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  3. 3. INDEX: EFFECTIVE SPEAKING ------------------------4 PUBLIC SPEAKING-----------------------------8 ADVANTAGES| DO’S & DON’T’S OF GOOD PUBLIC SPEAKER--------------------8 PRESENTATION------------------------------10 3
  4. 4. EFFECTIVE SPEAKINGMEANING:- Fulfilling the purpose of speaking is called as Effective Speaking.DIFFERENT TYPES EFFECTIVE SPEAKING:-1) FACIAL EXPRESSION:- The expression on the face is the most obvious aspect of effective speaking. A cheerful face or a gloomy face influences most people. A cheerful or appreciative smile, a displeased frown, a look of surprise and several other expressions of the face can convey with or without words the attitude, feeling and reaction of the communications. Expressions accompany the speaker’s words and also indicate the listener’s reaction. An alert speaker can judge the listener’s reaction by facial expression that act as a constant feedback. Eyebrows and lips are the most Mobil parts of the face; an eyebrow raised unconsciously can convey disbelief or surprise. A frown may convey displeasure or effort to concentrate, depending upon the context. Pursed lips certainly do not convey friendliness.2) EYE CONTACT: - Eye movement is a key part of facial behavior, directing others attention or showing surprise of happiness and other emotional displays. The comfort level for eye contact is three seconds; if eye contact is held longer than three seconds it can cause discomfort to the other person. Aggressive persons try to fix others with a stare: anger may be expressed with extended eye contact. It is commonly believed that avoiding eye contact indicates that the speaker is lying; yet some liars may hold unblinking eye contact and watch to see your reaction. Persons who lack self-confidence also generally avoid eye contact. However the rules and customs of cultures consider it impertinent for younger persons to look at elders directly in the eye.3) GESTURES:- Gestures are the movement of handslegsbody: they are natural accompaniment of speech: a person who does not make any movement while speaking4
  5. 5. appears somewhat stiff mechanical. Gestures may or may not have specific meaning: a clenched list may emphasize an important or convey determination or indicate defense/opposition. As gestures are closely related to personality, no two persons make exactly the same gestures; yet the general meaning is easily recognized. The occasions, the size and nature of the audience influence speaker’s gestures. On very occasions like employment, interview/conference, speaker’s use fewer gestures (note: - T.V. news readers). In a relaxed situation, gestures are used more freely.4) ENERGY:- Energy and enthusiasm as an aspect of effective speaking is hard to describe, but most people have experienced the impact of a person with a high level of energy. Some impress with high level of physical energy which is almost infectious: some have high intellectual or emotional or spiritual energy. Whatever its source, energy conveys competence and inspires respect. State of physical and mental health plays a large part in effective speaking. A healthy person is energetic and maintains a certain level of enthusiasm in the style: it is usually infectious and makes listeners also feels enthusiastic.5) VOLUME:- Volume is the loudness or softness, which can be consciously adjusted to the number of persons in the audience and the distance between the speakers and listeners. Most persons speak at appropriate volume. Speaking too loud suggests lack of self-command or a dominating nature. Loudness of voice is also influenced by one’s surrounding and by cultural customs of the speaker. The volume of voice also indicates the speaker’s confidence level: a well-prepared speaker is clearly audible to the audience.6) PITCH:- Pitch is the high or low note on the scale. A high-pitch voice is often unpleasant and suggests immaturity or emotional disturbance: a frighten person speaks in a high pitched voice. It is better to begin softly, in a low pitch and raise the volume and pitch as required. Pitch is affected by healthy and by state of mind.5
  6. 6. 7) SPEED:- Speed is partly a cultural habit and is partly influenced by emotions. Rapid speech indicates excitement: we speak faster to tell an interesting story and reduce speed to explain a difficult idea.8) PRONOUNCIATION:- Pronunciation means making a sound of a letter or a word. Pronunciations should be correct and clear in order to be understood by others: it indicates that the speaker is careful and has consideration for the audience.9) ACCENT:- Accent is the way a person makes the sound and pronounces the word of the language. Every language has its own accent or way of forming the sound and its own rhythm or intonation: we carry our mother tongue accent to other languages we learn. Good accent in a new language is learnt by listening to native speaker of the language. It is not necessary to try to imitate American or British accent; it is sufficient to speak with clarity so that others understand what we say.10) STRESS:- Stress is the degree of force or loudness with which a word or a part of a word is pronounced. Stress laid on a particular word in a sentence can change the meaning and implication. Try reading the sentence, “were you there last night?” by stressing a different word each time, and note the differences in the implied meaning.11) SILENCE:- Silence can be a very effective way of communication. It is not a negative absence of speech but a positive withdrawal of suspension of speech. Silence is difficult method of communication to use as it takes a good deal of self-control and self- confidence to be able to hold one’s tongue. Silence can be very embarrassing if it is not possible to interpret it. It can be awkward in a group, if no one knows how to break it. Short silences or pauses are very effective in giving emphasis to words. A pause before or after certain words makes the words stand out from the rest. A skillfully placed pause has the power to make the listener more alert. In presentations, silence can be used effectively to emphasize a point.6
