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Managing Postgres with Ansible


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This presentation is prepared for PGConf Europe 2015 in Vienna.

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Managing Postgres with Ansible

  1. 1. 1 ManagingManaging PostgreSQL withPostgreSQL with AnsibleAnsible Gülçin YıldırımGülçin Yıldırım PGConf EU, 2015, Vienna
  2. 2. 2 select * from me;select * from me; Postgres DBA @ Studying MSc Comp. & Systems Eng. @ Studied BSc Maths Eng. @ Writes blog on 2ndQuadrant Does some childish Loves independent films 2ndQuadrant Tallinn University of Technology Yildiz Technical University blog paintings @ Skype: gulcin2ndq Github: apatheticmagpie gulcin
  3. 3. 3 AgendaAgenda
  4. 4. 4 What is Ansible?What is Ansible? “ Simple, agentless and powerful open source IT automation tool Provisioning Configuration Management Application Deployment Continuous Delivery Security & Compliance Orchestration
  5. 5. 5 Why so popular?Why so popular? Why now?Why now? The technology: APIs, Cloud Management Nearly every major service has an API these days. The need: More and more products are now composed of distributed components. More moving parts. They need to be managed. The practise: It is now common to automate builds, tests, deployments, integration. Infrastructure is the next thing to automate.
  6. 6. 6 What are the options?What are the options?
  7. 7. 7 What are the options?What are the options?
  8. 8. 8 Why Ansible?Why Ansible? Agent-less architecture (no agent is required, everything is done by using SSH, ssh for communication) No centralised server, no client-side agents SSH based, no Configuration as data, not code (YAML files) Batteries included (community, playbooks, modules, roles, tasks, documentation) Full configuration management, deployment and orchestration Custom modules can be written in any programming language. JSON input/output is sufficient to integrate a module into Ansible. PKI
  9. 9. 9 Life before AnsibleLife before Ansible Multiple ssh, control panels, editing config files manually.
  10. 10. 10 Let's install AnsibleLet's install Ansible
  11. 11. 11 Let's install AnsibleLet's install Ansible Debian or Ubuntu:Debian or Ubuntu: apt-get install python-dev python-setuptools easy_install pip pip install ansible boto Mac OS X:Mac OS X: sudo easy_install pip sudo pip install ansible boto
  12. 12. 12 Code of this talkCode of this talk Before we start discussing Ansible in more detail, please check the repo that I created for this talk: In this example, we will: Provision Amazon VPC and EC2 instances Install latest PostgreSQL packages Setup a streaming replication with 1 master and 2 standbys Add a new standby server
  13. 13. 13 Configuration managementConfiguration management Why do we need a better & modern approach? Manual tasks are error prone Very difficult to setup test environments before changing/implementing something big Too many servers require too many tasks to be repeated on each of them Since it is a manual process, some servers may go out of sync, they may become outdated or even misconfigured Leads to heterogenous environment instead of a homogenous & more managable one
  14. 14. 14 ProvisioningProvisioning Automated: Simplifies system administrators job by freeing them from most of manual interventions. Idempotent: Ensures that the system is in the state we expect it to be. Agentless: Every resource is managed by SSH or APIs (like the Amazon API). Feature-rich: Provides lots of modules from file handling to virtual machine provisioning.
  15. 15. 15 Application deploymentApplication deployment Time & Bandwidth Efficient: Synchronizes only new or changed files. Full Process Handling: Ansible can remove servers from load-balancers and stop services before transfers. Then it can restore them all back. Zero-Downtime Deployment: It can deploy on a subset of servers and then move on to the next set to ensure that the system is always up and running. Same solution can be run on developer machines, production environment, staging environment, testing environment, etc...
  16. 16. 16 Continuous deliveryContinuous delivery “ Continuous delivery means adopting a fast and simple approach for releases. Ansible helps us with two main aspects: 1. Enables frequent releases without downtimes 2. Requires as little human intervention as possible It can automate any task from provisioning servers to configuring services to become production ready. Works very well in-front of a continuous integration system.
