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ARE WE REALLY
DEVELOPING?
ROADS
www.badroadsinindia.com
HOUSES, HOUSEHOLD AMENITIES
•The World’s most expensive
house, Antilia is also located in
Mumbai.
•The world’s second tallest
residential tower, Lodha World
Tower One is being built in
Mumbai
• 78 million people are homeless
• There is a shortage of 18.78
million houses
• Only 46.9% of the 246.6 million
households have lavatories
while 49.8% defecate in the
open. The remaining 3.2% use
public toilets.
TRANSPORT
• India is the sixth largest
automobile producer
• Harley Davidson has 3
assembly plants, one of
them being in India
• Tata Nano world’s
cheapest car is a
great achievement.
• only 7 out of 1,000 people
own a car
• only around 10% of Indian
households own a
motorcycle.
• 43.7% owns a bicycle
• 34.5% of the households
owns non these assets
• Rural Indians uses
transportation modes like
bullock carts, tongs ,public
transport .
POVERTY & ILLITERACY
•There are 2 Indians in world’s 10 richest and
10 India in Asia’s 25 richest.
•Aakash launched in September is the
world’s cheapest tablet at $60 retail price
•Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011
from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947
•India is estimated to have a third of
the world's poor
•8 Indian states have 421 million poor
people more poor people than Sub-
Saharan Africa
•No primary school in 4,570 villages
ELECTRICITY
India's
largest
private
producer
with
capacity of
8,620 Mw
According
to the
United
Nations:
More than
56 percent
of
households
do not have
electricity
connection
s in India
SPORTS
•Indian Premier League (IPL)
•Indian Grand Prix
•Kabaddi World Cup
•6 medals in 2012 Olympics
•political intervention, lack
of infrastructure, scientific
training and nutritious food
RURAL
DEVELOPMENT
• At present, 29.8% of the Indian population lives
below the poverty line. In the category of poor falls
the people whose daily income is less than 32
rupees a day in cities and 26 rupees a day in
villages. But do you think this amount is enough to
survive even for a day in the country where every
food item is available at sky-high prices? This means,
the actual number of people living below the
poverty line is much higher, as according to the
statistical data, anyone earning 33 rupees won’t be
considered as poor but must be facing the same
difficulties in life.
• Though the condition in cities is more or less the
same but the rural welfare programs have really
helped the people in rural India. With these efforts
there has been seen a decrease in the poverty in
rural India at faster pace than their urban
counterparts.
FACTS
• Nearly 70% of india’s population resisdes in rural
areas
• According to 2011 census, out of 121 crore indians,
83.3 crore lives in rural areas whereas 37.7 crore lives
in urban areas.
• About 28.5% of the rural population lives BELOW
POVERTY LINE.
Mahatma
gandhi
national rural
employment
guarantee act
Swarnajyanth
i gram
swarojgar
yojana
Pradhanma
ntri gram
sadak yojna
Indira awas
yojna
RURAL SCHEMES AND
PROGRAMMES
Rashtriya
swasthya
bima yojna
Rashtriya krishi
vikas yojna
EVALUATION
• In 2000-01, almost Rs 10,000 crore was spent on rural
development schemes. The central government has
almost a dozen major schemes in operation. But how is
the success or failure of these schemes to be evaluated?
By the quantum of funds allocated? By the fulfilment of
targets ? Or do we need a social cost-benefit analysis for
each scheme?
• While the central government spend certain amount of
money set according to the budget, additional state
government spending differs from state to state. State
governments declare their own schemes, or contribute
more resources towards central government schemes.
• The central government currently has about 10-12 major
schemes operational. They cover areas like rural housing,
sanitation, water supply, wage employment, village-level
minor infrastructural works, etc.
• The fundamental shortcoming of the system is that there is no long-
term planning for these schemes. In some cases, modifications take
place every year; in others, grants or subsidies may not be reviewed
for long periods.