  7. 7. 12) SPACE:- The way we use space plays a subtle role in body language. Individuals naturally maintain a certain space between themselves in various social and interpersonal situations. The distance we keep from the other person while speaking, indicates the relationship: we keep a longer distance from a slight acquaintance and get closer to persons with closer relationships; we maintain a respectful distance from and allow more personal space to our superiors. It is important not to invade others space in any situation. Four types of distance indicate the relationship between persons: Intimate space is 0 to 18 inches Personal space is 18 inches to 4 feet Social distance is 4 feet to 12 feet Public distance is 12 feet to hearing and seeing distance.7
  8. 8. PUBLIC SPEAKINGINTRODUCTION: Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners.TRAINING: Effective public speaking can be developed by joining a club such as Rostrum, Toastmasters International, Association of Speakers Clubs (ASC), Speaking Circles, or Power talk International, in which members are assigned exercises to improve their speaking skills. "Dos and Don’ts about Public Speaking" Good public speaking requires certain qualities that seem to be theprerogative of a select few. Though some of these qualities are inborn many ofthem can be cultivated too. Extending some efforts at sharpening your public speaking or oratoryskills can go a long way to make you successful in your endeavors. There are certain dos and don’ts that you need to always keep in mind if you wish to achieve success via effectively communicating with the public. Here are the important things to ‘do’ about public speaking that you need to remember: Do plan your speech in advance. Being prepared beforehand will enable you to feel confident about speaking in front of the audience. Do maintain eye contact with the audience. You should maintain good eye contact with those listening to you. Do make sure you are standing securely. You will end up being in an awkward situation if you suddenly tip while speaking. Do speak slowly while making use of carefully chosen words. Remember, usage of the appropriate words in speech can produce a lasting impression in the minds of the listeners and can create a great impact in conveying an idea. Do breathe normally while speaking. You need to stay at ease while talking to the audience. Do be at yourself. You need not don a different personality while speaking. This will make you feel uncomfortable and also make the audience confused as your speech gets affected in this way. 8
  9. 9. Do speak enthusiastically. No one prefers a speaker lacking in spirit. You need to ask thought- provoking questions, make use of quotes relating to the subject of discussion and relate startling facts- all to arouse the curiosity of the audience and draw their interest. Now there are the things that you are advised not to do too in case of publicspeaking. Here are some significant ‘don’ts’ about public speaking: Don’t waver from the main message that you are seeking to convey. Always bear in mind that the audience cannot retain more than two or three things presented in a speech. So, lay emphasis on the main points while speaking. Don’t ever start fidgeting in front of the audience while speaking. Even if you are not fully confident of something you must take care not express it this way. Don’t lean while speaking. Don’t look down and maintain eye contact with your audience while delivering your speech. Don’t make use of vocal pauses like ah, umm… etc. Make use of a proper word instead like ‘now’. Don’t waste too much time on answering questions asked and clarifications sought by listeners. You must make sure that the main message that you wish to express via your speech is conveyed within the time allotted for your speech. 9
  10. 10. PRESENTATIONINTRODUCTION A presentation is an oral account of what the speaker has to say aboutparticular topic and for a specific purpose. People make presentations for various purposes. Asales representative makes a presentation about a product that he wants to sell in order topersuade the customers to buy the product. An HR manager makes a presentation to inform thecompany employees about the new policies or welfare measures. In a college, the professorsgives a presentation to explain a certain topic or a student’s give a presentation to explain the fora presentation – to persuade, to inform, to explain etc. METHODS OF PRESENTATION:- Having planned out the presentation you have to decide upon the method of presentation. In practice, three methods of presentation have been observed. 1) READING:- Many speakers write out their entire speeches and read them out before the audience. The greatest advantage of this method is that accuracy is best maintained in it. Winston Churchill is reputed for using a written script. But he was a master orator who would frequently glance up from the script and maintain eye contact with his audience. But not many speakers can do that. Most of us, in fact, do not read aloud well. Most readers sink into dull monotones, miss punctuation marks and fumble for words. So, this method has more disadvantages than advantages. 2) MEMORIZED PRESENTATION:- Many speakers are known to write and memorize speeches. They have memory powerful enough to remember even the pauses. But, then, very few have been able to do so effectively. The greatest disadvantage of this method is that the speaker may forget some important point/part of the script. Trying to locate it in the script, if it is with the speaker at the moment, spoils the entire effect of the presentation. That is why most such speakers memorize key parts and use notes to help them during the presentation. 10