  17. 17. 17 Security and complianceSecurity and compliance You need to be sure about security of your: Systems / Services / Software Data Customer's data Once the security policy has been set, Ansible can be used to turn the system back into the compliance mode, instantly. Ansible is easy-to-use whether it’s about: Setting up firewall rules Locking down users and groups Applying custom security policies
  18. 18. 18 OrchestrationOrchestration Ansible ensures that all tasks are executed in the proper order. This makes orchestration of complex multi-tier deployments easier. For example, considering the deployment of a software stack, Ansible makes sure that: The networking is setup before resources are communicating PostgreSQL servers are up and running before app deployment Containers are launched before the services are taken online Application is deployed before the load balancers are activated We will see this in action with our demo.
  19. 19. 19 Building BlocksBuilding Blocks An Ansible solution is composed of one or more items listed on the left side. Typically, our solutions executes tasks for an inventory, utilizing some modules, using or populating some variables, processing some file templates, in a playbook, which can be organized in roles. Let's see each of them in detail.
  20. 20. 20 Building Blocks - InventoryBuilding Blocks - Inventory Tells Ansible about hosts it should manage Hostnames, IPs, ports, SSH parameters Server specific variables 2 common ways to provide Ansible an inventory: Static inventory: A flat INI file (e.g., ) Dynamic inventory: An application returning a JSON data (e.g.,: for Amazon EC2) Hosts are grouped. They can belong to multiple groups Groups can also belong to multiple groups hosts.ini
  21. 21. 21 Building Blocks - InventoryBuilding Blocks - Inventory Below inventory file in INI format contains 3 hosts under 2 groups. There is also a 3rd group which contains other groups and all of the hosts. # "master" group with 1 host [master] postgresql-master ansible_ssh_host= ansible_ssh_user=ubuntu # "standby" group with 2 hosts [standbys] postgresql-standby-01 ansible_ssh_host= ansible_ssh_user=ubuntu postgresql-standby-02 ansible_ssh_host= ansible_ssh_user=ubuntu # the "replication" group contains both "master" and "standbys" groups [replication:children] master standbys
  22. 22. 22 Building Blocks - ModuleBuilding Blocks - Module Modules provide Ansible means to control or manage resources on local or remote servers. They perform a variety of functions. For example a module may be responsible for rebooting a machine or it can simply display a message on the screen. Ansible allows users to write their own modules and also provides out-of-the-box core or extras modules. Core: Maintained by the core Ansible team and always shipped with Ansible. Extras: Maintained by the community. Might be shipped separately in the future.
  23. 23. 23 Building Blocks - ModuleBuilding Blocks - Module Some of the most commonly used modules are: File handling: file, stat, copy, template Remote execution: command, shell Service management: service Package management: apt, yum, bsd, ports Source control systems: git, subversion
  24. 24. 24 Building Blocks - TaskBuilding Blocks - Task Tasks are responsible for calling a module with a specific set of parameters. Each Ansible task contains: a descriptive name [optional] a module to be called module parameters pre/post-conditions [optional] processing directives [optional] They allow us to call Ansible modules and pass information to consecutive tasks.
  25. 25. 25 Building Blocks - TaskBuilding Blocks - Task Below task invokes the "file" module by providing 4 parameters. It ensures 3 conditions are true: /var/lib/postgresql exists as a directory owner of /var/lib/postgresql is "postgres" group of /var/lib/postgresql is "postgres" If it doesn't exist, Ansible creates the directory and assigns owner & group. If only the owner is different, Ansible makes it "postgres". - name: Ensure the data folder has right ownership file: path="/var/lib/postgresql" state=directory owner=postgres group=postgres
  26. 26. 26 Building Blocks - TaskBuilding Blocks - Task Following example shows relationships between tasks. The first task checks if a device exists and the second task mounts the device depending on the result from the first task. Please note "register" and "when" keywords. - name: Check if the data volume partition exists stat: path=/dev/sdc1 register: partition - name: Ensure the PostgreSQL data volume is mounted mount: src=/dev/sdc1 name="/var/lib/postgresql/9.4" fstype=ext4 state=mounted when: partition.stat.exists is defined and partition.stat.exists
