Dust & Air Pollution Control“Turfgrasses trap an estimated 12 million tons of dust and dirt released annually into the atmosphere.”Dr. Thomas L. Watschke Pennsylvania State UniversityOxygen Production“55 sq. ft. of turfgrass provides enough oxygen for one person for an entire day”Dr. Thomas L. Watschke Pennsylvania State University
2013 Green Industry Training: Turfgrass Management
Essentials of Turfgrass ManagementWilbur D. May Arboretum and Botanical GardenMay Center at Rancho San Rafael Bill Carlos. MS. Horticulturist Washoe County Community Service Department Regional Parks and Open Space
Benefits of Lawn Right under your feet! Increase property value Reduce dust (12 Million tons/year) Absorbs heat (global warming) Cools buildings (8 home lawns produce 70 tons of AC ) Recreation Calming effect Safe playing surface for children Provides oxygen (55 sq ft/person/day)
Benefits of Lawn Curb appeal Inexpensive durable ground cover Absorbs heat (global warming) Provides oxygen (55 sqft/person/day) Cost effective for controlling wind and soil erosion. Eliminates dust around homes and businesses.
Benefits of Lawn Serves as a fire barrier. Safe playing surface for children and pets. Reduces A/C cost by 10- to 15 % Dense canopy effective in the entrapment of airborne pollutants. Enhances ground water recharge. Healthy turfgass absorbs rainfall six times more effectively than a wheat field and 4 times more than a hay field (Beard 1992).
Lawns Lawn consist of a population of individual grass plants. Important to select the correct variety for the situation. Remember, “The grass you sow/grow will be the lawn you mow”. Need to consider species and climate before planting.
Trufgrass Species 90% of Northern Nevadan‟s are Bluegrass Parks and some ballfields are Tall Fescue
Grasses for Northern Nevada Kentucky Bluegrass Fine Fescue Tall fescue Perennial Rye Bent Buffalo grass (cool warm season grass) Turtle Turf (Koeleria macrantha)
Kentucky BluegrassCharacteristics (Poa pratensis) Rhizomes Boat shaped tip. Deep green blue color.
Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) Good color easy to grow. Not shade tolerant. Will burn if mowed to close and go dormant if not irrigated correctly.
Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) Seeding rate 3 to 6 lbs. Per 1000 sq.ft. Mowing height 2-3 inches. More susceptible to diseases Shallow root system (4-8 inches deep)
Kentucky Bluegrass Varieties Less expensiveGroup I „Park‟ – Rapid „Kentucky Blue‟ growth. „Park‟ „Merion‟ – Heavy N „Merion‟ feeder. „Newport‟ „Newport‟ – Course seed stalk and poor drought tolerance. All are susceptible to diseases compared to new varieties.
Kentucky Bluegrass VarietiesGroup II All are low spreading „Fylking‟ Fylking used for high or low maintenance. „Baron‟ Powdery mildew. „Syndsport‟ Baron fast grower. „Pennstar‟ A-34 shade tolerant. „A-20‟ Fe chlorosis. „A-34‟ Nugget – Shade „Nugget‟ „Sodco‟
Kentucky Bluegrass VarietiesGroup III All low spreading Best performers „Parade‟ Good wear „Ram I‟ „Parade‟ good wear. „Touchdown‟ „Glade‟ shade „Glade‟ tolerant „Majestic‟ „Majestic‟ good color „Adelphi‟ with poor maintenance.
Kentucky Bluegrass Varieties USDA Turfgrass Foundation Bedazzled Moon Shadow Midnight II Rugby Impact Nuglade Total Eclipse Chicago II Award Quantum Leap Arcadia J-1513 J-1838 Alpine Brilliant Moonlight
Local Blend of Kentucky Blue Western Turf ™ 24% Rugby 24.9% Ascot II 24% Limousine 24% Quantum Leap
Sample of a Mixture Low Grow Mixture 45% Hard Fescue Warwick 25% Kentucky bluegrass Arlene 25% Perennial Ryegrass Elite 5% Annual Ryegrass
Mixture of GrassesHardy Morningside Playground35% Creeping Red Fescue, Boreal30% Crested Wheatgrass, Turf Type30% Kentucky Bluegrass, 5-Star 5% Annual RyegrassA hardy, drought tolerant, traffic resistant blend specificallysuited for areas where frequent watering is a problem. Maintainsgreen color for up to 6 weeks without water.
Irrigation Most challenging for managers and homeowners. Fifty to seventy percent of our summer water supply is used for outdoor irrigation. First sign of drought stress is “foot-printing” caused by the lack of turgidity in the grass.
