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Mente y cerebro IV

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Cuarta presentación de Juan Luis Lorda (con el asesoramiento de Luis Echarte) en el Seminario del Grupo Ciencia, Razón y Fe sobre Mente y cerebro, el 21 de noviembre de 2006.

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Mente y cerebro IV

  1. 1. MENTE Y CEREBRO IVMENTE Y CEREBRO IV Juan Luis Lorda Universidad de Navarra La inteligencia artificial Las cuestiones que suscita
  2. 2. “Pese a los grandes avances de las neurociencias en el siglo XX, por no hablar de la propiedad discutida de una inteligencia artificial, apenas hemos avanzado en nuestra comprensión de los procesos cognitivos” Sir John Maddox, La ciencia del nuevo milenio, 12
  3. 3. “En vez de tornar superflua la filosofía, las ciencias neurológicas suscitan, ellas mismas, una serie de cuestiones fundamentales” Michael Pauen, Cerebro y libre albedrío, Mente y cerebro I 2002, 64 Lo mismo sucede con los estudios sobre ordenadores, de donde nacen las “Ciencias cognitivas”. Y en la psicología positiva, cuando el behaviorismo cansa ya a todos EL INTERÉS POR LA CONCIENCIA
  4. 4. ¿Cómo se explica la conciencia?¿Cómo se explica la conciencia? ¿Es una propiedad del cerebro?¿Es una propiedad del cerebro? ¿El cerebro es una máquina?¿El cerebro es una máquina? ¿ Pueden pensar las máquinas?¿ Pueden pensar las máquinas? ENTRE LA NEUROLOGÍA Y LA INTELIGENCIA ARTIFICIAL
  5. 5. Alan TuringAlan Turing Propuso un modelo de computación y dio una referencia para definir la inteligencia artificial: se llama Test de Turing - Si un observador en otra habitación, no es capaz de distinguir el resultado, la máquina es inteligente - Si hace cosas inteligentes, es inteligente. Sin embargo Turing nunca redujo el concepto “consciencia” al de mera función mecánica.
  6. 6. McCarthy, Simon y Marvin MinskyMcCarthy, Simon y Marvin Minsky definieron la Inteligencia Artificialdefinieron la Inteligencia Artificial en Dartmouth Conference, 1956en Dartmouth Conference, 1956  “IA es el arte de construir máquinas capaces de hacer cosas que requerirían inteligencia si las hicieran los seres humanos”  El cerebro es una máquina. Marvin Minsky.Marvin Minsky.
  7. 7. Libros de la “DÉCADA PRODIGIOSA”Libros de la “DÉCADA PRODIGIOSA” G. Edelman, The remembered present (1989) R. Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind (1989) W. Calvin, The Ascent of Mind (1990) C. Mc Ginn, The Problem of Consciousness (1991) D. Dennett, Consciousness explained (1991) J. Searle, The Rediscovery of the Mind (1992) F. Crick, The Astonishing Hypothesis (1994) R. Penrose, Shadows of the Mind (1994) A. Damasio, Descartes’error (1995) D. Chalmers, The conscious Mind (1996) B. Baars, Inthe Theater of the Consciousness (1997) G. Edelman- G. Tonino, A Universe of Consciousness A. Damasio, Looking for Spinoza (2003) B. Baars, Essential sources in Consciousness (2003) C. Koch, The Quest of Consciousness (2004) A. Zeman, Consciousness. A User’s Guide (2004)
  8. 8. GERALD EDELMANGERALD EDELMAN tiene una interpretaciontiene una interpretacion materialistamaterialista LA CONCIENCIA: Cómo la materia se convierte en imaginación Todo son redes de neuronas que compiten: darwinismo neuronal PN 1972 Inst. Scripp 2000 Trabaja con Tononi
  9. 9. ROGER PENROSEROGER PENROSE - Contra Minsky:- Contra Minsky: la mente no es una máquinala mente no es una máquina -Contra Edelman reduccionista:-Contra Edelman reduccionista: el teorema de Gödelel teorema de Gödel - ¿Base cuántica de la libertad?- ¿Base cuántica de la libertad?
  10. 10. Paul y Patricia ChurchlandPaul y Patricia Churchland Defienden el materialismo - Las máquinas pueden pensar, como el cerebro. - La libertad es una impresión que procede de procesos deterministas o del caos. - Defensores del eliminativismo: quieren reducir el vocabulario y los planos psíquico, social, cultural, etc. a un unívoco vocabulario neurológico.
  11. 11. John SearleJohn Searle - La conciencia es una propiedad del cerebro, como la liquidez, lo es del agua - Pero la mente no es un programa informático. - IA. No basta el test de Turing: se pueden manejar signos sin semántica: famoso ejemplo de la habitación china.
