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On constant moving of frontiers between physics, metaphysics and theology.

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Presentation of the Seminar “On the constant movement of frontiers between physics, metaphysics and theology”. Grzegorz P. Karwasz, Pamplona, December 13, 2018.

Abstract:
Pope Benedict XVI, still as a cardinal, in 1981, stated in “In the beginning God created… Four sermons on the Creation and fall” that: “In general an impression appears that the history of Christianity in last 400 years was a constant defense battle, in which step by step single dogmas of faith and theology were abandoned. It is difficult to avoid an impression that we withdraw slowly into an empty space and that a moment comes when there will be nothing to defend and that the whole domain of the Scripture will be occupied by the reason, not allowing the latter any further existence.”

We do not agree with Card. Ratzinger. We discuss that the movement between physics, metaphysics and theology is constant, in all directions. 1) Cosmological dilemma on the beginning of the World, between Plato and Aristotle, between S. Thomas and Paris University, and even between astronomers at the edge of the 20th century and Kant, now has been solved by George Lemaître (and Hubble, and Einstein). But physics postulates the conservation of the mass and energy, so after shifting to physics the question is back to metaphysics. 2) Genetics showed recently, that female and male genome descend from the “most recent common ancestor” some 120-160 kyrs ago. But what (Who?) made this rapid (and coincidental) change as compared to pre-humans? 3) Chemistry postulates that particles with ½ spin (so called fermions) avoid each other, thus allowing the whole diversity of organic and inorganic compounds. But it was S. Thomas who stated that the diversity of matter does not result from the diversity of components. Why do electrons follow Fermi-Dirac statistics?

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On constant moving of frontiers between physics, metaphysics and theology.

  1. 1. On constant moving of frontiers between Physics, Metaphysics and Theology Grzegorz Karwasz Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń Didactics of Physics Division & Universita’ di Trento, Italy Atomic Physics Division dydaktyka.fizyka.umk.pl
  2. 2. Outline 1. The triad: Physics, Methaphysics, Theology 2. Physics: Big Bang, Evolution, Babele Tower 3. Metaphysics: Time and space, Matter, outside- matter 4. Thinkers: Aristotle, St. Thomas, Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Einstein 5. „Science” „Nature” PNAS etc.
  3. 3. Rationale „In general, a conclusion can be drawn, that the history of Christianity in recent 400 years [from Galileo] is a continous defensive battle, in which step by step we observe a step-by-step retracting of successive statements on faith and theology. And it is difficult to avoid and impression that we retreat into a void, in which the whole space of the Scripture will be occupied by the reason, not allowing them [i.e. the faith and theology] to exist anymore. Kard. J. Ratzinger, J. Ratzinger In the beginning God created… Four sermons on creation and fall. Consequences of faith in creation. (1979)
  4. 4. Rationale (2) „In the hypothesis of the evolution (that in theology corresponds to certain „theilhardism) there is no space at all to the original sin. At most, it is a symbolic, mythic expression, indicating some imperfection tha man is, who from the beginning walks into perfection. But accepting this vision means inverting the structure of Christianity. Christ is being brought from the past into future, the salvations means, simply, walking towards future events, like the evolution towards a better world. Man is nothing other that a product, which is still not perfected in time; there was no salvation yet, as there was no a sin, which is to be repaired, but only a certain omission, which, I repeat, would be natural. Vittorio Messori a colloquio con Joseph Ratzinger, Rapporto sulla fede (Raport o wierze), Edizioni San Paolo, Torino, 1985, pp. 80-81, translation GK
  5. 5. “Salvatore” o un riformatore? Volterra, Foto Maria Karwasz
  6. 6. 1. The three sciences • Physics • Metaphysics • First Philosophy (or Theology)
  7. 7. „Physics” GK, Physics and Toys, 2004 dydaktyka.fizyka.umk.pl/zabawki1