Irrigation Begin the season with a visual audit. Activate the system and check for: Leaks, wiper seals. Broken and buried heads. Nozzles out of adjustment or wrong nozzles, pump capacity. Mixed heads/mixed precipitation rates Blocked spray patterns by tall grass.
Irrigation Signs of drought stress: blue-green or gray leaf color. If left unwatched, the size of the areas will increase (confused with patch diseases). Leaf symptoms include rolled,drooping or folding leaves. Occurs when temperatures begin to rise. If unirrigated, turf will go dormant. Water will be stored in roots and crowns long after the shoots die.
Drought Stress on Turf Irrigation was shut off during construction
Drought Stress on Turf Turgor is lost due to the lack of water. When water is applied, the brown grass will continue to die and mimic a turf disease.
Advanced Irrigation Audit Perform a “catch can test.” This will assist in determining the uniformity and distribution of the system. Frequency and time will be determine by climatic conditions.
Irrigation Audit Place cans at ahead and between. Run sprinklers. Record time. Measure water in each container.
Irrigation Scheduling For scheduling go to, www.washoeet.dri.edu and click on “Water Like the Pro‟s”. Advance scheduling “click-on” the weather stations. (rule of thumb – irrigate to a depth of 6 inches) Best time to water is early in the morning when the wind is down. There is no conclusive evidence watering at night causes lawn disease, but why take a chance? Golf courses and parks, water when you can!!!
Water Like the Pros Use Et Rateswww.washoeet.dri.edu
Water Like the Pro‟s This web site will give you the approximate run times based on GMP‟s and sprinkler head operating pressure. Assist with scheduling. Rancho San Rafael Park Pumps undersized Too many valves on one station resulting inefficiencies and poor turf quality (donuts in turf).
Fertilizer Calibration Stop and check to make certain the spreader is calibrated for the correct amount of N you want to apply. One pound of actual nitrogen per 1000 sq ft is recommended for one application, but can vary. Rancho, 21 acres. Need 80, fifty pounds bag of fertilizer to get 1 pound of actual per 1000 sq ft. 2 tons per application. Need 3 to 4 application per year or 6-8 tons per year. Amount depends on guaranteed analysis, numbers on the bag, i.e., 21-9-15.
Fertilizer Calculation Recommend one lb of N per application per 1000 sq ft of turf. Take 1 lb and divided it by the first number on the bag which is Nitrogen. Example 20-0-0 (20% is nitrogen). 1/.20 = 5lbs. (the rest is a carrier) Need 5lbs of 20-0-0 to apply 1lb of AN per 1000 sq ft.
Fertilizer Application Rates Very low Maintenance - one application per year or one pound of actual nitrogen per year. Minimum maintenance – two application per year or two pounds of actual nitrogen per year. Moderate to high maintenance – three to six application per year. Golf courses frequently apply more to greens sometimes weekly for appearance. High frequency golf courses - 8-10 application for greens. Don’t forget iron!
Fertilizer Timing and Rates First application, mid March to mid - April. Use ½ to one lb. of N per 1000 sq.ft. of lawn. Use Fertilizer with Fe. Second application - apply May to Mid June at the one pound rate. Snack - in July/Aug ½ of N. per 1000 sq.ft.if needed but not always recommended. Golf courses fertilize on a as needed basis.
Fertilizer Timing and Rates Third application – Mid Aug – mid Sept. one pound rate. Last application is late October or around the first of November. Apply one pound of N using fast release nitrogen.
Available Organic Fertilizers Natures Intent Lawn Fertilizer (9-3-4) Apply 10 lbs for 1000 sqft. Any organic fertilizer will work. Benefits include maintaining healthy soil and avoid burning the lawn.
Mowing Heights “The Grass You Grow Will Be the Lawn You Mow” Species Inches Bentgrass ………….. 0.25 - 0.75 Ryegrass …………… 2.0- 3.0 Kentucky bluegrass …. 1.5 - 3.0 Tall Fescue …………….. 2.0 - 4.0 Fine-leaf fescue………. 2.0 - 2.5
Mowing Lawns Safety first Remove debris from the lawn Wear ear protection Gloves and work boots. Don‟t try this at home or work.
Mowing and Effects Close mowing removes leaves and carbohydrate production. Increases shoot production but reduce roots. Lower cuts will produce shallow roots. Weakens the turf ability to recover from environmental stresses (droughts).