  11. 11. 3) EXTEMPORANEOUS PRESENTATION:- This is the most popular method used by really effective speaker. They have carefully planned their speeches, but then they speak as if they were getting the ideas, coherently arranged, on the spur of the moment. Whenever they need any help they look into their notes that they keep handy. They don’t waste time in memorizing speeches as it is a strenuous exercise. On the other hand, looking into the notes, serially arranged, seems quite natural and the speech delivered in this way also sounds spontaneous. 4) REHEARSE THE PRESENTATION:- As a necessary part of the presentation, preparation is very important. It is a private practice session to gain confidence and work towards self- improvement. But it is best to rehearse as part of a team and invite suggestions for improvement. The best part of team-rehearsal is mutual constructive criticism that gives the speaker the advantage of feedback. In this way it goes a long way training the speaker to be an effective communicator. Rehearsing is not just to check the speech of the presentation, but the flow of the entire event is not all. It gives the speaker a clear idea of where, when, and how to introducing / bring in visual aids to support his presentation. Only a rehearsal can ensure co-ordination of effort. Moreover, the team can also check the location, seating arrangements, lighting and acoustics, the working of the electronic equipment and so on. 5) PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES:- It is an absolute necessity analyzes oneself before going on to make a presentation. As has been said so succinctly, the speaker himself is essentially a part of the message. The audience first sees the speaker, and then listens to the spoken words. Hence the importance a presentable appearance cannot be over emphasized. Since a presentation is a formal occasion, the speaker must be formally dressed, but certainly not overdressed. If the speaker is well prepared and properly dressed for the occasions he will not only look but also feel confidence. And confidence is the primary characteristic of a successful presentation. PREPARATION FOR PRESENTATION:-11
  12. 12. In order to make a successful presentation one has to take the following steps:(a) Be clear about the occasion: It means the person proposing to make a presentation must know the purpose he wants to fulfill through his presentation. Is going to be a presentation for a seminar or a conference, or the occasion of launching an exciting new product? Is there sufficient time for the presentation and discussion thereafter? It is also very important to know what has been happening till the time the presentation is going to take place. Without this information the speaker will not be able to understand the context. If, for example, the presentation is going too made on an inaugural occasion, it is definitely the exciting time to put your best food forward. On the other hand, if the organization has been facing some financial problems and the audience has to be apprized of the situation, the presentation has to be focused on vital statistics, inferences drawn their from and positive suggestions.(b) Analyze the audience: Before making a presentation it is of utmost importance to understand for whom it is meant. An audience is not just a gathering of individuals at one place. It has collective personality of its own. The various aspects of group personality have to be taken into account here. Besides, we must also consider the size of audience how formal or informal the presentation on going to be, and the age, sex, education background, experience, nationality of the audience, all of which have a great relevance to the presentation. Anyone can imagine how important it is to know whether one is going to make a presentation before an all male, all female, or a mixed audience. It will influence our choice of words, tones, need for detail and illustrations and so on. It will also give us an idea of their expectation and their likely reactions to what we are going to say. If we know anyone of them personally it will make the presentation more effective. That is why it is quite advisable to try to meet the audience before the presentation.(c) Visit/have an idea of the location: If possible, the location of the presentation should be visited before the event. There is no wisdom in taking the location for granted. Much depends on the size of the room, sitting arrangement, room temperature, lighting controls, public12
  13. 13. equipments, audio-visual equipments, acoustics etc. if, for example, the room echoes or resounds with the words we speak much of the presentation will be spoil. If the audience is handled in a cramped space and feel uncomfortable in a hot Indian summer afternoon the whole event will be waste of time. If the audience is large and the public arrangements arte not satisfactory as is often the case both the audience and the person making the presentation become bored.(d) Plan out the presentation: The next, and perhaps the most important steps towards making a presentation is to be plan it out in writing in detail or at least in outline showing exactly what you purpose to say in the beginning, the middle, and the end. A rough plan for any presentation may he made as follows:- Beginning: 1. Introductory remarks 2. Statement of the objective giving reasons why you are making this presentation 3. Draw the outline of the presentation Middle 1. Break the main body of the presentation into short, clearly stated units. Not more than 5-6 sections can be managed. 2. Illustrate the points with the examples. 3. Put a time limit on each of the points. 4. Prioritize the time limit. End 1. Give a summary of the whole. 2. If need be refer to the points made in the beginning or in the middle for the sake of emphasis. 3. Make final remarks and end on a positive note. At this stage it is advisable to consult the sponsors of the event and being constant touch with the co-presenter. After all it is going to be a team work, and several minds are better than one.13
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  15. 15. Thank you15