  27. 27. 27 Building Blocks - VariableBuilding Blocks - Variable Variables in Ansible are very useful for reusing information. Sources for variables are: Inventory: We can assign variables to hosts or groups (group vars, host vars). YAML files: We can include files containing variables. Task results: Result of a task can be assigned to a variable using the register keyword as shown in the previous slide. Playbooks: We can define variables in Ansible playbooks (more on that later). Command line: (-e means extra variable // -e "uservar=gulcin")
  28. 28. 28 Building Blocks - VariableBuilding Blocks - Variable There is also discovered variables (facts) and they can be found by using module: All of the output in json: bios_version, architecture, default_ipv4_address, ansible_os_family, etc. You can use variables in tasks, templates themselves and you can iterate over using with_type functions. setup ansible -i hosts.ini -m setup hostname - name: Ensure PostgreSQL users are present postgresql_user: state: present name: "{{ }}" password: "{{ item.password }}" role_attr_flags: "{{ item.roles }}" with_items: postgresql_users
  29. 29. 29 Building Blocks - TemplateBuilding Blocks - Template We can think templates as our configuration files. Ansible lets us use the for reforming and parameterising our files. The Jinja2 templating engine offers a wide range of control structures, functions and .. Some of useful capabilities of Jinja2: for-loops join(), default(), range(), format() union(), intersect(), difference() | to_json, | to_nice_yaml, | from_json, | from_yml | min, | max, | unique, | version_compare, | random Jinja2 template engine filters
  30. 30. 30 Building Blocks - TemplateBuilding Blocks - Template *:*:*:{{ }}:{{ postgresql_replication_user.password }} Let's check our template:pgpass.j2 Let's have a look at file, too:pg_hba.conf.j2 # Access to user from local without password, from subnet with password {% for user in postgresql_users %} local all {{ }} trust host all {{ }} {{ ec2_subnet }} md5 {% endfor %} # Replication user for standby servers access {% for standby_ip in postgresql_standby_ips %} host replication {{ }} {{ standby_ip }}/32 md5 {% endfor %}
  31. 31. 31 Building Blocks - PlaybookBuilding Blocks - Playbook Playbooks contains Plays Plays contain Tasks Tasks call Modules and may (optionally) trigger handlers (run once, run at the end)
  32. 32. 32 Building Blocks - PlaybookBuilding Blocks - Playbook Ansible playbooks are written using the YAML syntax. Playbooks may contain more than one plays Each play contains: name of host groups to connect to tasks it needs to perform. A play may also contain variables/roles/handlers, if defined. Strict dependency ordering: everything in file performs in a sequential order.
  33. 33. 33 Building Blocks - PlaybookBuilding Blocks - Playbook Let's look at our playbook example ( ):main.yml --- - name: Ensure all virtual machines are ready hosts: connection: local vars_files: # load default variables from YAML files below - 'defaults/postgresql.yml' - 'defaults/aws.yml' tasks: - include: 'tasks/provision.yml' # load infrastructure setup tasks - name: Ensure all required PostgreSQL dependencies ready hosts: postgresql-all # manage all PostgreSQL servers sudo: yes sudo_user: root vars_files: - 'defaults/postgresql.yml' - 'defaults/aws.yml' tasks: - include: 'tasks/postgresql.yml' # load PostgreSQL setup tasks ...
  34. 34. 34 Building Blocks - RoleBuilding Blocks - Role “ You absolutely should be using roles. Roles are great. Use roles. Roles! Did we say that enough? Roles are great. In Ansible, playbooks organize tasks roles organize playbooks Imagine that we have lots of independent resources to manage (e.g., web servers, PostgreSQL servers, logging, monitoring, AWS, ...). Putting everything in a single playbook may result in an unmaintainable solution.
  35. 35. 35 Building Blocks - RoleBuilding Blocks - Role To reduce such complexity, roles help us with: Splitting tasks into much smaller playbooks This allows us to focus on resources, independently. That makes it simpler to maintain and debug. Also it will be much easier to understand the structure. Reusing configs, files, templates, tasks This way we can easily share those components between playbooks, without rewriting over and over. Handling playbook dependencies When we execute a role, we can be sure that all of preconditions are satisfied for that role.
  36. 36. 36 Building Blocks - RoleBuilding Blocks - Role Here you can see a dependency graph and the corresponding role directory structure:
  37. 37. 37 How to Invoke Ansible?How to Invoke Ansible? To work with Ansible, we have 2 main alternatives; 1. Running ad-hoc commands 2. Running playbooks Let's check them out one by one.