  12. 12. Francis CRICK y Christof KOCHFrancis CRICK y Christof KOCH - “La hipótesis revolucionaria es que ‘Usted’, sus alegrías y sus- “La hipótesis revolucionaria es que ‘Usted’, sus alegrías y sus penas..., su propio sentido de la identidad persona y su librepenas..., su propio sentido de la identidad persona y su libre voluntad, no son más que le comportamiento de un vastovoluntad, no son más que le comportamiento de un vasto conjunto de células nerviosas y de moléculas asociadas” (p. 319)conjunto de células nerviosas y de moléculas asociadas” (p. 319) - La libertad es impresión: procede o del determinismo o del caos- La libertad es impresión: procede o del determinismo o del caos - La unidad de la conciencia (Hume) se debe a una red neuronal- La unidad de la conciencia (Hume) se debe a una red neuronal
  13. 13. DANIEL DENNETTDANIEL DENNETT Opponent of supernaturalismOpponent of supernaturalism (The Guardian 17,IV.2004)(The Guardian 17,IV.2004) Defensa ideológica del naturalismo La evolución no tiene propósito El yo es una metáfora del cuerpo y cerebro El hombre es una máquina que elige (choice- machine) Tenemos más libertad si el determinismo es verdad. 19961991 2003
  14. 14. DAVID CHALMERSDAVID CHALMERS Bastante original e independiente.Bastante original e independiente. Dice que el problema serio es laDice que el problema serio es la conciencia en sí. No basta la físicaconciencia en sí. No basta la física o la neurología. La concienciao la neurología. La conciencia tiene fenómenos específicos. Portiene fenómenos específicos. Por eso, hace falta pensar en otroeso, hace falta pensar en otro rango de leyes, en otra árearango de leyes, en otra área
  15. 15. ANTONIO DAMASIOANTONIO DAMASIO Ha estudiado el papel de losHa estudiado el papel de los sentimientos en la conducta,sentimientos en la conducta, en el pensar. Se ajustaen el pensar. Se ajusta bastante a los datos ybastante a los datos y extrapola menos.extrapola menos.
  16. 16. ADAM ZEMANADAM ZEMAN escribió un buen libro,escribió un buen libro, descriptivo y ajustado a los datosdescriptivo y ajustado a los datos [Zeman] está especialmente cualificado para escribir un libro como éste, cuyo principal mérito es que proporciona un sumario del estado actual de las cosas en neurobiología, psicología y filosofía ... Un libro verdaderamente útil John R. Searle, Los Angeles Times BR Adam Zeman is a consultant neurologist at Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, and senior lecturer in the department of clinical neurosciences at Edinburgh University
  17. 17. OTROS LIBROSOTROS LIBROS Tirso de Andrés, Homo cybersapiens. La inteligencia arficial y la humana, Eunsa, Pamplona 2002 María Gudín, Cerebro y afectividad, Eunsa, Pamplona 2001 Alejandro Serani, El viviente humana. Estudios biofilosóficos y antropológicos, Eunsa, Pamplona 2000 Francesc Nicolau i Pons, El cerebro y el alma humana, Santandreu, Barcelona 1996 Además, visitar páginas de ARVO.NET
  18. 18. CONCLUSIÓNCONCLUSIÓN En esta materia tan difícil es muy importante distinguir lo que son los datos y lo que son las grandes extrapolaciones. Hemos visto tres grandes áreas de acercamiento al problema de mente/cerebro Sabemos muchas cosas, pero es poco en relación a la importancia de los fenómenos de la conciencia. En su conjunto, siguen siendo un gran misterio. Sabemos cuándo se puede estropear pero no sabemos cómo funciona Las posiciones materialistas son tomas de postura, pero no se deducen de los datos.
  19. 19. “La manera práctica de enfocar las investigaciones biológicas se caracteriza por emplear de modo complementario argumentos basados en todos los recursos de que dispone la ciencia física y química y conceptos que se refieren directamente a la integridad del organismo, que trasciende del campo de estas ciencias... Es muy significativo que los conceptos sencillos de la ciencia física pierdan en mayor grado su aplicabilidad cuando más nos acercamos a los aspectos de la vida relacionados con nuestra mente... Podemos referirnos al libre albedrío. En una manera determinista de enfocar las cosas, este concepto no tiene cabida, pero es evidente que la palabra “volición” es indispensable para una descripción exhaustiva de los fenómenos psíquicos” – Niels Bohr, El hombre y la ciencia física, Theoria 3 (1955) 7

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