ˆ„m¨´~„, ‡ B„p–ߨ´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ∑´{´” ˚´@”MW∑„ ƒ´””m¨„@”X ¨„X~„@””ƒ´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´…∆°‚@” Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl : ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ|m¨´ ^©´∑´˙´tƒÊ¨´ ß·ƒ´G~„·s„∑´{´”, ƒ´””p–¨´ ≥´¨´≥´t˙´x¨´ ∑´”mF´I∑´{´” ≥´…∆°‚@G∑´”˙´Úƒ„. ≥´…∆°‚ F´‘w˛≈”~´”ƒ´ B„X≥´ L©´∑´ª∑„ ^¯˘ F´vƒ„·z´ÏÌ˘¨´m˙Ê∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ß∏»m|∑´{´” "ß∏»m|˙´©´'ƒ´©´”≠ ∏Ì∑„Xªß, "≥´m≥„a@” ˙´©´ƒ´©´”≠' Ó„{„≥´Ì” ≥´BÊ@”ˆ´ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I|Ì˘. ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„≈”m¨´ B„X~´B„Xƒ´””Zƒ´ ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´” ƒ´””m¨´”ƒ´~„@””˙´Úƒ„. “ˆ„m¨´~„, ˚´@”MW`m¨´ ˚´@”MW∑„ ƒ´∑ÊŒ≈”≥´ÌN˚´”˙ÊÚ~„. ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ F´‘w˛@” n§Ê˘ ˆ„¸·˙´v∑´{´” ¨„X~´ˆ´”ƒ´m˛¨„ nm¨´” ¨´…‹˚´F´¶≥´Ì” ˚´@”MW∑´{´ Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ≥´mX·L©„@” ƒ„”·¯x›Ê~´fi„ ˆ´∆F´‚ƒÊ∑´”ƒ´I¨´”. ≥´m≥„a@” ˜¶˙´ BÊ∑´X ƒ´tqÚ˙´xƒ´©´”≠ ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„@” LƒÊÓʤ‘ B„X˛Ú~´”ƒ´ ˆ„·m¨´v ^◊|ˆÊ~´∑´{´ ˆ„}@”¯˘ ˜m|©´m˙„ ƒ´˜ßˆ„X˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. 22
  23. 23. ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y :ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´∑ÊŒƒ´fi„∑„ F´@GŒ@” : ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ºÊ˜·~Ê˙´” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ©„·~´ ±”y : F´v˛Xm¨´” B´”¨„¤∑´X ©„·~´ ±”y@” ƒ´tƒ´≥„a”· V˙´Úƒ´”. ±≥´qÚ≈”~´”ƒ´ƒ´~„Ì˘~´X ˙´ƒ´”Z ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´¨´ p˙´vw¨„Xm|∑„, sʯ≈”~´”ƒ´ B´”¨„¤∑„ ^eŒ ≥´¯˘ß, ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ≥´N◊¨„Œ@”¯˘ ¥ÓÊ∑´ƒ´˜ß, ±”y@G∑´∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MWÆn @” Õˆ´¸ˆ´~„X∏»~´” ˚´@”MWÆ[ ∑„ B„X·∑´∏B´”¨´”. ^S¨´ƒÊ Õˆ´¸ˆ´©´ B´”¨„¤≈”m¨´, ˜‘@” Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ^S¨´ƒÊ VF´ FÊvmz´”FÊÌ©Êfl ƒ´…˛Ú@”¯˘ ƒ„”·§„ ›´¯≥´∏B´”¨´”. ˚´@”MW©´¯˘ L©´ `|Œ∆F´‚ V¨„Xt·∑´∑´ª∑„ ^eŒ BÊq, ±”y∑„X{´” ˙ÊÚ~„ nm∏”¨´” _p˙´ƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ±∑´§„· ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@” u{´fl~´”ƒ´ ≥´ˆÊŒ‘ ©Eˆ´~´‘∑„ ‡ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a@”©´”≠ ƒ´””›´–∏B´”¨´” ^S¨´ƒÊ ^◊¨´Œ ˙„~„¨´” ≥´ˆÊŒ‘ BÊ∑´X ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ±”y@” ^¥Ó´tS|Œ∑´{´©´”≠ Ó„~´ˆ„ ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´” ^S¨´ƒÊ nÌ˘‘∑´X "ƒ´””ˆ´Ú' nm¨´X ƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”. ^◊¨´Œ ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ^S¨´ƒÊ ƒ´””ˆ´Ú ±”y@” ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´ Ïz´xϨÊt`Ì@”∑´ªm¨´ F´vƒ„·z´ ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”˙´Ú¨„. ˚´@”MW u{´fl©´ ƒ´tqÚ∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ´~„@”∏B´”¨´”. ^m˙´B´ ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´ ˚´@”MW Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥´mJ¿©Ê B„X·¯ˆ„, ≥´m≥„a ƒ´”˙´”Ú ƒ´…˛Ú@” ƒ„}Õ∆F´‚bt˙„∑´{´” Ï≥ÊÚ~´∑„X{´” ƒ´Iƒ´I. ©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x :©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x :©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x :©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x :©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x : ˆÊ@”Œ˙´˙´N~´˙„ƒ´”˙´”ÚF´v≥´”Ú˙´˙„∑„B„≥´~´”∑´ªß~´”ƒ´F´v˛Xm¨´”˚´@”MW©´ÌX˘FÊvmz´”FÊÌ~´FÊ˙´v, z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x¨´ ∑´”wƒ´”¿‚, ¨´X~´¨´…∆°‚, ≥´mJ¿©Ê `ƒ´ŒB´fi„∑´{´” `fiÊŒ@”ˆ´ƒÊflƒ„. ©Ê@”ˆ´˙´x ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ¨´”¨´” Ùƒ´I∑´ªm¨´ : * F´v˙„t·ˆ´˙„@” ≥´ƒ´”≥„t@”©´”≠ n¨´”‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´ˆ„Xy·≥´y~´ ˚´@”MW©´”≠ Ó„·~„ ¨„X˚´d z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ≥´mJ¿©„∑´{´”, ≥´ƒ´””¨Ê@” ƒ´”˙´”Ú e§Ê˘ BÊ∑´X ~ÊLt ƒ´”¿‚¨´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{„Xm|∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´ Ó„{„ߨ´”¨´‘m¨´. * ^S¨´ŒF´«wŒ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊|≥´∏B´”¨Ê¨´m˙´B´ ∑´”‘∑´{´ ≥´”˙´Ú ˚´@”MW Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ˚´@”MW ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ˆ„·m|v·ˆ´‘ߨ´”¨´”. * ~ÊLtƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘BÊ∑´XFÊv¨„·Õˆ´ƒ´”¿‚¨´¯˘@”X≥´B´^ƒ´ˆÊz´∑´{´©´”≠VF´X·fl߈„X{´” ƒ´ƒ´”Ẍ´ um¨´qym˙´ B„›´”– ‘·˛@”¯˘ ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„@”©´”≠ F´v¨´ÕŒß¨´”¨´”. * ƒ´tqÚ∑´{´ ˆÊ@”Œ˙´˙´N~´˙„@”©´”≠ B„p–≥´”ƒ´m˙„ ß∏»m|@”©´”≠ F´v›„X·|≥´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘¨„ ˙´m˚´¨´¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´Ì” F„v·~„·°≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ß∏»m| ƒ´∑´Œ ˙´©´≠ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´©´”≠ ©´˚„≥´Ì” ≥Ê◊¨´tƒÊ∑´”ƒ´m˙„ B´wˆÊß©´ B´m›´”ψ„∑„ ≥´m∏m◊¨´F´¿‚m˙„ ≥´B´, L©´~´©´”≠ ≥´mJU≥´”ƒ´I¨´”, ˆÊ@”Œ˙´˙´N~´~´©Ê≠fl ƒ´G¶¨´”¨´”. 23
  24. 24. * ^◊|ˆÊ~´ z„v·] ƒ´tƒ´≥„a≈”m¨´ B„X~´˙Êfl ≥´m≥„a ƒ´”˙´”Ú Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ um¨´ˆ„Xym¨´” ≥´m∏m◊¨´ ˆ´¯N≥´Ì” ^©´”ˆ´XÌ ƒ´G¶¨´”¨´”. * ÏÏ◊¨´ ©„·Ï”ߨ´ ˆ„Ì≥´∑´{´ ˆ´vƒ´”∏¨´H ƒ„”·¯x›Ê~´fi„@”©´”≠ u¨´fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´”. * ∏m¨´ ƒ´”©´≠fi„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ≥Ê◊¨´©„@” ¥Óʃ´ƒ´©´”≠ n§Ê˘ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~„Xm|∑„ B´mpˆ„X{´” ƒ´I¨´”. ˚´@”MW©´ z„}ˆ´¸]ˆ´ ©Ê@”ˆ´~Êfl ©„·ƒ´”ˆÊ˛∑„ ±”y@” ^∑´˙´t um¨´” ˙´˙´xƒÊ∑´Ó„·ˆ´”. ≥´m≥„a@” ˆ´©´≥´©´”≠ ©´©´≥´” ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ qv”∑„ ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ^ƒ´◊|@”©´”≠ ^ƒ´‘∑„ ¨„X~´q߈„X˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. ≥´m≥„a@” ≥´mJ¿©„, ^¨´~´ ∑´”‘∑´{´ ≥ÊaF´©„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^¨´~´ ›´¿”ƒ´Uˆ„∑´{´ F´v˛Fʨ´©„ Æ Ùƒ´I∑´{´Ì˘¨„ Õˆ´¸ˆ´~´ ±”y@”¯˘ ≥ʈ´∆F´”‚ ≥Êx˙´m˙´vbt ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ó„m∏Ì Ùƒ´‘∑„ ¨„X~´q߈„X˚´Ó„·ˆ´”. Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ :Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ :Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ :Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ :Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´~´ ∏∑„∫ : u∏» ƒ´tqÚ ^S¨´ƒÊ um¨´” ∑´”mF´I, ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´©´”≠ ∑´”~´”˛ß, n¨´”‘≥´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘¨„, ≥´ƒ´”≥„t∑´{´ F´‘BÊ~´ B´”˚´”ˆ´Ì” ƒ´”˙´”Ú ∏¨´§Êƒ´fi„∑´{´©´”≠ ºÊ‘∑„ ˙´~´Ì” Ó„·ˆÊ¨´ u{´©„X·¿, ºÊÛ©´ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ^©´”¥Ó´ƒ´∑´{´©´”≠ F´˚„¨´”ˆ„X{´ Ì” ≥´BÊ@” ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ F´vqv”@”©´”≠ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´” n©´”≠˙ÊÚ~„. ^ƒ´~´” ƒ´˜≥´”˙ÊÚ~„m¨´” `‘·q¸≥´”ƒ´ FÊ˙´v∑´ª∑„ Ó„·ˆÊ¨´ F´‘w˛ ƒ´”˙´”Ú ºÊÛ©´ ˚´@”MW Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´¯˘ ÙÌ˘ nm¨´” Ï≥ÊÚ~´ƒÊfl ©´m∏§Êfl¨„. ‡ `|Œ∆F´‚ "ˆ„X~´˙„' @”©´”≠ `·fl≥´”ƒ´I¨´Ì˘¨„ ≥´ƒ´”∑´v "ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ Ó„{´ƒ´]∑„'@” ^∑´˙´tƒ´©´”≠ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒÓ„{„≥´”ƒ´qv”F´«~„}≥´∏B´”¨´”. ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠"©Eˆ´‘∑Êfl˙´~´Ó„·˛'^S¨´ƒÊ"ˆ„X~´˙„'@” ¨´…∆°‚≈”m¨´ ©„X·˚´”ƒ´I¨´©´”≠ [˚´Ó„·ˆÊfl¨„. @Gƒ´I¨Ê¨´~´X um¨´” ˙´~´Ó„·˛ J¿ˆ´¨´ ƒ´”Ẍ´ u∏» ≥ʃ´G©´t Õq¸˙´ƒ´tqÚ@”©´”≠Õˆ´¸ˆ´ÆÓ„X·◊¨´ˆ´©´©Ê≠flƒ´G˚´∏B´”¨´”nm∏˙´F´INˆ´ÌN©„≈”m¨´‡¨´…∆°‚ˆ„X·©´B´”U‚ˆ„Xm¶¨„. "L©´~´©´”≠ ˙´ƒ´”Z ©Eˆ´‘∑„ ≥´‘@Gfl B„Xm|≥´”'ƒ´I¨´ˆ„Xy·≥´y~´ ˙´~´Ó„·˛ ˆ„X˚´”ƒ´I¨´” nm∏ ƒ´”©„X·¨´…∆°‚ ‡ ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ ≥Ê◊|≥´Ó„·ˆÊfl~´”ƒ´ ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´˙„∑„ Ï~´”¨´HƒÊfl¨„. ˚´@”MW Õˆ´¸ˆ´ ƒ´∑´Œ¨´ ≥ʃ´”S¨´tŒ Ó„{„≥´”ƒ´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´” ƒ„}@”qÚˆ´ Ó„{´ƒ´]∑„∑Êfl Ù~´”ƒ´ @Gƒ´I¨„· ƒ´…˛ÚF´~´ F´‘ˆ´¯N˙´ ˆÊ@”Œˆ´vƒ´”¨´m˙„, ± ˆ„¸·˙´v¨´¯˘ ˆ„Ì≥´ ƒ´G˚´”ƒ´ƒ´~´ ˆ´ÌN©„@” ƒ„”·~„∑„ Ó„{„@”Ó„·ˆ´”. ≥Êx@”˙´Ú˙„∑„ F´I∆°‚ `·˚´”˙ÊÚ, “ª∑„ ƒ´”˙´”Ú Ó„{´ƒ´]∑„∑„˚„∑„ ©´˚„@”Ó„·ˆ´”. 24

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