Effects of Close Mowing Lower cuts increase the incident of disease. Occurs as a result of less stored food and shallow roots. Scalping will cause the root and shoot to stop growing. Depending on the health of the lawn, effects may last several day to weeks.
Mowing vs. Rooting Depth. Impact on rootdevelopment.
Results Mowing CloseThe lawn on the right is consistently mowed shorter than the lawn onthe left. Both lawns were irrigated nearly the same. By September theshorter lawn is drought stressed thus turning brown. Even afterapplying more water, weeds started to grow first before the grass.
Effects of Close Mowing Repeated scalping will cause the lawn to eventually thin and die. Follow the 1/3 rule: Remove only 1/3 of the grass blade at on time. If lowering the blades are required, do it gradually over time.
Edging Lawns Do not bevel edge with a string trimmer. Bevel edging allows weeds to invade. Prone to drought Stick edging - Best appearance Prone to insects, Looks Manicured Healthier for lawn bill bugs.
Mowing Pattern Mowing pattern as critical as mowing heights. IF you can, alternate direction each time you mow. This will reduce the chances of compaction and ruts in the lawn.
Mowers: Reel vs. Rotary Reel Mowers: Consist of 5 to 11 blades. Blades are pushed against the bedknife of the mowers which cut the leaves like scissors. Cleanest of cuts. Used on golf courses and large turf areas. Greens mower, capable of cutting blades to a height of 0.125 inches.
Rotary Mowers Blade rotates horizontally at high speeds. Blades cut by impact and speed (leaves are severed). Depending on the sharpness of the blades, tips can revel a shredded appearance. The duller the bladed the greater the damage.
Rotary Mowers Torn shredded tips are more prone to diseases. Rotary mowers blades need to be sharpen after 20 hours of use, for some that may mean changing blades twice per week. Should not be used at heights less than 1 inch, scalping will occur.
Make mowing your hobby! Rotary mower blade deck.
Clipping Removal There is no evidence that returning clipping to the lawn causes thatch. Evidence show when clippings are returned they provide nutrients in the form of nitrogen. It has also been estimated 100 to 150 lbs of nitrogen is eliminated per acre when clipping are collected for an entire season.
Aeration and Dethatching Aeration - Spring and fall maintenance. Aeration relives compaction Increase water infiltration Provides oxygen to the roots
Aeration and DethatchingAerating Increase fertilizer response. Release toxic gases that could buildup as a result of poor water percolation. Golf courses aerate as needed, aerate and top dress.
Core Aerating• Okay to leave the plugs, but not on golf greens.• Serves as top dressing.• Plugs break down after several irrigations.
De-thatching (Vertical Mowing) Removal of dead blades found near the surface of the lawn. De-thatch when you have 30 days of favorable growing conditions. Late summer is ideal time when temperatures are cool and there is rapid root development. Detaching decreases concentration of plant pathogens over-wintering in dead grass blades.
Thatch & De-thatching Thatch or the mat is found above the soil line. Spongy organic material. Caused by over fertilizing. Over watering. Soil compaction. Begin management when thatch layer is ½ or greater.
Problems Thatch or mat, shed water, preventing water infiltration. Minimize movement of water and fertilizer. Turf becomes susceptible to diseases. Provides conditions for insects such as cut worms, sod web worms and bluegrass weevils.
De-thatching After thatching, shoot density increases (Beard 1973). Turf will recover if water and fertilizer are applied. All material lifted must be raked and removed.
Dethatching Severity of dethatching is altered by the spacing of the tines and height of the vertical mower. With lighter vertical mowing equipment, several passes may have to occur in different directions to remove an significant portion of thatch.
Weed Control ID weed first. Purchase proper pesticide. Apply it at the right time of year. Apply it at the right stage of development. A weed is plant where it is not wanted.
Weed Control Apply a pre-emergent herbicides in spring to kill geminating weed seedling. Apply Mid Feb - March and or early April. Broad leaf weed control (post emergence): Apply after weeds have emerged. Common broad weed control, 2,4-D. Watch for drift. Can‟t spray with 10 mph winds.
Weed Control Know the difference between a monocot weed and dicot weed (grasses) before you purchase or apply a pesticide. READ THE LABEL and follow it to its entirety.
Common Turf WeedsDandelion KnotweedRed Stem Filere PuslaneAnnual Bluegrass BlackmedicNiblewill Tall FescueClover SaltgrassSpotted spurgeBuckthorn or Plantain
Turf Weeds • How do weeds spread?Wind, water and humanmovement. Combating Turf Weeds:• Pre-Emergent HerbicideWhen? Early Spring andfall. Spot treat throughoutthe season. Weeds willalways be present. Wherethis is water there areweeds!2/22/2013 81
Fairy Ring• There are over 50 - 60 species of the ring fungi identified.• Most common s the genus and species Marasmius oeades.• While the rings can develop in well-maintained lawns, they are often found in lawns that are under - watered and under - fertilized.