• The subsidy made under the Indira Awaas Yojana for rural housing
has not been reviewed since 1996. This scheme is targeted at the
poorest of the poor -- the landless unemployed. The subsidy of Rs
20,000 provided is inadequate to build a house as per the
government specifications relating to material, layout, etc. Besides,
the beneficiary, in this case, is not in a position to contribute much
himself.
• On the other hand, provisions for the Self-Help Group Scheme, under
the Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana -- the proportion of loan
to subsidy provided, allocation towards SC/ST groups, lending
guidelines for banks, etc -- change almost every year.
• Although these changes/modifications in the schemes are done in
the best interests of the beneficiaries but constant changes create
confusion in the minds of the administrative set-up at the ground
level.
• Worse is to expect poor, illiterate village folk, at whom these schemes
are targeted, to understand their complexities from year to year.
• Even assuming that the schemes get better with every modification,
and giving the benefit of the doubt to the designers, there are
several significant issues that need to be raised in respect of the
scheme design and delivery systems.
• First and foremost: what are the objectives of the scheme?
• For instance, the rural housing scheme Indira Awaas Yojana
provides subsidised housing to the poor. In this case, the
effects of the scheme are straightforward and easy to
measure.
• But consider Central Rural Sanitation Programme? The
objective is to provide subsidies to the rural poor to build
latrines.
• In this case, the central government prides itself on the
number of latrines built under the scheme.
• The fact is that total number of latrines constructed under the
programme upto the end of the Eighth Plan period was
43,37,609, at a total cost of Rs 757.62 crore. But nowhere does
it say that over a third of these latrines are not in use. Further,
we are not told whether, in a particular area, access to
sanitation has increased, the incidence of diarrhoea gone
down or infant mortality reduced.
MAJOR FLAWS
• Thus we have a certain number of schemes, and a
fixed amount of money allocated towards these
schemes. But no social cost-benefit analysis for
each of the schemes so that the returns from every
rupee spent, or per-unit funds allocated, become
available to the planners.
• The success of each scheme is determined by
1. The targets achieved
2. The amount of money spent
3. The number of persons it covers
• The basic problem seems to be the target-oriented
approach adopted by the monitoring machinery.
PARTICIPATORY NATURE
• For any scheme to succeed, there must be a demand. And
so, part of the funding allocated for a scheme must go
towards creating awareness and imparting specific education
about the scheme and its merits to the intended beneficiaries.
This will help ensure that the beneficiaries accept the benefits
because they perceive a need for it. This way there is a sense
of participation in making the scheme a success.
• For example, if proper attention is paid towards training and
imparting skills to rural youth who are given loans for self-
employment, the incidence of loan defaults, as well as the
failure of activities started, is likely to be low.
• The self-help group scheme, based on the Bangladesh
Grameen Bank model, became a huge success, especially in
states like Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. This scheme
allocates 10% of the funds earmarked for the formation of
each group towards the training of members. Members are
encouraged to form their own groups and determine the
activity they wish to start up. This ensures their participation,
and the scheme is accepted as a response to a perceived
need and is therefore perceived more responsibly.
FINAL WORDS
• Ultimately what is lacking is a definite vision for rural
India. This might include, say, total literacy, at least
75% sanitation coverage, two children per family,
villages with proper infrastructure, etc.
• Practical and achievable targets must be set and
priorities carefully laid out.
• Once this is done, schemes can be aimed with
precise objectives in mind. This will enable specific
parameters to come into play, which will make
judging the impact of the schemes much easier.
WOMEN STATUS IN THE ANCIENT INDIA
• Women enjoyed equivalent status & rights like their males counterparts.
• In addition they were properly educated in the early Vedic period.
• Women also had the freedom to select their husbands. This system was
known as ‘Swayamvar.’
• In fact during this time, women had superior position than the males.
WOMEN STATUS IN MEDIEVAL INDIA
• The status of women in India deteriorated during the medieval period with the
entrance of the Muslims.