  8. 8. Aristotle: Particular sciences • Book E (6) 1. [Division of sciences and absolute priority of petaphysics, understood as theology] • […] „in general every science which is ratiocinative or at all involves reasoning deals with causes and principles, more or less precise, all these sciences mark off some particular being-some genus, and inquire into this, but not into being simply nor qua being, nor do they offer any discussion of the essence of the things of which they treat […]”. Metafisica, 1025b, 6-9 • Following Aristotle, particular sciences, being also rational deal more with features of objects than their existence in itself. • „but starting from the essence-some making it plain to the senses, others assuming it as a hypothesis-they then demonstrate, more or less cogently, the essential attributes of the genus with which they deal. It is obvious, therefore, that such an induction yields no demonstration of substance or of the essence, but some other way of exhibiting it .” ibidem, 10-12 Aristotle, Metaphysics http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.6.vi.html
  9. 9. Aristotle: Sciences based on induction • ”It is obvious, therefore, that such an induction yields no demonstration of substance or of the essence, but some other way of exhibiting it ” 13-15. „Horse, what is, everybody sees.” [XVIIIth cent. Polish encyclopedia] But „Equs” exists independently from the observed, so must be a being a priori. • And similarly the sciences omit the question whether the genus with which they deal exists or does not exist, because it belongs to the same kind of thinking to show what it is and that it is. . Ibidem, 16-18 • „Does the boson o Higgs exist really? – There exists its Lagrangian (i.e. a kind of mathematical function describing it), so higgs for sure exists.” [A theoretical physicist] • „Ratchets describe solitons in liquids, collective scattering of phonons in solids, vortices in neutron stars – and therefore, maybe they even exist.” [PhD thesis]
  10. 10. Aristotle: Physics • „And since natural science, like other sciences, is in fact about one class of being, i.e. to that sort of substance which has the principle of its movement and rest present in itself, evidently it is neither practical nor productive. [that floow laws, called now of Newton] Ibidem, 19-22 • „Therefore, if all thought is either practical or productive or theoretical, physics must be a theoretical science, but it will theorize about such being as admits of being moved, and about substance-as-defined for the most part only as not separable from matter. .” Ibidem 25-29 • Of things defined, i.e. of 'whats', some are like 'snub', and some like 'concave'. And these differ because 'snub' is bound up with matter (for what is snub is a concave nose), while concavity is independent of perceptible matter. • „That physics, then, is a theoretical science, is plain from these considerations. ” 1026a, 1-5
  11. 11. Aristotle: Mathematics • „Mathematics also, however, is theoretical; but whether its objects are immovable and separable from matter, is not at present clear; still, it is clear that some mathematical theorems consider them qua immovable and qua separable from matter. • But if there is something which is eternal and immovable and separable, clearly the knowledge of it belongs to a theoretical science,-not, however, to physics (for physics deals with certain movable things) nor to mathematics, but to a science prior to both. For physics deals with things which exist separately but are not immovable, and some parts of mathematics deal with things which are immovable but presumably do not exist separately, but as embodied in matter; while the first science deals with things which both exist separately and are immovable . • Now all causes must be eternal, but especially these; for they are the causes that operate on so much of the divine as appears to us Ibidem, 1026a, 8-23
  12. 12. Aristotle: The three sciences • „ There must, then, be three theoretical philosophies, mathematics, physics, and what we may call theology, since it is obvious that if the divine is present anywhere, it is present in things of this sort. [tj. w rzeczywistości niematerialnej] • And the highest science must deal with the highest genus. Thus, while the theoretical sciences are more to be desired than the other sciences, this is more to be desired than the other theoretical sciences .” Metafisica, 1026a, 18-26
  13. 13. Aristotle: „first philosophy” • „For one might raise the question whether first philosophy is universal, or deals with one genus, i.e. some one kind of being; for not even the mathematical sciences are all alike in this respect,-geometry and astronomy deal with a certain particular kind of thing, while universal mathematics applies alike to all. . • We answer that if there is no substance other than those which are formed by nature, natural science will be the first science; but if there is an immovable substance, the science of thismust be prior and must be first philosophy, and universal in this way, because it is first. […]” 25-29
