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Réflexions sur le secteur nucléaire américain


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Michel Debes, ancien Président de la SFANS, a partagé avec la SFEN LR/VR ses réflexions sur le secteur nucléaire aux Etats-Unis, le 17 décembre 2013 chez EDF Tricastin

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Réflexions sur le secteur nucléaire américain

  1. 1. SFEN Tricastin 17 Décembre 2013 Espace d'information du public EDF Nuclear power in US Some key points Michel Debes Electricité de France - Generation and Engineering Division Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 1 1
  2. 2. Summary - La place du nucléaire dans le monde et aux USA - Le nucléaire aux USA place dans la production électrique les réacteurs en exploitation et la sûreté production extension de la durée de fonctionnement à 60 ans augmentation de puissance L'organisation de l'industrie nucléaire et de la NRC Plan d'action post FKH Economie du nucléaire aux USA et conséquences Les nouvelles constructions - les perspectives et le développement des SMRs - le back end: Blue Ribbon Commission, entreposage du combustible usé - point marquant: l'implication des universités dans les programmes de R&D nucléaire du DOE - les activités d'EDF aux USA Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 2 2
  3. 3. Global Energy Distribution worldwide Nuclear power has been used to produce electricity since the early 1950s. Today there are more than 430 nuclear power reactors, with a total capacity of about 372 GWe, operating in 31 countries. Global energy distributionas indicated by nighttime electricity use An additional 70 units, totaling more than 60 GWe, are under construction. During 2011, nuclear power produced more than 2500 TWh of electricity. Globally, the nuclear energy industry now has about 15,000 reactor-years of operating experience. Concentration of currently operating reactors Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 3 3
  4. 4. Nuclear worldwide - USA and France - France: 2nd largest nuclear country after US - EDF: largest nuclear operator (58 units) - USA: Exelon is the largest in US (22 units inc. CENG) Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 4 4
  5. 5. US DOE • Nuclear Energy Plays an Important Role in US Energy Supply Nuclear power is a clean, reliable base load energy source – Provides 19% of U.S. electricity generation mix (770 TWh in 2012) – Provides 61% of U.S. emission-free electricity – Avoids about 700 MMTCO2 each year – Helps reduces overall NOx and SOx levels • U.S. electricity demand projected to increase ~28% by 2040 from 2011 levels • 100 GWe nuclear capacity - 100 operating plants (104 in 2012) – Fleet maintaining close to 90% average capacity factors – Most expected to apply for license renewal for 60 years of operation. Source: Energy Information Administration Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 5 5
  6. 6. President Obama’s Nuclear Energy Goals “With rising oil prices and a warming climate, nuclear energy will only become more important. That’s why, in the United States, we’ve restarted our nuclear industry as part of a comprehensive strategy to develop every energy source.” Nuclear Security Summit - March 26, 2012 "We have an obligation to leave our children a planet that’s not polluted or damaged, and by taking steady, responsible steps to cut carbon pollution and an all-of-the-above approach to develop homegrown energy … We're building the first nuclear power plants in more than three decades in Georgia and South Carolina.― - Georgetown University June 26th, 2013 Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 6 6
  7. 7. From the 1950s through the 1980s, the US dominated the international market for commercial nuclear technology. As the dominant supplier, the US was able to exert great influence in shaping the global nuclear nonproliferation regime. A strong program of domestic nuclear plant operation and construction, combined with government policies to promote advanced technologies and support nuclear technology cooperation with, and exports to, other nations helped the United States sustain this leadership position for decades. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 7 7
  8. 8. U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors As of August 2013: 100 licensed commercial nuclear power reactors operating at 62 sites in 31 States, of which: - 35 BWRs and 65 PWRs. - 4 different reactor vendors - 25 operating companies - about 80 different designs. Although commercial U.S. reactors have many similarities, each one can be considered unique. 21 power reactors undergoing decommissioning (during 2013, 4 NPPs - Kewaunee, Crystal River, San Onofre 1&2 - were permanently shut down and entered the decommissioning process). Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 8 8
