The Lymphatic And Immune Systems


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The Lymphatic And Immune Systems

  1. 3. Functions of the lymphatic system <ul><li>The lymphatic system performs three primary functions in cooperation with other body systems these are: </li></ul>
  2. 4. Structures of the lymphatic system <ul><li>The major structures of the lymphatic system are: </li></ul><ul><li>lymph </li></ul><ul><li>lymphatic vessels and ducts </li></ul><ul><li>lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Additional structures includes: </li></ul><ul><li>the tonsils, thymus, spleen ,lacteals, peyer’s patches, the vermiform appendix, and lymphocytes </li></ul>
  3. 6. Lymphatic circulation
  4. 8. Interstitial fluid and lymph creation <ul><li>Interstitial fluid is plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the capillaries and into the spaces between the cells </li></ul><ul><li>The interstitial fluids transports food, oxygen and hormones to the cells </li></ul>
  5. 9. Lymphatic capillaries
  6. 11. Lymphatic vessels and ducts <ul><li>Lymph flows from the lymphatic capillaries into the progressively larger lymphatic vessels, which are located deeper within the tissues </li></ul>
  7. 14. Lymph nodes
  8. 16. Additional structures of the lymphatic system <ul><li>The remaining structures of this body system are made up of lymphoid tissues </li></ul>
  9. 17. The tonsils <ul><li>Are three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and the upper throat </li></ul>
  10. 18. The adenoids The palatine tonsils The lingual tonsils
  11. 19. The thymus <ul><li>Is located superior to the heart </li></ul><ul><li>Although it is composed largely of lymphoid tissues, the thymus is an endocrine gland that assists the immune system </li></ul>
  12. 20. Peyer´s patches and the vermiform appendix
  13. 21. The spleen
  14. 27. Functions of the immune system
  15. 28. The first lines of defense <ul><li>Intact skin : wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body </li></ul><ul><li>The respiratory system : traps breathed-in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining of the respiratory system </li></ul>
  16. 29. <ul><li>The digestive system uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroys invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food </li></ul>
  17. 30. immunity
  18. 33. Allergic reactions
  19. 34. <ul><li>An allergic also known as hypersensitivity is an overreaction by body to a particular antigen </li></ul>
  20. 35. <ul><li>A systemic reaction which is also described as anaphylaxis or as anaphylaxis shock , is a severe response to an allergen </li></ul>
  21. 37. Autoimmune disorders <ul><li>Is any of a large group of disease characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues </li></ul>
  22. 38. Immunodeficiency disorders
  23. 39. The human immunodeficiency virus <ul><li>HIV is a blood borne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system , causing it to progressively fail </li></ul><ul><li>Thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life threatening opportunities infections </li></ul>
  24. 41. tests
  25. 42. immunotherapy <ul><li>Is a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic immunoglobulin's also know as immune serum are used as a postextposure preventive measure against certain virus </li></ul>
  26. 43. <ul><li>Synthetic interferon is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis hepatitis C and some cancers </li></ul><ul><li>Monoclonal antibodies are any of class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a clone of specific cells </li></ul>
  27. 44. Pathogenic organisms <ul><li>Is a microorganism that causes a disease in humans </li></ul>
  28. 45. bacteria <ul><li>Are one-celled microscopic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria that are pathogenic in humans include bacilli, rickettsia, spirochetes, staphylococci and streptococci </li></ul>
  29. 46. Fungus, yeast, and parasites
  30. 47. viruses
  31. 48. Viral infections <ul><li>Herpes zoster </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious mononucleosis </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul><ul><li>Mumps </li></ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul><ul><li>Varicella </li></ul><ul><li>West Nile </li></ul>
  32. 51. tumors
  33. 52. cancer
  34. 53. most common types of cancer <ul><li>Nonmelanoma skin cancer : more than 1 million estimated new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Lung cancer: over 215,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer: over 186,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Breast cancer (female): over 182,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Colon and rectal cancers: nearly 149,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Bladder cancer: nearly 69,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: over 66,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Melanoma: over 62,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney (Renal Cell) cancer: over 46,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Leukemia: over 44,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrial cancer: over 40,000 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic cancer: over 37,600 new cases </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid cancer: over 37,000 new cases </li></ul>
  35. 54. Breast cancer <ul><li>Aside from skin cancers, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. </li></ul><ul><li>Major risk factors include :family history and age, and the earliest sign of breast cancer is typically an abnormality detected on a mammogram. </li></ul><ul><li>The five-year survival rate for localized breast cancer is 98 percent. </li></ul>