  14. 14. In other words, according to Aristotle • Particular (detailed) sciences are based on observations (Kant: analytical judgments a posteriori) • Both particular sciences as general sciences (i.e. theoretical ones) use common procedures of reasoning. • Particular sciences define objects (onta) by their features. • Theoretical sciences deduce on existence of categories (onta) or by induction (per es. „energy”) of assuming their existence (like „parallel lines”) • Aristotle defines the subject of metaphysics as onta non- local, calling it „theology”. • But makes a distinction between metaphysics and theology – objects non-material (=metaphysics) and invariable, i.e. non-belonging to the domain of space and time (=theology)
  15. 15. A similar division comes from Thomas Aquinas • „The three divisions of speculative science indicated are physics or natural science, mathematics, and divine science or theology.” • Nam cum tres sint partes speculativae, scilicet philosophiae - hoc dicit ad differentiam Ethicae, quae est activa sive practica - in omnibus requiritur modus competens materiae. Sunt autem tres partes praedictae: physica sive naturalis, mathematica, divina sive theologia. • . While, I say, there are three divisions, natural philosophy, which is one of the, three, "deals with motion and is not abstract," that is, it is concerned with things in motion and not abstracted from matter. This he proves by examples, as is evident in his treatise. When, however, he says: "Form takes on the movement of the particular thing to which it is annexed," his words should be understood as follows: that what is composite of matter and form, inasmuch as it is due the nature of a thing of this kind, has motion; or, in other words, a form existing in matter is the principle of motion. Therefore the consideration of things that are material and of things that are in motion is the same. • Cum, inquam, sint tres partes, naturalis, quae est una earum, est in motu, inabstracta, id est versatur eius consideratio circa res mobiles a materia non abstractas, quod probat per exempla, ut patet in littera. Quod autem dicit: habetque motum forma materiae coniuncta, sic intelligendum est: ipsum compositum ex materia et forma, in quantum huiusmodi, habet motum sibi debitum, vel ipsa forma in materia exsistens est principium motus; et ideo eadem est consideratio de rebus secundum quod sunt materiales et secundum quod sunt mobiles. Commento a Boezio De Trinitate, p. 265) http://www.logicmuseum.com/authors/aquinas/superboethiumq5.htm#pars3q5a1
  16. 16. Thomas Aquinas: mathematics • He then indicates the subject matter of mathematics, saying: "Mathematics does not deal with motion"; that is, it involves no consideration of motion or of movable things, and on this point it differs from natural philosophy. Mathematics, moreover, is said to be "not abstract"; that is, it considers forms which according to their existence are not abstract from matter, and in this respect it is in agreement with natural philosophy. He then explains. how this is: Mathematics considers forms which are without matter and hence without motion, because wherever there is matter there is motion, as is proved in X Metaph. • Deinde exponit de quibus sit mathematica: mathematica est sine motu, id est sine motus et mobilium consideratione, in quo differt a naturali, inabstracta, id est considerat formas quae secundum esse suum non sunt a materia abstractae, in quo convenit cum naturali; quod quomodo sit exponit. Haec enim, scilicet mathematica, speculatur formas sine materia ac per hoc sine motu, quia ubicumque est motus, est materia, ut probatur in IX metaphysicae, eo modo quo est ibi motus, et sic ipsa speculatio mathematici est sine materia et motu. (Commento a Boezio De Trinitate, p. 265) http://www.logicmuseum.com/authors/aquinas/superboethiumq5.htm#pars3q5a1
  17. 17. Aquinas: Theology = scilicet divina • Then he indicates the objects of divine science, calling it, ‘theology," that is, the third division of speculative science, which is termed divine, or metaphysics, or first philosophy; and it deals with objects apart from motion, in which it agrees with mathematics and differs from natural philosophy. It also is "abstract," namely, from matter, and "inseparable"; and because of these two facts it differs from mathematics. For the objects of divine science are of themselves abstract from matter and motion, but those of mathematics are not thus naturally abstract, but separable in thought. • Deinde ostendit de quibus sit tertia, scilicet divina: theologia, id est tertia pars speculativae, quae dicitur divina vel metaphysica vel philosophia prima, est sine motu, in quo convenit cum mathematica et differt a naturali, abstracta, scilicet a materia, atque inseparabilis, per quae duo differt a mathematica. Res enim divinae sunt secundum esse abstractae a materia et motu, sed mathematicae inabstractae, sunt autem consideratione separabiles; sed res divinae inseparabiles, quia nihil est separabile nisi quod est coniunctum • In physics, then, we are bound to use scientific concepts, in mathematics systematic concepts, in theology intellectual concepts."
