Top tip: It is a good idea to put your name, company’s name, company logo, title and date of the presentation on all the transparencies or handouts. Top tip: It is a good idea to put your name, company’s name, company logo, title and date of the presentation on all the transparencies or handouts.
Prepared By Gull Zareen
3/20/2014 1Gull Zareen
It is more fun to talk
with someone who
doesn't use long,
difficult words but
rather short, easy
words like "What about
3/20/2014 2Gull Zareen
By the end of today’s session, students will
be able to identify
• The meaning of Oral Message, and its
comparison with written message
• Purpose in oral presentation
• Planning strategies for oral presentation
• Choosing information to include in oral
• Ways of Organizing the information.
• Strategies to Deliver an effective presentation
• Handling questions.
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• It is written or oral message that
uses words to exchange
• The means of verbal
communication are Written
• Oral communication
• Non Verbal communication
• Its an unspoken or unwritten
message that uses body language.
It includes facial expressions,
gestures, eye contact physical
appearance etc..3/20/2014 4Gull Zareen
• Anything that emanates from the mouth
is referred as oral communication.
• Attributes of good oral communication-
• Sounds and sound combinations,
• Stress, Rhythm,
• Speed, pausing,
• Clarity of articulation,
• Voice modulation: volume & pitch
variation (avoiding “monotonous
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• Face-to-face communication
• Telephone conversation
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Effective tool of persuasion
Effective tool of group
Allows to measure effectiveness
It’s the only way out during an
emergency3/20/2014 8Gull Zareen
Possibility of misunderstanding
Unsuitable for long messages No legal validity
Distortion in passing the message
Constrained by physical barriers
Lack of retention/documentation
Ineffective when the target group is spread out
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The power of writing is eloquently expressed
in the saying “pen is mightier than the sword”
Written communication has acquired
great significance in the life of
individuals as well as business
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Methods of written
Communication in an organization
• contracts, etc…
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• Ready reference
• Legal defense
• Promotes uniformity
• Mass access
• Suitable for distance communication
• Image building
• Accurate and an ambiguous
• Permanent in nature
• Permits substitution and revision
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• Limited to literature world
• Time consuming
• Lot of paper work
• Needs expertise in expression
• Lack of immediate feedback
• More hours needed
• No immediate clarification
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Comparison: Written and Oral
Factors Immediate feedbacks is not
Legality kept as record, thus they can
be used as evidence.
it cannot be used as
Acceptance Not Easily acceptance Easily acceptable.
Barriers More Barriers Fewer Barriers
Knowledge Higher level of knowledge
and literacy is required
Even illiterate people can
Audience Size Large Limited
Cost More Expensive Less Expensive3/20/2014 14Gull Zareen
Immediate feedbacks is not
required and it is not possible
Needs immediate feedback,
and it is possible as well.
Time Taken Written Message takes more
time to reach the audience
Takes little time to prepare
Written message cannot be
easily distorted thus more
High possibility for the oral
message to be distorted,
thus less reliable.
Formality Used to maintain formal
Used to maintain informal
Record It always has a permanent
It seldom has a permanent
Significance Most significant in all types of
Less significant in
Flexibility Rigid Highly Flexible
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Purpose in Oral
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Purpose in Oral Presentation
• Oral presentations, like written presentations, must
be designed around a specific purpose.
• As a speaker, you must know your purpose.
• You must conceive your purposes in terms of your
• The oral presentation must make purpose clearly
evident at the beginning.
• By knowing what they will be hearing from the
beginning of the presentation, the audience can
more easily focus their attention on the content
presented and see connections between parts of
the talk.3/20/2014 17Gull Zareen
As you plan, state your goal in One
• Then, as you begin your presentation, state
your goal in terms of your audience's
background and attitude;
• Announce your purpose early in the
presentation to prepare your audience for
the main ideas to come.
• You may want to restate the purpose in
words familiar to the audience.