• Several evil practices such as female infanticide, sati and child marriage were
practiced during this period.
• ‘Purdah’ was introduced to the society.
• Women were also forced to practice ‘zenana.’ Polygamy was also common during
this period.
• Some great-women rulers were Razia Sultana who was the only women-monarch
to-rule-the throne of Delhi, Nur Jahan.In spite of these powerful women, the
condition of poor women remained the same.
• At this time girl were forced to get married at a very tender age.
• The society also practiced Sati.
WOMEN STATUS IN MODERN INDIA
• During this time there was a little development in the women status. There
were many women reformers in India who worked for the uplift &
betterment of their female counterparts.
• The begun of Bhopal discarded the ‘purdah’& fought in the revolt of 1857.
• Various female writers emerged in the society.
• In the modern time, women in India were given freedom & right such as
freedom of expression & equality as well as the right to be educated.
• Various prestigious positions at this period were held by women.
• However, some problems such as dowry, domestic violence, sex selective
abortion, female infanticide are still prevalent.
HOW CAN WOMEN BE EMPOWERED?
SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT
• Women are educated about the social benefits including awareness about the
existing social problems in the society, good recognition & image in the family &
community, role in making important decision in their family, plan & promote
better education for their children, taking care of health of the aged and the children
just to mention a few.
• Women are also allowed to participate in political and public life. Therefore, they
are given a chance to serve the community including fighting for the basics
amenities & welfare needs of the village community such as:
• Safe drinking water
• Public sanitation
• Street light
• Chance to help the weaker people like disable and the aged
EMPOWERING INDIAN WOMEN BY
EDUCATION
• Most women are given a chance of finishing their education to the degree level.
There are number of women education grants that offer help to women from poor
background in order to give them a chance to be educated.
• There’re various scholarships that benefits women in India to achieve their career
by going back to school or various training institutions where they can further their
education.
• Many NGO in India offer support to women in order to benefit them in education.
• These grants for women get most supports from different companies after realizing
that women can perform better than men if they are well educated and equipped.
EMPOWERING WOMEN IN BUSINESS
• Women are encouraged to start small business in order to have their own
source of income thus they become independent.
• Various non-governmental organizations also offer financial support to
women in India and encourage and teach them how they can be making
their own money by starting various business activities.
• The status of the women in India has greatly improved and there are many
women who are holding high position in the government offices. This has
proved that women can be even better than men if they are given an
opportunity.
To reflect
and... Act.
The difference between
the underdeveloped
countries and the
developed ones is
not the age of the
country.
This can be shown by
countries like India &
Egypt, that are more
than 2000 years old and
are poor and still not
fully developed.
On the other hand,
Canada, Australia & New
Zealand, that 150 years
ago were inexpressive,
today are developed
countries and are rich.
The difference between
India and other
developed countries does
not reside in the
available natural
resources.
Japan has a limited territory, 80%
mountainous, inadequate for
agriculture & cattle raising, but it
is the second world economy. The
country is like an immense floating
factory, importing raw material
from the whole world and exporting
manufactured products.
Another example is Switzerland, which
does not plant cocoa but has the best
chocolate of the world. In its little
territory they raise animals and plant
the soil during 4 months per year. Not
enough, they produce dairy products of
the best quality. It is a small country
that transmits an image of security,
order & labor, which made it the
world’s strong safe.
What is the
difference then?
The difference is the
attitude of the
people, framed along
the years by the
education & the
culture.
1. Ethics, as a basic principle.
2. Integrity.
3. Responsibility.
4. Respect to the laws & rules.
5. Respect to the rights of
other citizens.
6. Work loving.
7. Strive for saving &
investment.
8. Will of super action.
9. Punctuality.
On analyzing the
behavior of the people
in rich & developed
countries, we find that
the great majority
follow the following
principles in their
lives:
In India, only a
minority follow
these basic
principles in
their daily life.
We are not poor and
fully developed
because we lack
natural resources or
because nature was
cruel to us.