  18. 18. Some crucial concepts 1. God created earth and heaves. 1a. Nonsense: it was Big Bang that started everything 2. God formed (plasmated) Adam from clay 2a. Nonsense: Man evoluted from monkey 3. God mixed languages (Babele tower) 3a. No: Languages evelved independently
  19. 19. Creare un mondo?
  20. 20. Creare un mondo? 1.Il Sole 2. La Terra 3. Un’albero 4. Una casa 5. L’Uomo 6. Una nuvola
  21. 21. In principio Dio creò il cielo e la terra. Il mondo era vuoto e deserto, le tenebre coprivano gli abissi e un vento impetuoso soffiava su tutte le acque. Dio disse: „Vi sia la luce!” Dio vide che la luce era bella e separò la luce dalle tenebre. „Un racconto semplificato”
  22. 22. creò il cielo e la terra, (?) tenebre sugli abissi, (?) vento impetuoso sulle acque (?) „Un racconto semplificato” (0)
  23. 23. „Un racconto semplificato” (1) Dio vide che la luce era bella e separò la luce dalle tenebre
  24. 24. „Un racconto semplificato” (2) Dio fece una grande volta e separò le acque di sotto dalle acque di sopra
  25. 25. „Un racconto semplificato” (3) Dio disse: „Siano raccolte in un luogo le acque che sono sotto il cielo e appaia asciuto. Dio chiamò Terra e chiamò le acque mare. E Dio vide che era bello.
  26. 26. „Un racconto semplificato” (4) Dio disse: „Via siano luci nella volta del cielo per distinguere il giorno dalla notte. […] E Dio vide che era bello.
  27. 27. This first story-telling, more theological and abstract, is to be compared with the second, more picturesque and concrete. Frames of „a week of work” bring an important message about necessity the feast in Sabbath […] and that man is similar to God. Pierwsze to opowiadanie, bardziej teologiczne i abstrakcyjne, należy zestawić z drugim (Rdz 2,4-25), bardziej obrazowym i konkretnym. Ramy "tygodnia pracy", w jakie jest ono ujęte, mają za zadanie uzasadnić obowiązek świętowania szabatu (por. Wj 20,8.11). W prostej szacie literackiej tego opisu otrzymujemy doniosłe pouczenie: odwieczny i niezależny od materii Bóg jest bezwzględnym początkiem całego stworzenia, które jako pochodzące od Stwórcy jest dobre, a człowiek - jedyny w świecie widzialnym - nosi na sobie podobieństwo do Boga. Simplified tale” © Wydawnictwo Pallottinum w Poznaniu, 2003
  28. 28. „Physics” = Nature (matter) 4. Atoms 3. Nucleosynthesis 2. Background radiation 1. „Elementary” particles
  29. 29. „A-tomo, elettrone, nucleo, … 0,000 000 000 000 000 001 m
  30. 30. „Exact” story Discovery of strange quark Danysz i Pniewski, 1956 Discovery of quark bottom, FermiLab, Chicago
  31. 31. Proton, neutron… Isospin=1/2 Mass m=939.56563 ±0.00028 MeV (a bit more than proton) Electric momentum D< 12x10-26 ecm Magnetic momentum m= -1,91304275±0,000000456 μB Electric charge q=(-0,4±1,1)x10-21 e (read: zero!) Lifetime t=888,65 ± 3,5 s (= academic quarter!) Isospin=1/2 Mass m=938.27231 ±0.00028 MeV (=1836 electron masses) Electric momentum D= (-3,7±6,3)x10-23 e cm Magnetic momentum m= 2,792847386 ± 0,000000066 μB Lifetime t=1,6x1025 yr (>>age of the Universe =14,5x109 yr) Proton & neutron (GK) Proton i& neutron are not elementary – they consist of light particles, called quarks
  32. 32. „quark” Kwarki, rys. dr T. Wróblewski, koncepcja GK
  33. 33. Components of matter In the simplest explanataion, the matter consists of: - electrons (light, negatively charged, elementary particles orbiting atomic nucleus) - protons (positevely charged, particles, 1837 times [we do not know why] heavier than electrons, localised in nucleus - neutrons (similar to protons, but with zero electric charge, forming nucleus together with protons [why some of them are more stable – we do not know] Atoms have dimensions of 10-10 m and nuclei 10-15 m We should add also photons (quanta of light) which has zero mass [if in rest, but then they do not exist] But this is only in the simplest approach, as possible „elementary” and highly unstable particles is a whole „zoo” – first, strange quarks discovers by Danysz and Pniewski.
