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Group 2 - A methodical history of language teaching


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Group 2 - A methodical history of language teaching

  1. 1. A "Methodical"  History of a Language Teaching   Cristiane Ribeiro Guilherme Lourenço Lígia Ferreira
  2. 2. “ The first step toward developing a principled approach to language teaching will be to turn back the clock about a century to learn from the historical cycles and trends that have brought us to the present day.” “ This chapter focus on methods as the identifying characteristics of a century of “modern” language-teaching efforts.” “ You will encounter references to concepts, constructs, issues and models that are normally covered in a course in second language acquisition (SLA).”
  3. 3. Edward Anthony (1963) Approach “ A set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning, and teaching” Method “… was described as an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based upon a selected approach.” Techniques “… were the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well”
  4. 4. Jack Richards and Theodore Rodgers (1982) Method was an umbrella term for the specification and interrelation of theory and practice.” Approach “ Defines assumptions, beliefs, and theories about the nature of language and language learning” Design “ Specify the relationship of those theories to classroom materials and activities.” Procedure “ Techniques and practices that are derived from one’s approach and design.”
  5. 5. <ul><li>“ Albert Marckwardt (1972) saw these “changing winds and shifting sands” as cyclical pattern in which a new method emerged about every quarter of a century. Each new method broke from the old but took with it some of the positive aspects of the previous practices .” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ 1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Long, elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>5. Reading of difficult classical texts in begun early. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Often the drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.” </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ It does not virtually enhance a student’s communicative ability in the language.” </li></ul><ul><li>“… one can understand why Grammar Translation remains so popular. It requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers. Tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>François Gouin was a french teacher of Latin. </li></ul><ul><li>He decided to learn German. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He memorized: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>248 irregular verbs; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The German roots; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30,000 word in a German dictionary; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memorized books and translated Goethe and Schiller. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ But alas! I could not understand a single word, not a single word.” </li></ul>1880s
  10. 10. <ul><li>His three-year-old nephew was going through the stage of child language acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The child must hold the secret to learning a language!” </li></ul><ul><li>Language learning is primarily a matter of transforming perceptions into conceptions. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Series Method was a method that taught learners directly (without translation) and conceptually (without grammatical rules and explanations) a series of connected sentences that are easy to perceive. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I walk toward the door. I draw near to the door. I draw nearer to the door. I get to the door. I stop at the door. </li></ul><ul><li>I stretch out my arm. I take hold of the handle. I turn the handle. I open the door. I pull the door. </li></ul><ul><li>The door moves. The dor turns on its hinges. The door turns and turns. I open the door wide. I let go of the handle. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>At the turn of the century, this method became quite widely known and practiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Second language learning should be more like first language learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of oral interaction; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous use of the language; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No translation between first and second languages; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no analysis of grammatical rules. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Classroom instructions were conducted exclusively in the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar is taught inductively. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice. </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Both speech and listening comprehension are taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Direct Method did not take well in public education, where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak theoretical foundations. </li></ul><ul><li>It did not take hold in the United States. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In the 1930s and 1940s the schools returned to Grammar Translation Method. </li></ul><ul><li>The World War II heightened the need for Americans to become orally proficient in the language of both their allies and their enemies. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP): special, intensive language courses focused on aural/oral skills. (The Army Method) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A great deal of oral activity – pronunciation and conversation practice – with virtually none of the grammar and translation found in traditional classes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In all its variations and adaptations, the Army Method came to be known as the Audiolingual Method . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>New material is presented in dialogue form. </li></ul><ul><li>There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases, and overlearning. </li></ul><ul><li>Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis taught one at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills. </li></ul><ul><li>There is little or no grammatical explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Vocabulary is strictly limited to pronunciation. There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids. </li></ul><ul><li>Great importance is attached to pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Success responses are immediately reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Very little use of the mother tongue by teacher is permitted. </li></ul><ul><li>There is great effort to get the students to produce error free utterances. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Audiolingual Method structural linguistic theory contrastive analysis behaviorism