Fairy Ring• The fungal rings begin at a central point and grow outward at a rate of 1 foot to 2 feet per year.• Often rings will grow right out of a small lawn.• Fairy ring survives in the organic debris in the soil or in the thatch layer, the area of dead roots and shoots found just above the soil line.• Damage can be seen in turf as a band of unsightly large arcs or circles of dead grass.
Fairy Ring• It is not known if fairy ring spreads by white, hair-like fungal masses known as fungal mycelium, and/or by spores produced by mushrooms. White Fungal Mycelium
Three Types of Fairy Ring Type I Type II Most devastating. Present in under-watered and Soil becomes water repellent.Appear during hot dry summer or under fertilized turf. drought conditions.
Fairy Ring Type III Most CommonType II and III are occur during wet cool spring.
Fairy Ring• Difficult to control with chemicals.• Removing requires removing the soil & replacing with clean new topsoil. Re-sod or reseed afterwards.• Aerate or mask Type II & III and irrigate. This interrupts the hyphae and hydrophobic conditions. Water deep (2ft) weekly for several weeks.
Fairy RingCommon typeFound in landscapes.Rake or pickmushrooms if thereare children or pets.In some cases theycan be mowed up.
ControlsLimited success treatingfairy ring with chemicalfungicides and wettingagents (chemicals used tobreak the surface tensionof the soil and allow forwater adsorption).Due to inconsistent soil Fairy ring on golf green.textures and compacted Soils are deep and uniform.soils.Golf Courses seem to havebetter results on greens.
The fungicide (Flutolanil for residential sites and Azoxystrobin for commercial sites) cannot penetrate the soil deep enough to completely kill the fungi. The rings may be suppressed by drenching the infected soil with a fungicide. However, symptoms may reappear when treatments are discontinued.
Drilling Drenching, Injecting and Aerifying Soil Mixing and Tilling Chemicals: Torque Bayleton Armada Tarton Honor Tourney Banner etc.
Additional Information Fairy Rings In Lawns, University of Nevada Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 03-20. UC Davis Cooperative Extension, IPM Program Utah State Cooperative Extension Colorado State Cooperative Extension
Melting Out Drechslera poae. Cool season, 64°F to 85°F or 50°F to 75°F degrees. Turf begins to fade our or “melt out”. Disease always present in the soil.
Melting Out Stays dormant in plant tissue, fungal thread. A saprophytes and can infect lower roots. Most devastating to warm season Conidia of Drechslera grasses.
Melting Out Controls Reduce shade Improve soil aeration and water drainage, and control thatch. Avoid dry spots and maintain as high a cutting height as feasible.
Melting Out Controls Apply recommended rates of nitrogen fertilizers. Select resistant cultivars. Fungicides should not be necessary in most situations. For susceptible cultivars, treat at the onset of symptoms.
Dollar Spot Sclerotinai homeocarpa Show up at 59 to 86 degrees.
Dollar Spot Dollar spot often is confused with Ascochyta leaf blight. A major problem in Colorado. Turfgrass under stress is more susceptible to infection. Proper lawn management, such as aeration, proper watering and fertilization, will reduce dollar spot problems.
Dollar Spot Controls Major concern on bent grasses (golf greens) On Kentucky bluegrass lawns the fungi may infect large areas in just a few days. Infected areas 4 inches or larger may run together, causing large patches. Irregular patches to 12 feet wide are not uncommon on bluegrass lawns.
Dollar Spot Controls Use fungicides only in situations with recurrent dollar spot problems. Ensure nitrogen levels are sufficient to sustain a moderate rate of shoot growth.
Necrotic Ring Spot Ophiosphaerella korrae Resemble small fairy rings. University of Nevada Cooperative Extension Active at 68 and 86 degrees.
Appears two to three years after lawn establishment, however may not develop in a lawn for a decade or more. Intensifies in late July Colorado State University Cooperative Extension or August during periods of summer stress.
Advance state of necrotic ring spot. Can occur in a localized area.
Prepare site before sodding or seeding. Resistance. Overseed diseased patches with perennial rye.
Do not overwater. Follow good management practices on established lawns. Maintain the turf at a height of 2 ½ to 3 inches. Remove no more than 1/3rd of the blade at any one mowing.
