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1st International Workshop on
Web Usability and Accessibility (IWWUA 2007)
December 3-7, 2007
Nancy, France
Inclusive Usab...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Introduction
• Continued growth in the use of Internet (access
to the WWW)...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Related work
• Standard: Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI): Web Content A...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Following the approach:
Accessibility requirements capture
• Accessibility...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Case study. Spanish Centre of
Captioning and Audio Description (CESyA)
Dev...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
 Analysts and web designers with similar
characteristics
 The same techn...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
ISO 13407: Human-centred design process
1
2
3
Capture of requirements
Diff...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
ISO 13407: Human-centered design process
1
2
3
Capture of requirements
Dif...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
USABILITY TECHNIQUES:
Investigation, observations, interviews
=> features,...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Usability techniques:
User profiles
The aim is to satisfy the own necessit...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of "User Profiles" in CESyA case study
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Usability techniques:
Person focus
• People will represent behavior patter...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Usability techniques:
Scenarios with characters
• Scenarios technique desc...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
CHARACTERISTICS:
Demography ...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Usability techniques:
Card Sorting
• The card sorting technique is based o...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Card Sorting Experiment
Inclusive Case Non inclusive Case
In the "Inclusiv...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Usability techniques:
Prototype
In Analysis phase, for the
requirements ca...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
2.- Evaluation of prototypes
Accessibility evaluation
ISO 13407: Human-cen...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
2.- Evaluation of prototypes:
Accessibility evaluation
Significant observa...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
2.- Evaluation of prototypes:
Accessibility evaluation
1) Accessibility ev...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
ISO 13407: Human-centred design process
1
2
3
Evaluation of hipotesis
he i...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
3.- Evaluation of hypothesis
Changes in “Non Inclusive Case”
The more impo...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
3.- Evaluation of hypothesis
Changes in “Non Inclusive Case”
• Lines which...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
3.- Evaluation of hypothesis
Changes in “Non Inclusive Case”
The hypothesi...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Some conclusions
 User Centered Design (UCD) using usability techniques
...
Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia
Final conclusion:
To integrate usability and
accessibility in software
pro...
1st International Workshop on
Web Usability and Accessibility (IWWUA 2007)
December 3-7, 2007
Nancy, France
Thank you for ...
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Inclusive Usability Techniques in Requirements Analysis of Accessible Web Applications

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Authors: Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martínez, Belén Ruiz-Mezcua
IWWUA 2007: 1st International Workshop on Web Usability and Accessibility in conjuntion with the 8th International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, (January 2007, Nancy, France).

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Inclusive Usability Techniques in Requirements Analysis of Accessible Web Applications

  1. 1. 1st International Workshop on Web Usability and Accessibility (IWWUA 2007) December 3-7, 2007 Nancy, France Inclusive Usability Techniques in Requirements Analysis of Accessible Web Applications Lourdes Moreno, Paloma Martínez, and Belén Ruiz Labda Group, Computer science department Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
  2. 2. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Introduction • Continued growth in the use of Internet (access to the WWW) • Diversity (technological and functional) => Special attention to accessibility (for user with or without disabilities ) • To avoid the exclusion of groups of users accessing Web • To provide full accessibility to the Web contents
  3. 3. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Related work • Standard: Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI): Web Content Accessibility Guideline WCAG 1.0 • Consideration of accessibility in proposals of integrating usability in the development process, but incomplete • Works which adapting the WCAG 1.0 guidelines: Evaluation Accessibility, monitorization, metrics of accessibility, etc. • Methodological approach with accessibility( in RNF) • User Centered Design (UCD) but accessibility criteria are not covered in the whole life cycle, nor fully integrated and there is enough to support for the designer This work is the focus of a thesis research, Accessibility for Web Applications (AWA). Its objective is to offer a methodological support to integrate accessibility from an Web engineering perspective in the whole life cycle of a web application
  4. 4. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Following the approach: Accessibility requirements capture • Accessibility is a requirement and must follow a WCAG standard but, Is it enough to capture accessibility requirements? Important aspects of the web user interaction could go unnoticed => It’s necessary to integrate usability and accessibility in software processes following a UCD using usability techniques. but, what kind of user is it aimed at? ⇒ Framework of Inclusive Design => "all" users in mind, users with disabilities too
  5. 5. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Case study. Spanish Centre of Captioning and Audio Description (CESyA) Development CESyA website: • Requirement: the web has to be accessible according to the WCAG 1.0 accessibility standard • Some experiments have been carried to enable the evaluation of the consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase • In this work, two web development processes have been carried out under the same domain, but with different ways to act in the capture of requirements. – “Inclusive Case” , in the framework of Inclusive Design – “Non Inclusive Case”, Not inclusive approach