  22. 22. <ul><li>It failed to teach long-term communicative proficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is not really acquired through a process of habit formation and overlearning, that errors were not necessarily to be avoided at all costs, and that structural linguistics did not tell us everything about language that we needed to know. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Chomskyan revolution in linguistics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The children subconsciously acquire a system of rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classes retained the drilling typical of the ALM but added healthy doses of rule explanations and reliance on grammatical sequencing of material. </li></ul><ul><li>The Audiolingual Method + Grammar Translation </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Cognitive code learning was not so much a method as it was an approach that emphasized a conscious awareness of rules and their applications to second lan­guage learning. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Charles Curran (1972) created a classic example of an affectively based method, what he called the Counseling-Learning; </li></ul><ul><li>“ The social dynamics of such a group were of primary importance”; </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Methodology: “the group of clients (students), having first established in their native language an interpersonal relationship and trust, were seated in a circle with the counselor (teacher) on the outside of the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>As they talked the counselor translated the dialogue in the second language (English). The learner repeated that English sentence as accurately as possible. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Affective advantages; </li></ul><ul><li>“ The counselor allowes the learner to determine the type of conversation and to analyze the foreign language inductively” </li></ul><ul><li>The counselor teacher could become non directive; </li></ul><ul><li>Translation is a complex process, is often “easier said than done” </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Georgi Lozaniv (1979) – bulgarian psychologist; </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that “the human brain could process great quantities of material if given the right conditions for learning – which are a state of relaxation and giving over of control to the teacher” </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>The “right conditions” may not be avaible wherever this method was taught, like the using of music and confortable chairs; </li></ul><ul><li>It replaces the understanding process in language learning by memorization techniques; </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Caleb Gattegno (1972); </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning is facilitaded if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned.” </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>The Silent Way was too harsh a method and the teacher was too distant (they had to “get out of my way” while students worked out solutions), to encourage a communicative atmosphere; </li></ul><ul><li>Learners need more guidance and overt correction than it permitted; </li></ul><ul><li>There aren’t any specialness in this method by using the rods and charts; it can look like any other language classroom; </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>James Asher (1977); </li></ul><ul><li>“ The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors” </li></ul><ul><li>Students did a deal of listening and acting. The teacher was very directive in orchestrating a perfomance; </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative mood was utilized to teach even into more advanced levels; introduced by humor to make the atmosphere confortable enough for the learning process. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>The TPR “lost its distinctiveness as learners advanced in their competence; </li></ul><ul><li>In reading and writing activities, students were limited to spinning off the oral work in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the learders’ needs for spontaneity and unreheased language must be met, not only the traced actions; </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Stephen Krashen (1982, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher should provide the basic “comprehensible input”, comunication skill for everydau language situations </li></ul><ul><li>Learners don’t to say during this “silent period” untill they feel ready to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>The teachers is the source of the learners’ input, stimulating variety of classroom activities- games, skits, commands and the like. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>The preproduction stage is the development os listening comprehension skills </li></ul><ul><li>The early production stage is usually marked with errors as the student struggles with the language. </li></ul><ul><li>The last stage is one of extending production into longer stretches of discourse involving more comple games, role plays, discussions and so forth. The objective in this is to promote fluency. </li></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>The heavy emphasis on comprehensible input and the silent period </li></ul><ul><li>What about the student whose speech never emerges? </li></ul><ul><li>And with all students on different timetable for this called emergence, how does the teacher manage a classroom efficiently? </li></ul><ul><li>How does one know which structures the learners are to be provided with? </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>Begun with the work of Council of Europe, and it’s used in UK in the 1970; </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to functions as the organizing elements of Enlish language curriculum; grammatical structures served as the organizers; </li></ul><ul><li>It focused on the pragmatic purposes to which we put the language; </li></ul><ul><li>It wasn’t a method but it was close to what they called na “approach” </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>It was specifically focused on curricular structure than a true approach at all – a language functions, it follows below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing self and other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging personal information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking how to spell someone’s name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apologizing and thanking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and discribing people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking for information </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>1) Taking into account the reading of &quot;A &quot;methodological&quot; history of language teaching&quot; could you consider the &quot;Grammar translation Method&quot; would fit one, or even a group of students nowadays. Justify your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>2) What are the pros and cons of each method presented in the text regarding effectivness in learning a second language? </li></ul><ul><li>3) If you would build a method, what features of the methods presented in the text would you take into account while building yours? Would you add any characteristic to it that is not presented in any of the methods in text? Justify your answer. </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>4) Based on the methods of learning second language explained before and weighing up our digital natives (21th century); how can we think about a method that meets this new generation wishes, and become it a real method whose learners are capable to learn effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>5) It was said that the Grammar Translation “is a method for which there is no theory”. But it is clear that its principles were always being taken up and reused by some of the following methods. Why do you think that happened? Isn’t this too harsh a judgment? </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>BROWN, H. Douglas (2004). Teaching by Principals. An interaction approach to language pedagogy. Pearson: Longman, pg. 13-39 </li></ul>