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Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com

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Nir Eyal, Behavior Engineer, NirAndFar.com

In an age of ever-increasing distractions, quickly creating customer habits is a key characteristic of successful products. How do companies create products people use every day? What are the secrets of building services customers love? How can designers create products compelling enough to "hook" users?

Attendees will learn:
- The common design patterns of habit-forming products.
- An in-depth look at the psychology behind what drives user behavior and how to build products to cater to core human needs.
- Practical steps for leading a habit design process to ensure your product is used regularly.

Published in: Technology, Education

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Technologies | Nir Eyal, NirAndFar.com

  1. 1. Hooked Nir Eyal Nir Eyal NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  2. 2. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “When my boss tells me to increase engagement, I’m like...” QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture. Source: runningastartup.tumblr.com
  3. 3. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “Why can’t we do it like _______?”
  4. 4. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal PatternsPatterns Photo Credit: shaire productions
  5. 5. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Vitamins or painkillers?
  6. 6. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Selling painkillers - Obvious need - stop pain - Quantifiable market - Monetizable
  7. 7. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Selling vitamins - Emotional need, not efficacy - “Makes me feel good knowing...” - Unknown market
  8. 8. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Vitamins or painkillers?
  9. 9. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habit is when not doing causes pain. causes pain. causes pain.
  10. 10. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habit-forming technology Vitamin Painkiller Pleasure seeking Pain alleviation
  11. 11. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Creating pain? (more of an itch) (more of an itch)
  12. 12. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal hab· it /ˈhabit/ Noun, Def: A behavior that occurs nearly or completely without conscious thought.
  13. 13. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal My goal If your business model requires habits ... ... a pattern intended to help you form better product hypotheses ... ... to increase odds of success.
  14. 14. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal the hook /THə hook/͟ ͝ Noun, Def: An experience designed to connect a solution to the user’s problem with enough frequency to form a habit.
  15. 15. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hooks Low engagement High engagement
  16. 16. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The Hook
  17. 17. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Remember: ATARI A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment
  18. 18. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Triggers
  19. 19. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The first step to “connect a solution to the user’s problem”
  20. 20. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Habits aren’t created, they are built upon
  21. 21. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Triggers External Internal Alarms Calls-to-action Emails Stores Authority Emotions Routines Situations Places People What to do next is in the trigger What to do next is in the user’s head
  22. 22. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  23. 23. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Dissatisfied Indecisive Lost Tense Fatigued Inferior Fear of loss Bored Lonesome Confused Powerless Discouraged Emotions are frequent internal triggers
  24. 24. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal People with depression check email more. Source: Kotikalapudi et al 2012,Associating Depressive Symptoms in College Students with Internet Usage Using Real Internet Data
  25. 25. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal When I feel... ... I use Lonely Hungry Unsure Anxious Lost Mentally fatigued Facebook Yelp, GrubHub Google Email GPS ESPN, Glam Internal triggers in tech
  26. 26. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Know your customer’s internal trigger.
  27. 27. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal “Every time the user (internal trigger) they use (product).”
  28. 28. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Instagram triggers
  29. 29. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Instagram triggers External Internal - FB and Twitter - App notifications - App icon - Fear of losing the moment - Bored, lonesome, fear of missing out
  30. 30. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Triggers are the first step of the hook. • The designer informs what to do next through external triggers. • The user informs what to do next through internal triggers. • Emotions provide frequent internal triggers.
  31. 31. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Actions
  32. 32. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal when doing < thinking = action
  33. 33. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal trigger (SUCCESS!) trigger (FAIL!) ability motivation Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University B = m.a.t. Fogg Behavior Model
  34. 34. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal mo· ti· va· tion /mōtə vāSHən/ Noun, Def: “The energy for action” - Edward Deci
  35. 35. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal motivation Motivators of behavior Seek: Pleasure Hope Acceptance Avoid: Pain Fear Rejection Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  36. 36. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  37. 37. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  38. 38. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal
  39. 39. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal a· bil· i· ty /əˈbilitē/ Noun, Def: The capacity to do.
  40. 40. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyalability How increase capacity to do something? Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  41. 41. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyalability Factors of ability • Time • Money • Physical effort • Brain cycles • Social deviance • Non-routine Source: Dr. BJ Fogg, Stanford University
  42. 42. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Simple online actions in anticipation of reward • Log-In (Facebook, Wordpress) • Search (Google, Expedia, Yelp) • Open (Twitter, SMS, email) • Scroll (Pinterest, Instagram) • Play (YouTube, online games)
  43. 43. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Twitter homepage 2009
  44. 44. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal2010 Twitter homepage
  45. 45. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal2013 Twitter homepage
  46. 46. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Evolution of Twitter 2009 2010 2013
  47. 47. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Action is the second step of the hook. • The action is the simplest behavior the user can do before getting rewarded. • To increase behavior: • Ensure a clear trigger is present. • Increase ability by making it easier. • Align with the right motivator.