  9. 9. Nuclear Production and Capacity factor Nuclear capacity: 100 GWe Net nuclear power generation: 769,7 TWh in 2012, The total capacity factor of US NPPs during 2012 was 86.4%, the lowest since 1999, a result of a series of extended outages that kept four units shut for most of the year (Cristal River 3 for containment damage permanently shutdown, fort Calhoun for flooding risk, San Onofre 2-3 for SGs permanently shut down) US nuclear plant capacity factors peaked in 2007 at 91.8%, and the figure for 2011 was 89.1%. The highest annual net generation was 806,9 TWh in 2010. (nb: the average was in the 50% range during the 1970s and 1980s, rising above 80% for the first time only in 1999). Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 9 9
  10. 10. Power uprate Since the 1970s, the US utilities have sought power uprates on existing nuclear plants. By January 2013, the NRC had approved 146 power uprates, resulting in a gain of approximately 6,823 megawatts electric (MWe) at existing plants. Collectively, these uprates have added the equivalent of six new reactors. ex: last authorization in December 2013 for Monticello BWR 613 MW +10% .... but now: posponent due to capital cost and competition with shale gas Reactor license renewal, up to 60 years Commercial power reactor operating licenses are valid for 40 years and may be renewed for up to an additional 20 years. • 28 units with original license • 43 sites comprised of 72 units issued renewal licenses • 9 sites with license renewal applications in review • 11 sites with letters of intent to submit renewal license applications => under review: possibility to extend up to 80 years DOE, NRC and the nuclear industry are beginning to consider the prospects for such long-term operation, known as ―life beyond 60‖ Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 10 10
  11. 11. The US industry and NRC organization Nuclear industry: - Nuclear Utilities: the primary responsibility for safety rests with licensees, which are accountable for meeting regulatory requirements. In addition, voluntary safety initiatives can enhance safety if implemented and maintained effectively. - Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO): a strong force for self-regulation, implemented after TMI, to promote high levels of safety and reliability in the NPPs operations. - NEI: Nuclear Energy Institute: nuclear lobbying, interaction with NRC for generic issues - EPRI: R&D Electric Power Research Institute, gathering nuclear utilities - Department of Energy (DOE) whose mission is to advance energy technology and promote related innovation in the US - US Export-Import Bank :which was formed for the purposes of financing and insuring foreign purchases of US goods The safety authority: the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - An independent agency (4000 people) created by Congress. Its mission is to license and regulate the civilian use of radioactive materials to protect public health and safety, promote the common defense and security, and protect the environment. - The NRC regulates commercial nuclear power plants; research, test, and training reactors; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; the use of radioactive materials in medical, academic, and industrial settings; the transport, storage, and disposal of radioactive materials and waste; the export and import of radioactive materials. - The NRC regulates US industries and works with agencies around the world to enhance global nuclear safety and security. - The NRC’s Commission has five members nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate for 5-year terms. The President designates one member to serve as Chairman. - Values: The NRC adheres to the principles of good regulation—independence, openness, efficiency, clarity, and reliability. The agency puts these principles into practice with effective, realistic, and timely actions. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 11 11
  12. 12. Reactor safety oversight process The NRC’s Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) verifies that U.S. reactors are operating in accordance with NRC rules, regulations, and license requirements. If they are not, the NRC has full authority to take actions ranging from conducting additional inspections to shutting a plant down in order to protect public health and the environment. In general terms, the ROP combines NRC inspection findings and performance records of each reactor to assess the plants’ safety performance and security measures. Every 3 months the NRC places the plants in one of five categories ranging from ―fully meeting all safety cornerstone objectives‖ to ―unacceptable performance‖ Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 12 12