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Main purpose of your presentation
• to report the status of a
• to summarize a problem,
• to describe a plan,
• to propose an action,
• may be to highlight or
specific issues within the
topic about which you are
• Establish credibility
• You may want the audience
to dislike another proposed
• to desire a more
• or decide there isn't a
problem after all.
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Purpose in Oral Presentation
Ask yourself following questions:
• What is my purpose in giving this oral
• Is there (should there be) a long-range purpose?
• What is the situation that led to this
• Given my audience's background and
attitudes, do I need to reshape my purpose to
make my presentation more acceptable to my
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Purpose in Oral Presentation
• Keep your purpose in mind as you select
information to include in your presentation.
• The audience is often a client, So You want
to convey your enthusiasm, your technical
expertise and your professional judgment to
• Keep this audience in mind as you decide
what to include in your presentation.
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Advantages of Identifying the Purpose
• Identifying the purpose also helps you to
• what approach(es) and structure are most
appropriate to use.
• Will your approach be formal or informal?
• Do you want your audience to interact with
• Will you include role play, a PowerPoint
presentation, a demonstration or a
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Strategies to Plan Oral
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Strategies to Plan an Oral
• Planning an oral presentation requires
• Consider not only content but also the way
in which you will present information and
interact with your audience.
• It is important to outline each aspect of
your presentation thoroughly beforehand.
• Doing so will allow you to relax on the day
of your presentation.
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• Time Determination .
• If you have a maximum presentation
time of 10 minutes, decide how many of
those minutes you will use to answer
questions asked by your audience.
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Step # 2 Create an outline of the oral
• Divide the presentation into three parts:
• An introduction:
To establish why the importance of your
• A body:
• A conclusion:
which will impart concluding statements
about why the topic is important.
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Step # 3: Gather a list of resources.
• Strengthen your oral presentation with
references and facts proven by other
scholars who have studied the topic.
• Include a list of quotes and anecdotes
that relate to the topic of your
presentation and that inject humor or
great insight into the topic.
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Step # 4: Materials and Resources
• Decide the materials you will use during
your oral presentation.
• Decide if handouts or other on-hand
literature will be necessary to provide
audience members with an overview of
• Determine if visual aids such as a slide
show or poster boards will be necessary
to simplify hard-to-understand
language, terms and concepts.
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Step # 5 Method of Interaction
interact with your audience during the
Consider ways to incorporate:
• audience participation
• and storytelling, if possible,
• or interact with your audience by
walking among your audience and
making eye contact.
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While selecting information
Keep in mind:
• Your purpose
• Your Audience
• Given Time
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Finding relevant Information
• Research on the Topic and Find Supporting
Sources of Supporting Material:
• Reference Materials
• Government Documents
• The Internet/World Wide Web Search
• Online Libraries
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Tests of Supporting Material
• Is Information Specific?
• Is Source an Expert?
• Is Source Unbiased?
• Is Information Timely?
• Is Information Relevant to Point Made?
• Does Information Support the Point?
• Is Information Timely?
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Structure of a presentation
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• Signal the beginning (Anecdote can be
• Greet the audience
• Introduce yourself
• Give title and introduce subject:
What exactly are you going to speak about?
Situate the subject in time and place, in
relation to the audience and/or its
Give a rough idea or a working definition of
• Announce your outline.
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• Give your objectives (purpose,
• Presentations generally have
• to inform:
• to give an overview,
• to present,
• to summarize,
• to outline;
• to discuss the current situation
or to explain how to do
something or how something
• Specific one:
• What you want the audience
to takeaway with them after
listening to you,
• what you want them to do,
• what they should remember.
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Main Body (Actual Content )
• What information should you give in your
• Quality of Content: All your information
should support your purpose. In most cases
you will have to limit the content, as time is
• Quantity of Content: How much
information should you give?
• Enough to clearly develop your ideas.
• Don’t forget to illustrate through examples.