  6. 6. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia  Analysts and web designers with similar characteristics  The same technological profile with a basic core (WCAG1.0+XHTML+CSS with procedures for the dynamic contents)  Users participation en analysis phase:  Users without disabilities participation in “Non Inclusive case”  Users with and without disabilities participation in “Inclusive Case” Experiment Characteristics
  7. 7. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Capture of requirements Different ways to act: with or without inclusion Evaluation of hipotesis he inclusive case needs fewer changes in the redesign of the interface Evaluation of prototypes Consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase Approach: WCAG + UCD using usability techniques Inclusion as an added value? ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Capture of requirements Different ways to act: with or without inclusion Evaluation of hipotesis he inclusive case needs fewer changes in the redesign of the interface Evaluation of prototypes Consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase Approach: WCAG + UCD using usability techniques Inclusion as an added value? ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Capture of requirements Different ways to act: with or without inclusion Evaluation of hipotesis he inclusive case needs fewer changes in the redesign of the interface Evaluation of prototypes Consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase 1 2 3 Capture of requirements Different ways to act: with or without inclusion Evaluation Hypothesis The “Inclusive case” requires fewer changes in the redesign than “Non Inclusive Case” Evaluation of prototypes Consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase Inclusion as an added value? Experimentation
  8. 8. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia ISO 13407: Human-centered design process 1 2 3 Capture of requirements Different ways to act: with or without inclusion 1.- Capture of requirements User Modeling
  9. 9. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia USABILITY TECHNIQUES: Investigation, observations, interviews => features, common attributes User profiles Person focus Scenarios with characters Card Sorting Prototype and brainstorming AUDIENCE MODELING Almost every audience has been modeled 1.- Capture of requirements: User Modeling
  10. 10. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Usability techniques: User profiles The aim is to satisfy the own necessities of each group of users • Based on common attributes among the users (information necessities, preferences of the users, technological formation, age, etc. ) and in the “Inclusive Case” following: – To having in mind the barriers of accessibility of all the users – Access characteristics (special browsers, assistive technology, …) • Problem: The extension and heterogeneous coverage, which could make the total categorization of the audience not be possible or too expensive. => It is convenient to make use of the focus of Person
  11. 11. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of "User Profiles" in CESyA case study
  12. 12. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Usability techniques: Person focus • People will represent behavior patterns, objectives and necessities of groups of people – Fictional user, but the patterns have characteristics based on the investigation over the real audience – The patters will never represent the totality of the groups of the real users, but do represent them in their majority. – In the “Inclusive Case” following inclusive design enables the designer to have in mind potential users, knowing in all moments the type of design that will be needed. • The categorization of the audience is more feasible • To make more realistic the descriptions of the use of the Web, use scenarios and person focus => Scenarios with characters technique
  13. 13. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Usability techniques: Scenarios with characters • Scenarios technique describes situations of Web usage conceptualizing the Human-Machine Interaction with fictitious users (on the basis of person focus technique. • In the “Inclusive Case”, the scenarios show people with a variety of disabilities which use different technologies and strategies of adaptation to be able to access the Web • Almost every audience has been modeled, by studying various User profiles in only one scenario
  14. 14. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
  15. 15. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
  16. 16. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case” CHARACTERISTICS: Demography : Young, 19 years old Work responsibility/tasks: Student Use frequency: weekly (frequency) Hardware, Assistive technologies : a screen magnifier and sometimes combination of screen reader and Braille line Environment: home Software: Linux Debian, Opera Experience: Low, little handling with of the environment and of the page Disability: deafness blindness Reason of use: Pedagogic. CHARACTERISTICS: Demography : Young, 19 years old Work responsibility/tasks: Student Use frequency: weekly (frequency) Hardware, Assistive technologies : a screen magnifier and sometimes combination of screen reader and Braille line Environment: home Software: Linux Debian, Opera Experience: Low, little handling with of the environment and of the page Disability: deafness blindness Reason of use: Pedagogic.
  17. 17. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
  18. 18. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia The artefact of Scenarios in “Inclusive Case”
  19. 19. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Usability techniques: Card Sorting • The card sorting technique is based on the observation of how real users perform the task of clustering a predetermined number of labeled cards with different thematic categories of the web site. • Helps the information architect make decisions that concern the organization of the information in relation to user´ s needs. • Provides valuable information to capture requirements. • Only real users participate. • Starting from the users´ behavior, the objective is to understand the mental model of the user. • It provides qualitative and quantitative information applying a clustering analysis and the multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS).