  13. 13. Post FKH action plan The NRC issued three orders in March 2012, which required U.S. reactors to: • Obtain and protect additional emergency equipment, such as pumps and generators, to support all reactors at a given site simultaneously following a natural disaster (Industry initiative FLEX) • Install enhanced equipment for monitoring water levels in each plant’s spent fuel pool. • Improve/install emergency venting systems that can relieve pressure in the event of a serious accident (only for reactors with designs similar to the Fukushima plant). The NRC has also requested information from all U.S. reactors related to earthquake and flooding hazards (cf also earthquake east US and flooding in 2011). The NRC is also working on new or revised rules related to filtering radioactive material after an accident, maintaining key safety functions in an extended ―black out‖ situation, and several aspects of emergency preparedness. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 13 13
  14. 14. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 14 14
  15. 15. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 15 15
  16. 16. US nuclear generation cheaper than alternatives in long term (NEI analysis-NW 130228) US nuclear power plants that operate for more than 60 years are projected to produce electricity at a lower cost than coal or wind generation, or than natural gas generation, provided gas prices are above $4/MMBtu. - In the current environment of low natural gas prices, the economic situation for nuclear power is ―dismal,‖ but those prices will rise and the longterm prospects ―remain very strong‖ which is the basis for ―Long Term Operations/Subsequent License Renewal‖ In the low-end case, electricity produced at nuclear units operating beyond 60 years is estimated to cost $53/MWh (including additional capital cost). The high-end estimate is about $60/MWh. - This compares with a production cost of about $54/MWh for gas-fired generation with gas at $5/MMBtu, and ―approaching‖ $62/MWh with gas at $6/MMBtu. Electricity generated by a supercritical pulverized coal facility is estimated to cost $75-76/MWh Wind generation is estimated to cost $112/MWh New nuclear costs Electricity generated from newly constructed NPPs would be the most expensive option at $121/MWh (with overnight capital costs $5,500/kw, as assumed by DOE). With ―appropriate financing support,‖ such as federal loan guarantees, ―those prices could be substantially down, into the range of $84-90/MWh". Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 16 16
  17. 17. Reactor shutdowns in 2013 During 2013, the Kewaunee, Crystal River, and San Onofre 1&2 nuclear power reactors permanently shut down and entered the decommissioning process. - Kewaunee (PWR 556 MW): in May 2013 Dominion retired its Kewaunee NPP approximately 20 years before the expiration of its renewed license; it is the first early retirement of a NPP explicitly due to competition from abundant, cheap natural gas and coal, as well as large volumes of government-backed wind power. - Cristal River 3 (PWR 912 MW) for containment damage (delamination of concrete after cable retensionning, following work to cut an opening for SG replacement) now permanently shutdown due to uncertainty in reparation cost and results - San Onofre 2-3 in CA (PWR 2x1127 MW) for SGs tube wear, now permanently shut down SG générators were replaced by MHI on unit 1 & 2 in 2009 and 2010 (2 SGs per unit, U tube, B&W). Both units have been shut since January 2012 due to the unusual amount of tube wear seen in their new SGs. The cause would be in-plane fluid elastic instability, in which high steam flow velocities cause excessive side-to-side tube vibrations that lead to tubeto-tube wear from tubes hitting one another. For ―in-plane vibration, the vibrating tube would potentially impact the neighboring tubes above and below. A limitation in power at 70% was proposed by SCE to restart the plant before being repaired but NRC (ASLB) decided that a new formal licence was necessary (with a new hearing). SCE decided to shut permanently the 2 units du to uncertainties in delays and cost for repair and in the licensing process. SCE is now suing MHI. Other reactor shudowns announced: - La centrale de Vermont Yankee en service depuis 1972 et qui ne possède qu’un seul réacteur (BWR 605 MW), cessera ses activités à la fin de son cycle actuel et sera fermée au cours du 4e trimestre de 2014. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 17 17