It is just because we lack
attitude.
We lack the will to comply
with and teach these
functional principles of rich
& developed societies.
If you love your
country, let this
message circulate for a
major quantity of people
could reflect about this
& CHANGE, ACT!!
Thank you!!!

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Is India really developing ??

  • 4. HOUSES, HOUSEHOLD AMENITIES •The World’s most expensive house, Antilia is also located in Mumbai. •The world’s second tallest residential tower, Lodha World Tower One is being built in Mumbai • 78 million people are homeless • There is a shortage of 18.78 million houses • Only 46.9% of the 246.6 million households have lavatories while 49.8% defecate in the open. The remaining 3.2% use public toilets.
  • 5. TRANSPORT • India is the sixth largest automobile producer • Harley Davidson has 3 assembly plants, one of them being in India • Tata Nano world’s cheapest car is a great achievement. • only 7 out of 1,000 people own a car • only around 10% of Indian households own a motorcycle. • 43.7% owns a bicycle • 34.5% of the households owns non these assets • Rural Indians uses transportation modes like bullock carts, tongs ,public transport .
  • 6. POVERTY & ILLITERACY •There are 2 Indians in world’s 10 richest and 10 India in Asia’s 25 richest. •Aakash launched in September is the world’s cheapest tablet at $60 retail price •Indian literacy rate grew to 74.04% in 2011 from 12% at the end of British rule in 1947 •India is estimated to have a third of the world's poor •8 Indian states have 421 million poor people more poor people than Sub- Saharan Africa •No primary school in 4,570 villages
  • 7. ELECTRICITY India's largest private producer with capacity of 8,620 Mw According to the United Nations: More than 56 percent of households do not have electricity connection s in India
  • 8. SPORTS •Indian Premier League (IPL) •Indian Grand Prix •Kabaddi World Cup •6 medals in 2012 Olympics •political intervention, lack of infrastructure, scientific training and nutritious food
  • 10. • At present, 29.8% of the Indian population lives below the poverty line. In the category of poor falls the people whose daily income is less than 32 rupees a day in cities and 26 rupees a day in villages. But do you think this amount is enough to survive even for a day in the country where every food item is available at sky-high prices? This means, the actual number of people living below the poverty line is much higher, as according to the statistical data, anyone earning 33 rupees won’t be considered as poor but must be facing the same difficulties in life. • Though the condition in cities is more or less the same but the rural welfare programs have really helped the people in rural India. With these efforts there has been seen a decrease in the poverty in rural India at faster pace than their urban counterparts.
  • 11. FACTS • Nearly 70% of india’s population resisdes in rural areas • According to 2011 census, out of 121 crore indians, 83.3 crore lives in rural areas whereas 37.7 crore lives in urban areas. • About 28.5% of the rural population lives BELOW POVERTY LINE.
  • 12. Mahatma gandhi national rural employment guarantee act Swarnajyanth i gram swarojgar yojana Pradhanma ntri gram sadak yojna Indira awas yojna RURAL SCHEMES AND PROGRAMMES Rashtriya swasthya bima yojna Rashtriya krishi vikas yojna
  • 13. EVALUATION • In 2000-01, almost Rs 10,000 crore was spent on rural development schemes. The central government has almost a dozen major schemes in operation. But how is the success or failure of these schemes to be evaluated? By the quantum of funds allocated? By the fulfilment of targets ? Or do we need a social cost-benefit analysis for each scheme? • While the central government spend certain amount of money set according to the budget, additional state government spending differs from state to state. State governments declare their own schemes, or contribute more resources towards central government schemes. • The central government currently has about 10-12 major schemes operational. They cover areas like rural housing, sanitation, water supply, wage employment, village-level minor infrastructural works, etc.