  38. 38. 38 Ad-hoc CommandsAd-hoc Commands We can call any Ansible module from the command line, anytime. The ansible CLI tool works like a single task. It requires an inventory, a module name, and module parameters. For example, given an inventory file like: Now we can call any module. [dbservers]
  39. 39. 39 Ad-hoc CommandsAd-hoc Commands We can check uptimes of all hosts in dbservers using: Here we can see the Ansible output: ansible dbservers -i hosts.ini -m command -a "uptime" gulcin@apathetic ~ # ansible dbservers -i hosts.ini -m command -a "uptime" | success | rc=0 >> 21:16:24 up 93 days, 9:17, 4 users, load average: 0.08, 0.03, 0.05
  40. 40. 40 How to Run Playbooks?How to Run Playbooks? For more complex scenarios, we can create playbooks or roles and ask Ansible to run them. When we run a playbook or a role, Ansible first gathers a lot of useful facts about remote systems it manages. These facts can later be used in playbooks, templates, config files, etc. We can use the ansible-playbook CLI tool to run playbooks.
  41. 41. 41 How to Run Playbooks?How to Run Playbooks? Given an inventory file like this: We may have a playbook that connects to hosts in dbservers group, executes the uptime command, and then displays that command's output. Now let's create a simple playbook to see how it can be ran. [dbservers]
  42. 42. 42 How to Run Playbooks?How to Run Playbooks? Here is the main.yml file for the playbook we just described: --- - hosts: dbservers tasks: - name: retrieve the uptime command: uptime register: command_result # Store this command's result in this variable - name: Display the uptime debug: msg="{{ command_result.stdout }}" # Display command output here
  43. 43. 43 How to Run Playbooks?How to Run Playbooks? Now we can run the playbook and see it's output here: gulcin@apathetic ~ $ ansible-playbook -i hosts.ini main.yml PLAY [dbservers] ************************************************************** GATHERING FACTS *************************************************************** ok: [] TASK: [retrieve the uptime] *************************************************** changed: [] TASK: [Display the uptime] **************************************************** ok: [] => { "msg": " 15:54:47 up 3 days, 14:32, 2 users, load average: 0.00, 0.01, 0.05" } PLAY RECAP ******************************************************************** : ok=3 changed=1 unreachable=0 failed=0
  44. 44. 44 Playbook controlPlaybook control --tags / --skip-tags Runs or skips tasks with specified tags --limit Manages only specified hosts or groups --start-at-task Start execution from a specific task --step Executes step-by-step and asks for confirmation to continue --check / --diff / --syntax-check Runs a playbook without actually executing anything
  45. 45. 45 PlaybookPlaybook loopsloops N.B! register assigns result of a task to a variable. Ansible supports iterating over facts with loop statements: with_items: runs the task using the provided array variable with_indexed_items: runs the task using the provided array variable and adds item index with_flattened: runs the task using merged variables with_file: runs the task using given file's contents Some other with_type functions: with_together, with_nested, with_subelements, with_sequence, with_random_choice, with_first_found, with_lines..
  46. 46. 46 with_itemswith_items - vars: postgresql_users: - { name: gulcin, password: apathetic, roles: "SUPERUSER,LOGIN" } - { name: foo, password: foobarbaz, roles: "CREATEDB,LOGIN" } - name: Ensure PostgreSQL users are present postgresql_user: state: present name: "{{ }}" password: "{{ item.password }}" role_attr_flags: "{{ item.roles }}" with_items: postgresql_users Executes the task for each element in given array Current element value can be accessed using {{ item }}
  47. 47. 47 with_indexed_itemswith_indexed_items - name: Ensure standby hosts have updated IP addresses add_host: name: "postgresql-standby-{{ item.0 + 1 }}" # e.g., postgresq-standby-1 groups: "postgresql-standbys" ansible_ssh_host: "{{ item.1.tagged_instances[0].public_ip }}" ansible_ssh_user: "{{ ec2_ssh_user }}" with_indexed_items: ec2_standbys.results Executes the task for each element in given array Current element index can be accessed using {{ item.0 }} Current element value can be accessed using {{ item.1 }}