  20. 20. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Card Sorting Experiment Inclusive Case Non inclusive Case In the "Inclusive Case“: • Diversity amongst some groups has been found • Elements with problems without belonging to any visual group => To design of post phases knowing that the elements of the architecture could have problems which would require attention and reinforcing its design
  21. 21. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Usability techniques: Prototype In Analysis phase, for the requirements capture, the prototype technique has been used (low cost) It has been used to give support in the taking of decisions in reunions and brainstorming with the client, user  important design aspects can be improved with a low cost.Digital web model of CESyA prototype
  22. 22. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 2.- Evaluation of prototypes Accessibility evaluation ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Evaluation of prototypes Consequences that would imply applying or not inclusion in the analysis phase
  23. 23. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 2.- Evaluation of prototypes: Accessibility evaluation Significant observations: • There are many factors that have been detected in the “Inclusive Case” in relation to the “Non Inclusive Case”: (1) Different types of HW and SW access can produce accessibility barriers, especially in the indirect access to the web by users who need assistive technologies (2) Different levels of browsing in the in different groups of users, etc. (3) Concerning the information architecture, different mental models where information is clustered.
  24. 24. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 2.- Evaluation of prototypes: Accessibility evaluation 1) Accessibility evaluation: automatic and manual validation carried out by experts. => The two prototypes implemented according WCAG 1.0 2) Users test were made in both cases, including people with or without disabilities and diverse conditions of usage to evaluate usability aspects and accessibility in both prototypes.
  25. 25. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Evaluation of hipotesis he inclusive case needs fewer changes in the redesign of the interface ISO 13407: Human-centred design process 1 2 3 Hypothesis Evaluation The “Inclusive case” requires fewer changes in the redesign than “Non Inclusive Case” 3.- Evaluation of hypothesis Evaluating changes in the redesign
  26. 26. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 3.- Evaluation of hypothesis Changes in “Non Inclusive Case” The more important changes detected disabled users' reviews are in the "Non Inclusive Case" and have not been required to include in the “Inclusive Case" because knowledge extracted from phase analysis and applied in the development of the web site are: • Description link: Non-adequate attribute title. The links have to be more descriptive. (screen reader users) • Icon and decorative image: Non-adequate attribute alt. The decorative images are labeled in XHTML with the alt = " text equivalent " attribute, instead of the decorative image with the alt =”“ and icon is included in CSS with a correct marking in the XHTML, (screen reader users) • Invisible shortcut: Inexistent, the users have suggested them as an improvement. (screen reader users) • Visibility edges interface: Presence of navigation menus in the corners but the users do not see them. (screen magnifier users)
  27. 27. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 3.- Evaluation of hypothesis Changes in “Non Inclusive Case” • Lines which frame the information (screen magnifier users) • Types of text Font: The font type used is Verdana. The users would prefer bolder fonts as Arial. (screen magnifier users) • Language accessibility: Some problems have been found in the comprehension of the texts, about using a simple and clear language but based on how to visually structure it to make easier the comprehension: without dense paragraphs, large blank spaces between them, using lists, etc. • Structural marking: Disabled users have asked for a better structural marking, better definition of the header elements • Multimedia elements: Users have asked for control options for the user, of information, format types, time, weight, etc. Some users could not access this resource • Direct access in resizing/font-scaling and high-contrast mode. Although compatible access is provided to user following WCAG, users suggested direct access too, not all of them knew use browser options.
  28. 28. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia 3.- Evaluation of hypothesis Changes in “Non Inclusive Case” The hypothesis is true: The “Inclusive Case” need fewer changes in the redesign than “Non Inclusive Case” Consequently, in the “Inclusive Case” has produced a reduction of costs in the development, avoiding new requirements to have in mind in the development process
  29. 29. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Some conclusions  User Centered Design (UCD) using usability techniques  WCAG: The benefits providing by the guidelines are fundamental for designers. – To detect accessibility barriers – Evaluation of accessibility of a user interface prototype in an advanced phase of Design-Evaluation but, following WCAG guidelines in Analysis phase offers enough support to the designer? => For professionals without previous experience in the development of accessible web applications, the guides make knowledge obtained in the “Inclusive Case” an added value. • The UCD framework with usability techniques help to come closer to the user, but the benefits of the inclusion in the analysis phase are distinguishable.
  30. 30. Lourdes Moreno (UC3M) IWWUA 2007, Nancy Francia Final conclusion: To integrate usability and accessibility in software processes following a User Centered Design (UCD) using usability techniques with inclusion
  31. 31. 1st International Workshop on Web Usability and Accessibility (IWWUA 2007) December 3-7, 2007 Nancy, France Thank you for your attention Lourdes Moreno lmoreno@inf.uc3m.es

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