  • 14. • The fundamental shortcoming of the system is that there is no long- term planning for these schemes. In some cases, modifications take place every year; in others, grants or subsidies may not be reviewed for long periods. • The subsidy made under the Indira Awaas Yojana for rural housing has not been reviewed since 1996. This scheme is targeted at the poorest of the poor -- the landless unemployed. The subsidy of Rs 20,000 provided is inadequate to build a house as per the government specifications relating to material, layout, etc. Besides, the beneficiary, in this case, is not in a position to contribute much himself. • On the other hand, provisions for the Self-Help Group Scheme, under the Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana -- the proportion of loan to subsidy provided, allocation towards SC/ST groups, lending guidelines for banks, etc -- change almost every year. • Although these changes/modifications in the schemes are done in the best interests of the beneficiaries but constant changes create confusion in the minds of the administrative set-up at the ground level. • Worse is to expect poor, illiterate village folk, at whom these schemes are targeted, to understand their complexities from year to year. • Even assuming that the schemes get better with every modification, and giving the benefit of the doubt to the designers, there are several significant issues that need to be raised in respect of the scheme design and delivery systems.
  • 15. • First and foremost: what are the objectives of the scheme? • For instance, the rural housing scheme Indira Awaas Yojana provides subsidised housing to the poor. In this case, the effects of the scheme are straightforward and easy to measure. • But consider Central Rural Sanitation Programme? The objective is to provide subsidies to the rural poor to build latrines. • In this case, the central government prides itself on the number of latrines built under the scheme. • The fact is that total number of latrines constructed under the programme upto the end of the Eighth Plan period was 43,37,609, at a total cost of Rs 757.62 crore. But nowhere does it say that over a third of these latrines are not in use. Further, we are not told whether, in a particular area, access to sanitation has increased, the incidence of diarrhoea gone down or infant mortality reduced. MAJOR FLAWS
  • 16. • Thus we have a certain number of schemes, and a fixed amount of money allocated towards these schemes. But no social cost-benefit analysis for each of the schemes so that the returns from every rupee spent, or per-unit funds allocated, become available to the planners. • The success of each scheme is determined by 1. The targets achieved 2. The amount of money spent 3. The number of persons it covers • The basic problem seems to be the target-oriented approach adopted by the monitoring machinery.
  • 17. PARTICIPATORY NATURE • For any scheme to succeed, there must be a demand. And so, part of the funding allocated for a scheme must go towards creating awareness and imparting specific education about the scheme and its merits to the intended beneficiaries. This will help ensure that the beneficiaries accept the benefits because they perceive a need for it. This way there is a sense of participation in making the scheme a success. • For example, if proper attention is paid towards training and imparting skills to rural youth who are given loans for self- employment, the incidence of loan defaults, as well as the failure of activities started, is likely to be low. • The self-help group scheme, based on the Bangladesh Grameen Bank model, became a huge success, especially in states like Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. This scheme allocates 10% of the funds earmarked for the formation of each group towards the training of members. Members are encouraged to form their own groups and determine the activity they wish to start up. This ensures their participation, and the scheme is accepted as a response to a perceived need and is therefore perceived more responsibly.
  • 18. FINAL WORDS • Ultimately what is lacking is a definite vision for rural India. This might include, say, total literacy, at least 75% sanitation coverage, two children per family, villages with proper infrastructure, etc. • Practical and achievable targets must be set and priorities carefully laid out. • Once this is done, schemes can be aimed with precise objectives in mind. This will enable specific parameters to come into play, which will make judging the impact of the schemes much easier.
  • 19. WOMEN STATUS IN THE ANCIENT INDIA • Women enjoyed equivalent status & rights like their males counterparts. • In addition they were properly educated in the early Vedic period. • Women also had the freedom to select their husbands. This system was known as ‘Swayamvar.’ • In fact during this time, women had superior position than the males.