  34. 34. Does it exist any other „substance”? • „In the beginning God created earth and heaves” Genesis • In this sense „earth” means „matter: atoms, light, energy, and other exotic particles • So: apart matter there is smth that matter is not (If remaining parts of the Bible trigger our confidence). • In the very physics, there is quite a lot of an invisible matter: billions of neutrinos from Sun flying through Earth (and our body), pan-present photons from eth Big Bang wandering though universe as the background radiation, not saying about dark matter and dark energy, that constitute 96% of the material world. →There are two types on non-material substances – the first belong to metaphysics („good”, „truth”, second to theology („grace”, „sacrament” etc.)
  35. 35. Stars, galaxies, nebulosa… Stars did not form immediately, but some 380 mln yrs after Big Bang
  36. 36. Espansione dell’Universo
  37. 37. Radioastronomy Penzias & Wilson (1964); „strange noise” = Microwave relict background radiation („Big Bang” + 300 tys. lat) Radioastronomy observatory in Toruń
  38. 38. Sun = recycled star Universe: 13,78 bln yrs Solar system: 4,567 bln
  39. 39. planets ? 14 Dio disse: 'Vi siano luci nella volta del cielo per distinguere il giorno dalla notte: saranno segni per le feste, i giorni e gli anni. 15 Risplendano nel cielo per far luce sulla terra. E così avvenne.Monreale, Sicily NASA
  40. 40. „Big Bang” “If World started form a single atom, the concepts of space and time had no sense; they acquired sense only when the primordial atom divided into a sufficient number of quanta. If this reasoning is correct, the universe started just a moment before the emergence of space and time. Georges Lemaître ”This is the most beatiful explanation of Creation of the universe that I have ever heard.” Albert Einstein il principio
  41. 41. Physics: resuming 0. (3 min) formation of matter Moment „zero” 1. (300,000 yrs) separation of light -1. concepts of „time” and „space” have no sense 4. (9 bln yrs =4/6) formation of Sun 2. (300 mln yrs) stars
  42. 42. So, the sequence of the universe emerging… • was quite complicated: - In first few seconds (some 13,78 bln yrs ago) – the matter emerged, but in very strange forms (heavy quarks decaying into lighter in microseconds, and in first three minutes synthesis of protons and neutrons, an in following helium nuclei; only later electrons are attached to nuclei, to form atoms (and ions) - 380,000 years later the EM radiation separates from the matter: atoms cooled down enough to stop emitting and absorbing light: the EM radiation separates form matter and wanders in coolong universe, down to microwave background - 380 mln yrs later formation of first stars from hydrogen (and helium) -we know it from February 2018 - And only 4,567 bln years ago – formation of Sun and Earth
  43. 43. Dark matter, dark energy… The universe is mostly composed of dark energy and dark matter, both of which are poorly understood at present. Only ≈4% of the universe is ordinary matter, a relatively small perturbation.
  44. 44. But there are even more problems… • Universe, in last 13,78 bln light yrs inflated by 1000-times, i.e. starting from some 13,78 mln light years - Cosmologist say that it was pumped-up by a factor of 1026 in 10-26 sec. (or less): i.e. from the dimensions of a spill to the diameter 100 times bigger than our Galaxy. - Non of existing laws of Physics allow this! - In other words, or laws of Physics were invalid, or there was no Physics at all: so, what/ Who governed the space and time in the universe? - It is also unknown, where does the whole energy (or mass, according to E=mc2 comes from) - Physcis (i.e. laws of conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum) do not allow that mass, energy, spin, number of leptons etc. come from nothing - And what was before Big Bang (i.e. when there was no space and no time)? St. Augustine said that in that time, God … - More questions than answers…
  45. 45. Gli soffiò nelle narici un alito vitale e l’uomo diventò una creatura vivente Allora Dio, il Signore, fece scendere un sonno profondo sull’uomo…
  46. 46. No! Man comes from a monkey! Not exactly! We come, that’s true, from the common trunk. But in last 8 mln yrs gorilla did not learn read, nor write , nor play baseball
  47. 47. DNA mitocondrial Clock for the evolution of Homo sapiens All people differ in maximum by 11- 12 mutations
  48. 48. Eve mitochondrialna
  49. 49. Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the worldwide phylogeny of human mtDNA. A Olivieri et al. Science 2006;314:1767-1770 Published by AAAS Studies of similiarities between mitochondrial DNA are striking:: like we have resulted from the same mother
  50. 50. Local populations
  51. 51. Fig. 2 Y-chromosome phylogeny inferred from genomic sequencing.This tree recapitulates the previously known topology of the Y-chromosome phylogeny; however, branch lengths are now free of ascertainment bias. G D Poznik et al. Science 2013;341:562-565 Published by AAAS Also the same „Adam”? Genetics say: YES!
