Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees

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  • Make cuts on branch bard ridge so collar heals over itself. Do not paint or seal cuts. Make proper top cuts. Do not top trees ; control height with variety and rootstocks. Control growth direction; generally, prune to downward facing buds for horizontal limb growth. Prune to buds or branches. Do not leave stubs. Prune roots as you would and should a limb or branch.
  • Dormant Pruning: Do in Jan/Feb apples; at pink tip for stone fruits. Prune to a bud going in the direction you want the limb to go.
  • Grow Your Own, Nevada! Fall 2012: Restoring Older Fruit Trees

    1. 1. PV orchard aerial view 03
    2. 2. PRUNING AND RESTORING OLD NEGLECTED FRUIT TREES Michael G. Janik ISA Certified Arborist www.michaelsapples.com
    3. 3. Training vs. Pruning
    4. 4. My Favorite Pruning Books
    5. 5. Right toolfor the right job Loppers Pruners Saws Clean Sanitized Sharp
    6. 6. Anvil vs. Bypass Shears
    7. 7. PruningThe Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
    8. 8. Firewood pruning ‘03
    9. 9. Firewood Pruning ‘04
    10. 10. Firewood Tree ‘05
    11. 11. Firewood Tree ‘08
    12. 12. Firewood Tree 2010
    13. 13. Shade AppleOpen to allowsunlight and airflow
    14. 14. Starling Special Dwarfing RootstocksGenetic Miniatures
    15. 15. Upright growthAcute limb angles Spring Bare root treesHorizontal Scaffold Limbs
    16. 16. HUH??? Need low, horizontalscaffold limbsDo not planton easements
    17. 17. Garden,Orchard or Yard?
    18. 18. Topping x 3
    19. 19. NaturalTargetPruning
    20. 20. Proper pruning cut, before
    21. 21. Proper pruning cut, after
    22. 22. Well-sealed pruning scar
    23. 23. Cut back to a branch or bud
    24. 24. Open to infection
    25. 25. Natural Target Pruning II• Always cut back to a bud or branch• Always angle the cut away from the bud• Choose growth direction
    26. 26. Angle cut away from bud
    27. 27. Select bud growth direction
    28. 28. Cut to a Branch, Bud, or Fruiting Spur
    29. 29. Apical Dominance• Apical dominance is a tree’s response to a pruning cut• All pruning cuts cause the same reaction in a tree• Proper pruning uses apical dominance to shape trees
    30. 30. Apical Dominance
    31. 31. Size control using rootstocks• Standard—25 ft and up• Semi-Dwarf or half-standard – 8 to18 ft apples, pears – 15 to 20+ ft stone fruits (cherries, plums, etc• Genetic Dwarf/Miniatures—5-8 ft• Varietal vigor
    32. 32. Standard Semi-Dwarf
    33. 33. Dwarf Apple Tree (must be supported)
    34. 34. Easy access to harvest
    35. 35. PruningForms for Fruit Trees
    36. 36. Training A Central Leader Tree• Apples, Pears, plums, and cherries• Dwarf Pyramid or Pyramid• French Axe• Spindle Bush
    37. 37. 1st Year
    38. 38. Training Horizontal Limb Growth
    39. 39. Training using Clothespins 1st year
    40. 40. 2 year, etc; before nd
    41. 41. 2nd year, etc; after
    42. 42. 2nd Year
    43. 43. 2yr dwarf pyramid pear
    44. 44. 3rd and Subsequent Years
    45. 45. Scaffold limbs, fruiting shoots
    46. 46. Cut out vigorous growth
    47. 47. Vigorous growth removed
    48. 48. RegrowthNext Summer
    49. 49. Always removeone of any split shoots
    50. 50. Split Trunk
    51. 51. Thin forked branch growth
    52. 52. Mature dwarf pyramid
    53. 53. Centralleader pear in bloom
    54. 54. Semi-dwarf Central Leader
    55. 55. SupportedFrench Axe
    56. 56. Central Leader Pears Oregon
    57. 57. Central Leader Pears
    58. 58. Summary Training aCentral Leader
    59. 59. Training an Open Center Tree• Stone fruits, esp. peaches, nectarines• Lowest limb 12-18 inches• 3-5 limbs at low angle form a vase shape• Allows sunlight needed to ripen fruit
    60. 60. Training anOpen Center Tree
    61. 61. 1yr Open Center Cherry
    62. 62. 2yr Open Center Cherry
    63. 63. Open Centeroriental pear
    64. 64. Open center peach
    65. 65. Texas peach orchard
    66. 66. Texas peach tree
    67. 67. Peach tree at Monticello
    68. 68. Winter vs. Summer Pruning• Winter (Dormant) Pruning – Promotes vegetative growth in the spring – Use to train young trees• (Late) Summer and Fall pruning – Reduces food storage in roots and hence reduces tree growth in spring – Use on older, overgrown trees to open and rejuvenate the tree. – Use to establish fruiting spurs
    69. 69. Restoring Neglected Fruit Trees
    70. 70. Rejuvenating Neglected Trees• Always – Remove dead, diseased, and damaged wood – Remove crossing/rubbing branches – Remove water sprouts at limb junction – Remove suckers at the root junction• Never – Remove more than 20% green wood each year – Never fertilize
    71. 71. Arroyo 2004
    72. 72. Arroyo 2008
    73. 73. Arroyo Before After
    74. 74. 90 yr old Delicious
    75. 75. Quincy, CA apple treeHeading Back, Apple Tree, Quincy, CA
    76. 76. Standard pear
    77. 77. Apple
    78. 78. Before After
    79. 79. After After 2nd year 3rd year
    80. 80. BEFORE AFTER
    81. 81. Semi dwarf, before
    82. 82. Semi dwarf, after
    83. 83. Red Del 09 Before
    84. 84. BEFORE AFTER
    85. 85. BEFORE AFTER
    86. 86. Apple, before
    87. 87. Apple, after
    88. 88. BEFORE AFTER
    89. 89. BEFORE AFTER
    90. 90. BEFORE AFTER
    91. 91. GRANNY SMITHBEFORE AFTER
    92. 92. REVOVE UPRIGHT WATER SPROUTS BEFORE AFTER
    93. 93. PEACH TREE
    94. 94. BEFORE AFTER
    95. 95. Nectarines Spring 08
    96. 96. Nectarines Summer 08
    97. 97. OPEN WELL-PRUNED PEACH
    98. 98. CHERRY TREEBEFORE AFTER
    99. 99. BEFORE AFTER
    100. 100. Pruning for Fruit• Apples and Pears – Spur bearing – Tip Bearing• Plums and Cherries• Nectarines and Peaches
    101. 101. Pear flower buds on spurs
    102. 102. Peach flower on last year’s growth
    103. 103. Pruning for spur fruit
    104. 104. Renewal Pruning of Spurs
    105. 105. Fruiting spurs on mature tree
    106. 106. Pruning for Peaches & Nectarines
    107. 107. Peach flower and leaf buds
    108. 108. New and old growth on peach
    109. 109. Summary• Apical Dominance• Cut to a branch or bud• Choose bud/growth direction• Training vs. Pruning• References, Google It!• Buy a Pruning Book and Use It!

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