  48. 48. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Variable rewards
  49. 49. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The brain and rewards Source: Olds and Milner, 1945
  50. 50. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Reward system stimulators
  51. 51. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Were Olds and Milner stimulating pleasure? (not exactly) (not exactly)
  52. 52. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The stress of desire • Dopamine system activated by anticipation of reward • And dampened when reward achieved Source: Knutson et al 2001
  53. 53. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Supercharge the “stress of desire”... But how? But how? But how? But how?
  54. 54. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Exactly!
  55. 55. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The unknown is fascinating • Our brains are prediction machines. • We seek to understand cause and effect. • Variability messes with our heads. • Causes us to increase focus and engagement. • ...and oh yes, it’s habit forming.
  56. 56. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal The endless search • B.F. Skinner showed intermittent rewards increase response rate. • Dopamine drives the search. • Variability spikes dopamine.
  57. 57. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Variable rewards thethe HuntHunt thethe TribeTribe thethe SelfSelf
  58. 58. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for social rewards social rewards thethe TribeTribe - Cooperation - Competition - Recognition - Acceptance - Sex - Empathetic joy Source: Adapted from Malone and Lepper, 1987
  59. 59. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the tribe
  60. 60. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the tribe
  61. 61. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for resources thethe HuntHunt - Food - Money - Information
  62. 62. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the hunt: search for resources
  63. 63. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the hunt: search for information
  64. 64. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Dare you not to scroll
  65. 65. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Search for sensation thethe SelfSelf - Mastery - Consistency - Competency - Completion
  66. 66. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the self:competency and mastery
  67. 67. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Rewards of the self:competency and mastery
  68. 68. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Some words of warning!
  69. 69. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Must still solve pain • Variable rewards are not a free pass. • You still need to give the user what they came for. • (see internal trigger and motivation)
  70. 70. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal No engagement without autonomy • People resist being controlled. • Autonomy is a pre-requisite. • If lost, you fail. Source: See Deci and Ryan on Self-Determination Theory
  71. 71. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Finite rewards decay • As rewards become predictable, they become less interesting Finite Variability Infinite Variability - Single-player games - Consumption of media - Multi-player games - Creation of content - Communities Source: See “hedonic treadmill”
  72. 72. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Variable reward is the third step of the hook. • Reward types: • Tribe • Hunt • Self • Maintain feeling of autonomy, find infinite variability and alleviate user pain
  73. 73. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Investments
  74. 74. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Investment • Where user does a bit of “work.” • “Pays” with something of value: time, money, social capital, effort, emotional commitment, personal data ...
  75. 75. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal • Done in anticipation of future rewards • Makes next pass through hook more likely by: • Loading the next trigger • Storing value • Creating preference Investment increase likelihood of next pass
  76. 76. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Loading the next trigger
  77. 77. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Pinterest T A VRI Email notification Log-in Communication (Tribe) Collecting (Hunt) Pin, Re-Pin, Like, Comment Collecting, lonesome, seeking connection ...
  78. 78. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value ContentContent
  79. 79. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value Data
  80. 80. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value FollowersFollowers
  81. 81. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Storing valueStoring value Reputation
  82. 82. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Creating preference preference
  83. 83. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Ease of use
  84. 84. Source: Langer, 1975 • People who pick lottery numbers assign greater odds. Labor increases value
  85. 85. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Labor is love • Value own work almost as much as an expert’s. • Even if others don’t. Source: Ariely, Mochon and Norton, 2012
  86. 86. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal As we invest ... we seek to be consistent with past behaviors... with past behaviors...
  87. 87. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Little investments, big results big results Group 1: 17% accepted Group 2: 76% accepted Source: Freedman & Fraser, 1966
  88. 88. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal ...investments shape our tastes, preferences and identities.
  89. 89. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal In summary • Investment is the fourth step of the hook. • Small amounts of work to increase the likelihood of the user returning by: • Loading the next trigger • Storing value • Creating preference
  90. 90. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal the hook /THə hook/͟ ͝ Noun, Def: An experience designed to connect a solution to the user’s problem with enough frequency to form a habit.
  91. 91. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Remember: ATARI A - A hook has 4 parts: T - Trigger A - Action R - Reward I - Investment
  92. 92. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hooks create associations - External triggers - Low preference - Low engagement - Internal triggers - High preference - High engagement
  93. 93. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Hook model canvas Trigger Action Variable RewardInvestment 3. What is the simplest behavior in anticipation of reward? 1. Internal trigger - What does the user really want? 2. External trigger - What gets the user to the product? 4. Is the reward fulfilling, yet leaves the user wanting more? 5. What is the ‘bit of work’ done to increase the likelihood of returning?
  94. 94. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal What are you going to do with this?
  95. 95. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Cultivate meaning • The world is full of problems to fix. • Help others find meaning. • Engage them in something important. • Build the change you want to see in the world.
  96. 96. NIR EYAL NirAndFar.com @nireyal Please raise your phones • I love feedback. • Please go here: www.OpinionTo.us • Help make this presentation better and ... get slides. • Thank you!

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