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Sequencing your Content:
• Chronological order;
• from general to specific;
• from known to unknown;
• from accepted to controversial;
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• The end or the conclusion of your talk
should include four parts:
• A brief reminder of what you tried to
show in your presentation and how you
tried to do so,
• A short conclusion,
• Thanks to the audience for listening,
• And an invitation to ask questions, make
comments or open a discussion.
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Strategies to deliver an
Effective Oral Presentation
Nothing says “naptime” like a speaker who
presents information in a dull, uninteresting way.
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Strategies to deliver an Effective Oral
• Most useful skills a person can have.
• From making political speeches to
leading a meeting among colleagues,
• Keep your oral presentation
clear, organized and audible.
• There are certain ways to hold your
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1. Outline or Cue Cards
• No matter how informal a presentation, chances are
you will want some way to keep yourself on topic.
• We either continue on one idea, or to jump from
point to point.
• Like a thesis sentence, a basic idea of what to discuss
and how to do so helps.
• For more impromptu communication, a mental
outline is sometimes all you will have time to
• Regardless of how much time you have to get your
speech ready, organization is key.
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2. Visual Aids
• People learn in different ways, including
those who respond more readily to
printed material than to verbal
• Using visual aids is a good way to make
sure that your ideas are explained fully
to all members of the audience.
• Visual aids come in many forms, from
pictures to charts to PowerPoint
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Make Eye Contact
• Disguise your fear.
• Looking at audience:
• forces them to pay more attention.
• Makes them more interested.
• This is not just a psychological reaction,
but also aural: if you are looking directly
at someone, it is usually easier to hear
what he is saying.
• Attention is always reciprocated
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Enunciate and Project
• Speaking clearly.
• Be audible
• paying attention to how you pronounce
words and phrases.
• Speak slower than usual .
• Speak correctly.
• Time your breathing around your words
so you can project sound directly from
3/20/2014 45Gull Zareen
Three most common mistakes
• ‘The most watched TED Talks were not
given by presenters who stood there,
just clicking through slides.’ Durate
• Rather, they—are entertaining and
• They understand that the delivery of
their message needs contrast in order to
be more than a boring slideshow.
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Mistake: Forgetting we live in a
• Impatient culture.
• Thanks to the entertainment industry:
• Audiences have become accustomed to quick action,
rapid scene changes, and soundtracks that make the
• They have set high expectations for visual and visceral
• And have undermined our ability to sit attentively for an
hour while a speaker drones on.
• The key to getting and holding attention is
to always have something new happening.
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Mistake: Just standing there
• It’s time to start changing up delivery
• Do anything other than stand in front of the
room, to create an element of surprise that
will keep your audience interested.
• Changing delivery modes can
include physical movement on the
stage, but that’s just the tip of the iceberg.
• Use alternate media, multiple
presenters, and interaction to keep your
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Depending on slides to communicate
• Overusing slides diminishes the power of
• To avoid death-glares—or worse yet,
snoring sounds—from your audience, you
must bring a sense of human interaction.
• Make it personal; make it surprising; make
• Emphasize on Connectedness:
You may be comfortable with your wall of
jargon , but what people are really looking
for is some kind of human connection.
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Ways to transform from Traditional
• Our natural survival instincts compel us
to watch changing visual events with
• Changes in media,
• Alternating presenters,
• a dramatic gesture.
• By using both traditional and
nontraditional delivery methods, you
build contrast into your presentation.
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• You are the expert
• Prepare among friends
• Insist that they challenge you
• It’s OK to say you don’t know, or haven’t
done the experiment yet.
• The three “D”’s
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• Before presentation anticipate
• During question and answer session:
Listen to entire question
Make sure you understand it
Repeat question out loud
Credit person for asking question
Respond to question honestly and the
best way you can
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• If you cannot answer,
– Redirect question to audience
– Offer to find out answer later
• Check clarity of your response before
taking on next question
• Try not to contradict each other when
giving a team presentation
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