  48. 48. 48 with_flattenedwith_flattened - name: Wait for SSH to become ready wait_for: host="{{ item.tagged_instances[0].public_ip }}" port=22 timeout=320 state=started with_flattened: - [ ec2_master ] # ec2_master is a single item. # By putting [ and ], we convert it into an array - ec2_standbys.results Merges given arrays into a single one Executes the task for each element in merged array Current element value can be accessed using {{ item }}
  49. 49. 49 with_filewith_file Executes the task for the given file Contents of the file can be accessed using {{ item }} - name: Ensure the SSH key is present ec2_key: state: present region: "eu-central-1" # Amazon's Frankfurt Datacenter name: "postgresql-key" # we will use this name later key_material: "{{ item }}" with_file: "" # reads contents of this file to use in "key_material"
  50. 50. 50 Advanced playbook featuresAdvanced playbook features For some advanced operations, we can use following in our tasks: failed_when (condition) / changed_when (condition): Lets tasks to know when they're going to fail or change based on the given condition. It might be stdout or stderr, or text to log. until (condition): Repeats the task until the given condition is satisfied. ignore_errors: Doesn't fail on errors run_always: Runs even in dry-run / check / diff modes
  51. 51. 51 Advanced playbook featuresAdvanced playbook features serial: Runs the task on a single host at a single time pre_tasks / post_tasks: Defines names of tasks that are executed before or after the current task. These referenced tasks are not either main tasks or roles, but they setup the environment to be ready for that. delegate_to (host): This tells Ansible to execute the current task on the given host instead of the current host that is defined by the inventory. For example, if we want to start a virtual machine, we can't do that on that machine, because it is not running. We can simply delegate this task to localhost (
  52. 52. 52 Postgres modulesPostgres modules My blog post covers Ansible PostgreSQL modules: You can find the related Postgres modules' examples on my github . Ansible Loves PostgreSQL repo : Creates/removes a given db. : Adds/removes extensions from a db. : Adds/removes users and roles from a db. : Grants/revokes privileges on db objects (table, sequence, function, db, schema, language, tablespace, group). : Adds, removes or changes procedural languages with a db. postgresql_db postgresql_ext postgresql_user postgresql_privs postgresql_lang
  53. 53. 53 postgresql_dbpostgresql_db Creates/removes a given db. In Ansible terminology, it ensures that a given db is present or absent. Required param: name Connection params: login_host, port,login_user, login_password Important param: state (present or absent) Create db module_test Remove db module_test
  54. 54. 54 postgresql_extpostgresql_ext Adds/removes extensions from a db. PostgreSQL offers a wide range of extensions which are extremely helpful. Mandatory params: db and name (for extension) Other params: state and connection params (login_host, port) as in postgres_db
  55. 55. 55 postgresql_userpostgresql_user Adds/removes users and roles from a db. Parameters: name (mandatory), state, connection params, db, password, priv, role_attr_flags ([NO]SUPERUSER, [NO]CREATEDB..) Creates user Alters role and gives login and createdb
  56. 56. 56 postgresql_privspostgresql_privs Grants/revokes privileges on db objects (table, sequence, function, db, schema, language, tablespace, group). Required params: database, roles Important opt. params: type (i.e. table,sequence,function), objs, privs (i.e. ALL; SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT)
  57. 57. 57 postgresql_langpostgresql_lang Adds, removes or changes procedural languages with a db. “ One of the very powerful features of PostgreSQL is its support for virtually any language to be used as a procedural language. Params: lang (mandatory), db, connection params, state, cascade, trust
  58. 58. 58 AWS modulesAWS modules Ansible provides more than 50 modules for provisioning and managing Amazon Web Services resources. We have modules for: EC2 (Virtual machine instances) AMI (Virtual machine images) ELB (Load balancers) VPC (Networking infrastructure) EBS (Storage infrastructure) ...