Avoid applying excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Apply 4 lbs total nitrogen per 1000 square feet per year over fertilization may enhance NRS.
Sulfur amendments can reduce NRS severity. The exact mechanism by which this occurs is still unclear, although it is thought that sulfur acidifies the soil surrounding the roots and inhibits the spread.
Several fungicides are labeled for the control of NRS but their effectiveness has been inconsistent, i.e. Heritage, Headway, Chipco Tourney, Eagle, Banner etc. Make an application in May when soil temperatures reach 65° F at a depth of 2 inches. This usually occurs in mid-May or later.
Brown Patch Mid-Summer disease. Requires free water and high temperatures. Mimics drought response. Spreads quickly.
Occurs at between 75°F to 95°F, with the optimal conditions for leaf colonization being temperatures of 85° to 90°F with high humidity or extended leaf wetness periods. Prefers closely mowed turf!
Brown Patch Affects bentgrasses, fescues, ryegrasses, & bluegrasses> On closely mowed turf, patches of blighted turf will often have a purplish edge or smoke ring appearance in the early morning hours.
Brown Patch Control Irrigation is an important part of controlling Rhizoctonia diseases. Fungicide applications can be necessary if leaf wetness and soil moisture cannot be managed (for instance, as a result of rain or high humidity).
Brown Patch Control Combine cultural management techniques with fungicide applications for the best management of the disease. Improve water and fertility management are useful in preventing the development of rhizoctonia blight.
Brown Patch Control Reduce shading and improve soil aeration and water drainage. Irrigate in the pre- dawn or early morning hours to promote leaf drying.
Brown Patch Control Irrigate only when needed to a depth of 4 to 6 inches. Remove dew from leaves by polling or light irrigation. Avoid over nitrogen fertilization that results in a soft foliage growth. Maintain thatch at less than 0.5 inches.
Seedling Blight Pythium spp. Water mold fungus. Prefers free moisture and high temperatures. Occurs on newly plated lawns in summer and low lying areas
Hot, humid weather alert for Pythium blight outbreaks. Need 12 to 14 hours of wet humid conditions for several consecutive nights. Initial symptoms; circular patches of collapsed, water- soaked leaves and stems on close-mown turf. Observed early in the morning.
May see cottony white mycelium. Infected turf dies and becomes matted. Large areas of turf may be killed within a matter of days.
Cool-season turfgrasses should not be fertilized with more than 0.25 lb N per 2 1000 ft when conditions favor Pythium blight activity. Avoid establishing turf in low-lying areas that will collect water. If necessary, install subsurface drainage to prevent wet soil conditions.
Relieve compaction and maintain soil drainage aerification, and topdress golf course putting greens regularly to minimize thatch accumulations. Do not mow or irrigate when Pythium mycelium is present on the foliage to minimize spread of the pathogen. Collect and promptly dispose of clippings from infected areas and ensure that mowing equipment is washed before going to an uninfected area.
Due to the potential for rapid development of this disease, high value areas and susceptible grasses should be protected with a preventive fungicide program. Applications should be initiated when night temperatures consistently exceed 65°F and repeated on 14 to 21 day intervals as directed on the fungicide label.
Anthracnose Colletotrichum cereale Seen on golf greens. Susceptable host are annual bluegrass or creeping bent Anthracnose acervuli varieties. May-September in certain areas.
Controls Cultural Control annual bluegrass. Rise mowing heights during periods when the disease is most active. Fertilizer at the appropriate amount.
ControlsCultural Regularly aerify Top dress after aerification Fungicides should be your last resort. Used only a preventative not curative.
Identification of Plant DiseasesLocal Cooperative Extension Office State of Nevada Division of Agriculture.Shouhua Wang, Ph.d. Plant Pathologist Office: 775-353-3765 Lab: 775-353-3771 Fax: 775-353-3657 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Turfgrass Management Summary Mow High Don‟t remove any more that 1/3 of the leave blade. Fertilize 3 to 4 time per year Check the irrigation frequently. Most brown spot will occur in summer due to the irrigation system.
Turfgrass Management Summary If disease are suspect, have it identified first, Cooperative Extension of Nevada Division of Agriculture. Always ID weeds first before applying a herbicide. Good management will reduce disease and weeds.
Essentials of Turfgrass ManagementWilbur D. May Arboretum and Botanical Garden www.washoecountyparks.us www.maycenter.com 785-4153 Bill Carlos. MS. HorticulturistWashoe County Community Services Department Regional arks and Open Space