  52. 52. Krzywe pokrewieństwa DNA mitochondrialnego (matczynego) i z chromosomu Y zachodzą na siebie – wspólni rodzice jakieś 120-140 tys. lat temu
  53. 53. Genetic similarities? • Homo ↔ chimpanzee: complex cognitive functions, bipedal, complex language operating on abstractions • Example: chromosome 22º of chimpanzee: 33,3 milions of bases nucleic bases vs. human chromosome no. 21 • 1,44% of this chromosome contains 68,000 „paste or cut”: this number is sufficient to change coding of majority of proteins • Out of 231 sequences, 83%, including genes of essential functional importance shows difference in sequences of aminoacids • Some families fo retrotransposition shows a differences in evolution between humans and chimpanzee • „Changes of genoma after the separation of the two specie are much greater, and their consequences are more important, than it was earlier considered.”Watanabe, H. et al. DNA sequence and comparative analysis of chimpanzee Chromosome 22, Nature 429 (2004) 382-438 Quoted by: Michele. Gazzaniga, Human, p. 50
  54. 54. Homo sapiens walked-out from Africa some 40,000 yrs ago
  55. 55. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v514/n7521/fig_tab/nature13422_F3.html The earliest dated image from Maros, with a minimum age of 39.9 kyr, is now the oldest known hand stencil in the world. In addition, a painting of a babirusa (‘pig-deer’) made at least 35.4 kyr ago is among the earliest dated figurative depictions worldwide, if not the earliest one.
  56. 56. Blombos cave: sztuka bardzo daleko, bardzo, bardzo dawno • In 2002 the recovery of two finely engraved ochre pieces – both deriving from the Still Bay units (M1 phase) – was reported in Science Magazine.[10] The surfaces of both pieces were intentionally modified by scraping and grinding, and the engraved pattern formed a distinct cross-hatched design in combination with parallel incised lines. • In 2009, six additional pieces of engraved ochre – this time recovered from entire Middle Stone Age sequence dated to between 70,000 and 100,000 years old – were announced.[9] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blombos_Cave
  57. 57. In other words, • Homo sapiens sapiens, in spite of his long pre-history and many kinds of ancestors (who travelled on two legs from some 2 mln yrs on different continents, from 1 mln yrs uses the fire, from 300,000 yrs hunted with spires) emerges instantanously and in one place 120,000 yrs ago and in one place – the paradise of the central-east Africa • Emerges as a genetic identity, like it were born from a single mother and a single father. • Homo emerges instantanously and identical in all parts of the world, in his whole cultural complexity (faith in aethernal life, burial ceremonies, painting body etc. ) • From last 120,000 yrs, Homo systematically builds up the culture (towns, writing, mathematic, astronomy, music, philosophy etc. ) • This would indicate some „breathing”…
  58. 58. Babele tower? Invention of theology? >Forse è una benedizione perché permette di evitare un'altra maledizione cioè l'imperialismo universale e anche la sovrappopolazione, cioè la volontà di mantenere tutta la popolazione in una sola regione e obbligarla a partecipare a una “sola impresa”, cioè la costruzione di un solo impero, partecipare a un solo progetto politico. >C’è anche il pensiero d’un peccato sociale per incuria nei riguardi della sicurezza del lavoro, per le “morti bianche”, ossia per decessi di lavoratori nello svolgimento di proprie mansioni. >Se nell’intento degli scribi imperiali si tratta di propaganda regale e di glorificazione del potere assoluto del re, nel racconto biblico non potrebbe trattarsi di una dura critica all’imperialismo mesopotamico?