  59. 59. 59 AWS modulesAWS modules Ansible AWS modules are developed using . Boto is a Python package that provides interfaces to Amazon Web Services. For more complex workflows, we can use the script to discover dynamic inventories for our playbooks: Download and ec2.ini from cp /etc/ansible/hosts cp ec2.ini /etc/ansible chmod +x /etc/ansible/hosts Boto
  60. 60. 60 ec2_keyec2_key Manages SSH key pairs that we use to connect to our instances. Parameters: state: present or absent name: name of the SSH key key_material: contents of the public SSH key region: AWS region to deploy key to (Ireland, Frankfurt, etc) wait: wait for the state 'available' before returning - name: Ensure the SSH key is present ec2_key: state: present region: "eu-central-1" # Amazon's Frankfurt Datacenter name: "postgresql-key" # we will use this name later key_material: "{{ item }}" with_file: "" # reads contents of this file to use in "key_material"
  61. 61. 61 ec2_vpcec2_vpc Manages virtual private clouds & networking. state, region, wait: ... same as previous module ... cidr_block: CIDR representing this cloud (e.g., internet_gateway: is internet access enabled? resource_tags: A list of tags in form: { tag1: value1, tag2: value2, ... } subnets: An array of subnets in form: [{ cidr: BLOCK, az: ZONE, resource_tags: [ TAGS ] }] route_tables: An array of routes in form: [{ subnets: [ BLOCKS ], routes: [ ROUTES ], resource_tags: [ TAGS ] }]
  62. 62. 62 ec2_vpcec2_vpc - name: Ensure VPC is present ec2_vpc: state: present # Create a VPC region: "eu-central-1" # Amazon's Frankfurt Datacenter cidr_block: "" subnets: - cidr: "" route_tables: - subnets: [ "" ] routes: - dest: # Everywhere gw: igw # Name of Amazon's default gateway internet_gateway: yes # We want our instances to connect to internet wait: yes # Wait until the VPC is ready resource_tags: { environment: "production", tier: "DB" } register: vpc # Store task results in this variable to use in later tasks
  63. 63. 63 ec2_groupec2_group Manages firewalls. state, region, name: ... same as previous module ... vpc_id: identifier of the VPC description: Text for purpose of this security group rules: An array of security rules in form: [{ proto: protocol, from_port: port, to_port: port, cidr_ip: block }] protocol can be tcp, udp, icmp, any, ... port can be a port number or -1 (any port) block should be a CIDR block (e.g.,
  64. 64. 64 ec2_groupec2_group - name: Ensure the PostgreSQL security group is present ec2_group: state: present vpc_id: "{{ vpc.vpc_id }}" # Obtain recently provisioned VPC's ID region: "eu-central-1" # Amazon's Frankfurt Datacenter name: "PostgreSQL" description: "Security group for PostgreSQL database servers" rules: - proto: tcp # Allow SSH access from anywhere from_port: 22 to_port: 22 cidr_ip: - proto: all # Allow everything from machines in the subnet from_port: -1 # Any port to_port: -1 # Any port cidr_ip: "" register: security_group # Use results of this task later
  65. 65. 65 ec2ec2 Creates, deletes, starts, stops, restarts virtual machine instances. state, region, name, wait: ... same as previous modules ... instance_tags: same as resource_tags group_id: identifier of the security group vpc_subnet_id: identifier of the VPC subnet key_name: SSH key name instance_type: type of the instance (e.g., c3.large, t2.micro, etc.) private_ip: IP address in the subnet we provided assign_public_ip: should the instance have a public IP address? volumes: an array of disk volumes in form: {[ device_name: NAME, volume_size: SIZE, delete_on_termination: FLAG ]}
  66. 66. 66 ec2ec2 - name: Ensure master EC2 instances & volumes are present ec2: assign_public_ip: yes # our machines should access internet instance_tags: { Name: "pg-master {{ postgresql_master_ip }}", environment: "production" } exact_count: 1 count_tag: Name: "pg-master {{ postgresql_master_ip }}" image: "ami-accff2b1" # Ubuntu Server 14.04 instance_type: "t2.micro" group_id: "{{ security_group.group_id }}" key_name: "postgresql-key" private_ip: "{{ postgresql_master_ip }}" # e.g., region: "eu-central-1" # Amazon's Frankfurt Datacenter volumes: - device_name: /dev/sdc volume_size: "50" # 50GB disk volume delete_on_termination: false # Volume should remain after instance is deleted vpc_subnet_id: "{{ vpc.subnets[0].id }}" wait: yes # Wait until the instance becomes running register: ec2_master # Register results here so we can use them later
  67. 67. 67 Action!Action!
  68. 68. 68 Demo playbook structureDemo playbook structure
  69. 69. 69 Playbook AWS architecturePlaybook AWS architecture
  70. 70. 70 First runFirst run
  71. 71. 71 Verify setupVerify setup
  72. 72. 72 New standby serverNew standby server
  73. 73. 73 ConclusionConclusion Ansible loves PostgreSQL and Ansible has a very active community. <wishlist> That's why more PostgreSQL modules would be helpful for everyone. Making contributions to Ansible will be appreciated :) </wishlist>
  74. 74. 74 Questions?Questions? Huge Thanks!Huge Thanks!
  75. 75. 75 ReferencesReferences Ansible quick start video Review: Puppet vs Chef vs Ansible vs Salt Managing PostgreSQL with Ansible in EC2 Jinja2 for better Ansible playbooks and templates Edmund The Elephant center/data-center-review-puppet-vs-chef-vs-ansible-vs-salt.html 2013/9781449371630/part22.html