Effect of hormone on reproductive system
Naturally occurring androgen hormones are
1.Testosterone -the principal androgenic
hormone produced by Leydig cell.
The testis produce other hormones like small
quantity Estradiol, Inhibin , Activin
The effect of testosterone occur by two mechanisms
1. By action of androgen receptor direct;y
2. By conversion to Estradiol and activation of certain estrogen receptor
Effect on reproductive system
Female Sex Hormones
The two types of ovarian sex hormones are the estrogens and the progestins. The
most important of the estrogens is estradiol and the most important progestin is
• The term contraceptive include all
measures temporary or permanently
designed to prevent pregnancy due to
Criteria for ideal contraceptive
• It should be,
5.Simple to administer
6.Easier to use
7.Require little or no medical supervision
8.Independent of coitus.
• based upon the process of ovulation and
menstrual cycle which helps in
determination of the safe period when
coitus can be done and unsafe period
when coitus can be avoided to prevent
Lactation amenorrhoea method (LAM)
• Frequent intense suckling disrupts
secretion of GnRH
• Irregular secretion of GnRH interferes with
release of FSH and LH
• is 98% effective when all 3 criteria are
menstrual periods have not returned
gave birth less than 6 months ago
• Barrier methods are those methods which
prevent meeting of sperms with the ovum.
• Physical barrier
• The three different types of IUD’s
• 1st generation: polyethylene +barium
sulphate- non medicated.
• 2nd generation: made of polyethylene
but copper added with .
• The copper enhances the contraceptive effect.
• 3rd generation:
• Contains hormones which is released slowly in the
uterus. The hormone affects the lining of uterus
and cervical mucus. It may affects the sperm.
• THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF HORMONE IUD :
• PROGESTASERT: It is T shaped device and
contains progesterone which is a natural hormone.
Progesteron is in more use than the other
• LEVONORGESTREL DEVICE: This is also a T
shaped device which has levonorgestrel a
synthetic steroid. It is found to be more effective.
• It needs to be changed after five years.
MOA OF IUDs
• prevention of fertilization
• long-term progestin -endometrial atrophy
• endometrial inflammatory- > Cellular and
humoral inflammation > fluid in uterine
cavity and fallopian tubes >decreased
sperm and egg viability
Hormonal methods of contraceptives
• 1.) COMBINED PILLS: composed of two
oestrogen and progesteogen in very small
• MOA: inhibit ovulation of ovum by blocking the
secretion of gonadotropin from pituitary gland.
Progestogen also thickens the mucosa of the
cervix which prevents the entry of sperm into the
• 2. Progestrone only pill
• Known as mini pill.
• Contains only progesteogen
• high failure rate.
• Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate
• given IM every 12 weeks.
• MOA: It prevents pregnancy by stopping
• Periods may stop while using.
• DMPA is 94-99.8% effective.
The contraceptive implant
• Implanon NXT® is inserted directly under the
skin, on the inner arm above the elbow,
• Continuously releases a low dose of a
progestogen hormone into the blood stream
over a 3 year timeframe.
• MOA: prevent ovulation (egg release from the
• replaced every 3 years or can be removed
earlier if required.
• Implants are 99.9% effective
TRADITIONAL METHODS OF CONTRACEPTION
AND THEIR LIMITATIONS
• The traditional methods of contraception
include the following:
lactational amenorrhea method
coitus interruptus withdrawal method
calendar method or rhythm method
cervical mucus method
• Natural family planning does not protect
against STIs such as chlamydia or HIV.
You'll need to avoid sex, or use
contraception such as condoms, during
the time you might get pregnant, which
some couples can find difficult.
• used to prevent pregnancy after sexual intercourse.
• recommended for use within 5 days.
• They prevent pregnancy by delaying ovulation and they do not
induce an abortion.
• Includes copper-bearing intrauterine devices (IUDs) and the
emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs).
copper-bearing intrauterine emergency contraceptive pill (ECPs).
1.Emergency contraceptive pill
After unprotected sex, contraceptive failure or a sexual
I. Mela-One:- contains levonorgestrel, a synthetic version of
MOA: inhibt gonadotopin by negetive feedback
II. Ella One:- contains ulipristal acetate, which stops
progesterone working normally.
delaying the release of an egg.
2. copper-bearing IUD
failure rate around 0.7%.
lasts up to twelve years. Following
removal, fertility quickly returns.