  18. 18. US DOE Back end: Blue Ribbon Commission Recommendations Disposal and Storage: As of end 2012, the amount of spent fuel in safe storage at NPPs was an estimated 69000t (+2400t/yr). There are no active high-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. In September 2011, the NRC orderly closed its Yucca Mountain activities. U.S. path forward - Used fuel can be stored safely for decades - BRC provided recommendations that help guide management of used nuclear fuel and fuel cycle R&D - BRC affirms the need for R&D on advanced fuel cycles that represent advantages over today’s technologies - A new, consent-based approach to siting future nuclear waste management facilities. - A new organization dedicated solely to implementing the waste management program and empowered with the authority and resources to succeed. - Access to the funds nuclear utility ratepayers are providing for the purpose of nuclear waste management. - Prompt efforts to develop one or more geologic disposal facilities. - Prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities. - Prompt efforts to prepare for the eventual large-scale transport of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste to consolidated storage and disposal facilities when such facilities become available. - Support for continued U.S. innovation in nuclear energy technology and for workforce development. - Active U.S. leadership in international efforts to address safety, waste management, non-proliferation, and security concerns. As a group we concluded that it is premature at this point for the US to commit irreversibly to any particular fuel cycle as a matter of government policy given the large uncertainties that exist about the merits and commercial viability of different fuel cycles and technology options. Rather, in the face of an uncertain future, there is a benefit to preserving and developing options so that the nuclear waste management program and the larger nuclear energy system can adapt effectively to changing conditions. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 18 18
  19. 19. U.S. New Nuclear Build Design certification • 4 DCs issued and 3 applications in review The four certified designs are: • GE-Hitachi NE Advanced Boiling-Water Reactor (ABWR) • Westinghouse’s System 80+ • Westinghouse’s AP600 • Westinghouse’s amended AP1000 The NRC is reviewing design certification applications for: • AREVA’s U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (US-EPR), I&C issues (scheduled 2015) • MHI U.S. Advanced Pressurized-Water Reactor (US-APWR) The NRC completed the technical reviews on GE-Hitachi Economic Simplified BWR (ESBWR). The NRC is performing preapplication activities with KHNP for the APR1400 design The NRC’s commercial reactor licensing activities in 2012 included reviewing the TVA's operating license application for the Watts Bar 2 reactor, now under construction. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 19 19
  20. 20. U.S. New Nuclear Build New reactors license process Early Site Permit (ESP) • 4 ESPs issued and 2 applications in review Combined License Construction and Operating (COL) • 4 COLs issued and 16 applications received and docketed for 24 units; of these, 10 applications are under active review Although the NRC continues to review new reactor license applications, the NRC decided in August 2012 not to make final licensing decisions until completion of the waste confidence rule. The NRC expects to finish its waste confidence work in September 2014. Four new units AP100 (two at the Vogtle site in Georgia and two at the V. C. Summer site in South Carolina) are under construction (nb: 2 regulated states). Construction of one partially completed reactor at the TVA’s Watts Bar site: resumed in 2007 with a target completion date of December 2015 (Watts Bar 2 1150 MW). - Planning for about two dozen other new reactors has been underway; these plants are in various stages of the licensing process but none is expected to be in operation prior to 2020. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 20 20
  21. 21. New nuclear build in US today: - completion of TVA Watts Bar 2 (1150 MW) - construction of 4 AP1000 at Vogtle and V.C. Summer Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 21 21
  22. 22. BUT .... (Report of the CSIS Nuclear Energy Program) The US may face a substantial contraction of commercial nuclear energy in the coming years. - Very low prices for natural gas have fundamentally transformed the energy economy, with many positive benefits, but in so doing also contributed to a reduction in the competitiveness of commercial nuclear power. - In addition, state and federal mandates and direct and indirect subsidies for renewable energy— particularly wind—create market distortions in the electricity sector that contribute to undermining the economic viability of nuclear power. - Together, these forces are causing nuclear energy facilities to become increasingly uneconomic, particularly in competitive state electricity markets. Indeed, as many as a quarter of commercial nuclear energy facilities in America are cash-flow negative, or may be soon, or could be facing difficult investment decisions which may lead to early shutdowns. => Restoring U.S. Leadership in Nuclear Energy, at home and abroad, should be a national interest priority for the U.S. government. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 22 22