  59. 59. Consensus phylogenetic tree of Eurasiatic superfamily (A) superimposed on Eurasia and (B) rooted tree with estimated dates of origin of families and of superfamily. Pagel M et al. PNAS 2013;110:8471-8476 ©2013 by National Academy of Sciences A common language, now for the whole Euroasia, 14,000 yrs ago in Mesopotamia
  60. 60. „Pauli’s” exclusion „principle” The whole chemistry (and as a result also the biology) is possible only thanks to a strange law: two electrons can not occupy the same quantum state. We call it „Pauli’s exclusion principle”. [divieto di Pauli] … How good is that Pauli: thanks to him wa have life…
  61. 61. Physics or metaphysics? • Three „laws” of dynamics by Newton (where does the mass come from?) • „Law” of gravitation (what brings the gravity force?) • General gravity theory (what are the remaining 9994 components of the space-time?) • The finite velocity of light (why such a strong epistemic constraint?0 • Quantum mechanic: further limitation on our predictions in microworld. • Divieto of Pauli in chemistry (why spin determines the statistics?) • Thermodynamic self-organization? [Ilya Prigogine] • What first – protein cor DNA? • Where in brain is the mind? Stanley Yaki: everywhere and nowhere. • Who „fixed” physical constraints in a way the world is established to exist?
  62. 62. https://jbc.bj.uj.edu.pl/dlibra/publication/289201/edition/276125/content?ref=desc Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Terrae motor, solis caelique stator After 1525 a part of Varmia changed into protestantism…
  63. 63. De revolutionibus orbium [?] coelestium p.18http://www.geo.utexas.edu/courses/302d/Fall_2011/Full%20text%20-%20Nicholas%20Copernicus,%20_ De%20Revolutionibus%20%28On%20the%20Revolutions%29,_%201.pdf
  64. 64. Universe „ends” at distance of 13.8 bln light yrs. • Copernicus: Earth, independently how big sphere it were, nothing is if compared to the entire universe, dimensions of which we do not know, or evene to know we can not. Flammarion, c.a 1880 Einstein (1905): velocity of light is maximum possible for sending information
  65. 65. Newton: Scholium generale
  66. 66. Physics → Metaphysics → Theology Modern Science brings a lof of detailes knowledge, but we still need explanations from outside this science Exampe „Space” • Aristotle: distance between material objects • Galileo (& Descartes): a system of reference (the space is empty) • Kant: methaphysical cathegories • Einstein: space-time is modified by the matter G=(8πG/c4 )T • De Sitter: a non-expanding space is empty • Lemaitre: the space does not exist without matter • There was no space before universe? • Can anything (non-material) exist outside space-time? • Does anything/ Anybody exist outside space-time?
  67. 67. Physics → Metaphysics → Theology Example: Chemistry „Ora, la causa della diversità delle cose non deriva dalla materia. Si è detto infatti che la materia non è presupposta all’azione divina mediante la quale Dio produce nell’essere le cose. […] Ora, la causa della diversità delle cose non deriva dalla materia se non in quanto la materia è presupposta alla produzione delle cose [self- emergence??] Le forme dunque non sono diverse perché sono diverse la materie, ma piuttosto le materie sono costituite diversamente per essere adeguate alle diverse forme [= divieto di Pauli].” Tommaso, S. 1995. Compendio di teologia, art.. 121
  68. 68. On continous moving of frontiers between Physics, Metaphysics and Theology Zone di ombra (notte) e di luce (giorno) si spostano in continuazione sulla superficie di Terra; in fatti da tempi di Copernico sappiamo che questa è Terra che ruota. In un simile modo, le parti del conoscere umano diventano dominio di scienza, filosofia o teologia – in continuo intercambio.
  69. 69. Conclusions • Aristotle’s and Aquinas’ text are known (and commented) from centuries: nihil novae • But the „gap” between Physics and Philosophy needs to be overcome • Not only Philosophy should go towards this meeting (retract?) but also Physics • For sure, not the whole worlds is material (poetics is not material) • What is new in this lecture, that this is a testimony of a (proved) experimental physicists. Thank you for your attention!

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