  • 20. WOMEN STATUS IN MEDIEVAL INDIA • The status of women in India deteriorated during the medieval period with the entrance of the Muslims. • Several evil practices such as female infanticide, sati and child marriage were practiced during this period. • ‘Purdah’ was introduced to the society. • Women were also forced to practice ‘zenana.’ Polygamy was also common during this period. • Some great-women rulers were Razia Sultana who was the only women-monarch to-rule-the throne of Delhi, Nur Jahan.In spite of these powerful women, the condition of poor women remained the same. • At this time girl were forced to get married at a very tender age. • The society also practiced Sati.
  • 21. WOMEN STATUS IN MODERN INDIA • During this time there was a little development in the women status. There were many women reformers in India who worked for the uplift & betterment of their female counterparts. • The begun of Bhopal discarded the ‘purdah’& fought in the revolt of 1857. • Various female writers emerged in the society. • In the modern time, women in India were given freedom & right such as freedom of expression & equality as well as the right to be educated. • Various prestigious positions at this period were held by women. • However, some problems such as dowry, domestic violence, sex selective abortion, female infanticide are still prevalent.
  • 22. HOW CAN WOMEN BE EMPOWERED? SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT • Women are educated about the social benefits including awareness about the existing social problems in the society, good recognition & image in the family & community, role in making important decision in their family, plan & promote better education for their children, taking care of health of the aged and the children just to mention a few. • Women are also allowed to participate in political and public life. Therefore, they are given a chance to serve the community including fighting for the basics amenities & welfare needs of the village community such as: • Safe drinking water • Public sanitation • Street light • Chance to help the weaker people like disable and the aged
  • 23. EMPOWERING INDIAN WOMEN BY EDUCATION • Most women are given a chance of finishing their education to the degree level. There are number of women education grants that offer help to women from poor background in order to give them a chance to be educated. • There’re various scholarships that benefits women in India to achieve their career by going back to school or various training institutions where they can further their education. • Many NGO in India offer support to women in order to benefit them in education. • These grants for women get most supports from different companies after realizing that women can perform better than men if they are well educated and equipped.
  • 24. EMPOWERING WOMEN IN BUSINESS • Women are encouraged to start small business in order to have their own source of income thus they become independent. • Various non-governmental organizations also offer financial support to women in India and encourage and teach them how they can be making their own money by starting various business activities. • The status of the women in India has greatly improved and there are many women who are holding high position in the government offices. This has proved that women can be even better than men if they are given an opportunity.
  • 25. To reflect and... Act. The difference between the underdeveloped countries and the developed ones is not the age of the country.
  • 26. This can be shown by countries like India & Egypt, that are more than 2000 years old and are poor and still not fully developed.
  • 27. On the other hand, Canada, Australia & New Zealand, that 150 years ago were inexpressive, today are developed countries and are rich.
  • 28. The difference between India and other developed countries does not reside in the available natural resources.
  • 29. Japan has a limited territory, 80% mountainous, inadequate for agriculture & cattle raising, but it is the second world economy. The country is like an immense floating factory, importing raw material from the whole world and exporting manufactured products.
  • 30. Another example is Switzerland, which does not plant cocoa but has the best chocolate of the world. In its little territory they raise animals and plant the soil during 4 months per year. Not enough, they produce dairy products of the best quality. It is a small country that transmits an image of security, order & labor, which made it the world’s strong safe.
  • 32. The difference is the attitude of the people, framed along the years by the education & the culture.
  • 33. 1. Ethics, as a basic principle. 2. Integrity. 3. Responsibility. 4. Respect to the laws & rules. 5. Respect to the rights of other citizens. 6. Work loving. 7. Strive for saving & investment. 8. Will of super action. 9. Punctuality.
  • 34. On analyzing the behavior of the people in rich & developed countries, we find that the great majority follow the following principles in their lives:
  • 35. In India, only a minority follow these basic principles in their daily life.
  • 36. We are not poor and fully developed because we lack natural resources or because nature was cruel to us.
  • 37. It is just because we lack attitude. We lack the will to comply with and teach these functional principles of rich & developed societies.
  • 38. If you love your country, let this message circulate for a major quantity of people could reflect about this & CHANGE, ACT!!