  23. 23. US DOE Small Modular Reactors Development Definition of SMRs: reactor units < 300 MWe and able to have large components or modules fabricated remotely and transported to the site for assembly of components and operation. Why are SMR technologies of interest to DOE? Safety Benefits Passive decay heat removal by natural circulation; Smaller source term inventory; Simplified design eliminates/mitigates several postulated accidents; could be air-cooled; Below grade reactor siting; Potential for reduction in Emergency Planning Zone; security advantages from underground siting Economic Benefits Reduced financial risk; shorter construction time; lower capital cost & less financing required; Flexibility to add units; Right size for replacement of old coal plants and provide low carbon energy to address GHG goals; Use domestic forgings and manufacturing; Job creation “I believe small modular reactors could represent the next generation of nuclear energy technology, providing a strong opportunity for America to lead this emerging global industry. ... We are committed to fostering the safe and secure contribution of nuclear power to the global energy mix.” Secretary Moniz on Nuclear Energy - DOE Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 23 23
  24. 24. US DOE SMR Licensing Technical Support Program Supports first phase for deployment Facilitates and accelerates commercial development and deployment of near term U.S. SMR designs at domestic locations ($452 M in cost-share program over 6 years); DOE has selected one award under the first SMR funding opportunity announcement (FOA): => Babcock and Wilcox mPower Design 180 MWe, in partnership with TVA (standard UO2 LWR fuel, up to 4 year refueling interval, air-cooled condenser ..) DOE issued a second FOA that places more emphasis on innovation in improved safety attributes: lower core damage frequencies; longer postaccident coping periods; enhanced resistance to natural phenomena ; potentially smaller emergency preparedness zones; smaller workforce requirements => 13/12/13: The US DOE has chosen NuScale Power's SMR 45 MW to receive federal funding that will see DOE invest up to half of the cost of developing, licensing and commercialising the reactor (operates under natural circulation conditions, relying on gravity and convection to circulate water for cooling rather than pumps....) Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 24 24
  25. 25. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 25 25
  26. 26. US DOE • Nuclear Energy University Programs The Nuclear Energy University Programs (NEUP - US DOE) and the Integrated University Program (IUP) have a well established competitive process for awarding R&D, infrastructure and scholarships/fellowships. – The Office of Science and Technology Innovation will continue implementing this competitive process and will expand to incorporate it into all competitive research. Since FY09, NEUP has awarded $238M to 83 schools in 34 States and the District of Columbia.  The NE R&D Programs are the cognizant technical managers of these competitive R&D awards and therefore play in integral role in the success of each project.  Universities and Industry are strongly encouraged to actively engage and collaborate with the associated NE R&D programs. Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 26 26
  27. 27. Les activités d'EDF aux USA Les activités d’EDF en Amérique du Nord regroupent principalement : - la production d’électricité d’origine nucléaire, par le biais de Constellation Energy Nuclear Group (CENG), détenu à 49,99 %, qui exploite cinq réacteurs nucléaires aux USA (capacité totale 4,1 GW): Calvert Cliffs 1/2, Ginna, BWR Nine Mile Point 1 & 2(82%), production quote part EDF: 14,3 TWh en 2012; accord (29/7/13) avec Exelon: reprise de CENG & option de vente sur Exelon exerçable entre 2016 et 2022 à la "juste valeur de marché". - UniStar Nuclear Energy (« UNE »), société 100 % par EDF, qui travaille sur de nouveaux développements dans le nucléaire ; UNE poursuit l’obtention d’une COLA pour un réacteur EPR sur le site de Calvert Cliffs 3 (Maryland); suspendue par la NRC en attente d'un partenaire US: "... a license cannot be granted to UniStar to build a 1,600-MW reactor adjacent to CENG’s two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant in Maryland because UniStar is owned 100% by EDF, which is 85%-owned by the French government". - les énergies renouvelables, notamment l’éolien et le solaire, principalement aux USA par le biais d’enXco (filiale 100 % EDF EN) - le trading et l’optimisation sur les marchés nord-américains de gaz et d’électricité dans le cadre d’EDF Trading North America. ------------------------------- Nuclear in US - 17 Décembre 2013 - SFEN Tricastin Copyright EDF 27 27