Harmful Elements


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Harmful Elements

  2. 2. This presentation will show some of theharmful elements in the periodic table.As you go over the presentation, youwill see the uses of the elements, itsbad effects on humans, and its effectson the environment. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. ELEMENTS∞ Beryllium Uses Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment ∞ Mercury Uses Effects on Humans∞ Cobalt Effects on the Environment Uses Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment ∞ Radon Uses Effects on Humans∞ Lead Effects on the Environment Uses Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment How is it Abused
  4. 4. ELEMENTS∞ Nickel Uses Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment∞ Uranium ∞ Bismuth Uses Uses Effects on Humans Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment Effects on the Environment∞ Polonium Uses Effects on Humans Effects on the Environment
  5. 5. The atomic number of beryllium is four, and it is indicated by theBERYLLIUM symbol Be on the periodic table of elements. It is the lightest of the alkaline earth elements, and appears in a rigid, steely gray form when it is pure. The element is able to resist corrosion rather well, and it also has a very high melting point. This traits make it a popular inclusion in metal alloys. The hexagonal crystalline structure of beryllium makes it very rigid, and the metal also has excellent thermal and electrical conductivity.
  6. 6. BERYLLIUM HomeUSES• The element is used as window material for X-ray tubes. Beryllium X-ray Tube with Window
  7. 7. BERYLLIUM HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• This metallic element can be very harmful to humans when theybreathe it in, because it can damage the lungs and cause pneumonia.• The most commonly known effect of beryllium is called berylliosis, adangerous and persistent lung disorder that can also damage other vitalorgans. In about 20% of all cases people die of this disease.• Beryllium can also cause allergic reactions to people who are hypersensitive to this chemical element and its compounds. These allergic reactions can be very dangerous and they can even cause a person to be seriously ill, a condition known as Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD).• Beryllium can also increase the chances of cancer development and DNA damage.
  8. 8. BERYLLIUM HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Laboratory tests have indicated that it is possible for beryllium to cause cancer and changes of DNA with animals.
  9. 9. COBALT The atomic number of cobalt is 27, and it is identified with the symbol Co on the periodic table of elements. The name for the metal is derived from the German word for “goblin,” a reference to the goblins which supposedly used it to replace valuable silver ores. The element was also considered a goblin because it tended to appear frequently with arsenic, a highly toxic element. When smelted, arsenic fumes would be released, threatening the health of workers.
  10. 10. COBALT HomeUSES• Excessive cobalt exposure may occur in the hard metal industry, cobalt refineries, specialist alloy manufacture, magnet manufacturing, in the paint industry and in diamond tooling. Alloy Magnet Paint
  11. 11. COBALT HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• Cobalt inhalation can lead to „hard metal disease‟, respiratory sensitization, pneumonia, wheezing, and asthma.• Because it is not regulated at the point of absorption, cobalt can be toxic to humans when consumed in excessive quantities.• Excesses can cause polycythemia (increased red blood cells), bone marrow hyperplasia, pancreatic failure or congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy, and large doses interfere with iron absorption.
  12. 12. COBALT HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• Some who drank large quantities of the beer experienced nausea, vomiting, and heart injury.• However, heart injury was not seen in anemic people or pregnant women treated with cobalt. Nausea
  13. 13. COBALT HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Animal studies have shown abnormal fatal development in animals exposed to high concentrations of cobalt during pregnancy.• It is a possible carcinogen to humans, but human studies are currently inconclusive.• Animal studies show that cobalt causes cancer when placed directly into the muscle or under the skin, but not when the animals were exposed to cobalt in air, food, or drinking water. Skin contact with cobalt or some of its compounds can lead to allergic dermatitis.
  14. 14. When lead is freshly isolated, it is a bright, silvery metal. However, exposureLEAD to air quickly causes it to tarnish, acquiring a dull gray color which is familiar to many people. The element is soft enough to be cut with shears or a knife, and it has a very low melting point. It also happens to be resistant to many corrosives. Lead has the atomic number 82, and it is identified on the periodic table of elements with the symbol Pb. If youre wondering what the letters “P” and “B” have to do with L-E-A-D, the “Pb” refers to the Latin name, plumbum; the English name appears to be Celtic in origin.
  15. 15. LEADUSES• Lead Paint• Imported Candies → Lead has been found in candy and candy wrappers imported primarily from Mexico and Asia.• Hobbies and art → Some art supplies, such as artists paint, still have lead in them. Some hobbies require the use of lead, such as stained glass, firing guns, making ammunition, and making fishing lures and sinkers. Lead Paint Artist’s Paint
  16. 16. LEAD HomeUSES• Dishware → Imported glazed pottery and leaded crystal may also be sources of lead. Minimize the use of these products.• Lead at work → Adults who work in industries that use lead (battery manufacturing, pipe fitting, firing ranges, demolition, glass production, smelting operations, etc.) should be careful not to bring lead home with them. Shower and change clothes and shoes at work. Do not contaminate your car. Lead Pipes Battery Manufacturing Firing Ranges
  17. 17. LEAD HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS ADULTS:KIDS: • Increased chance of illness during• Learning disabilities resulting in a pregnancy decreased intelligence (decreased IQ) • Harm to a fetus, including brain• Attention deficit disorder damage or death• Behavior issues •Fertility problems in both men and• Nervous system damage women• Speech and language impairment • High blood pressure• Decreased muscle growth • Digestive issues• Decreased bone growth • Nerve disorders• Kidney damage • Memory and concentration problems • Muscle and joint pain
  18. 18. LEAD HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Lead affects the central nervous system of animals and inhibits their ability to synthesize red blood cells.• Lead salts through the exhausts of cars pollute soils or surface waters, and smaller particles of these will travel long distances through air and remain in the atmosphere. This has caused a lead pollution to be a worldwide issue.
  19. 19. LEAD HomeHOW IS IT ABUSEDLead occurs naturally in the environment. However, most leadconcentrations that are found in the environment are a result of humanactivities. Due to the application of lead in gasoline an unnatural lead-cycle has consisted. In car engines lead is burned, so that lead salts(chlorines, bromines, oxides) will originate.These lead salts enter the environment through the exhausts of cars. Thelarger particles will drop to the ground immediately and pollute soils orsurface waters, the smaller particles will travel long distances through airand remain in the atmosphere. Part of this lead will fall back on earth whenit is raining. This lead-cycle caused by human production is much moreextended than the natural lead-cycle. It has caused lead pollution to be aworldwide issue.
  20. 20. MERCURY Mercury is a metallic element with the atomic number 80 and the symbol Hg, from the Latinhydragyrus, which means “liquid silver.” On the periodic table of elements, it is found in Group 2B, just below cadmium, and in Period 6 between gold and thallium. It is referred to as a “transition metal.” It is a heavy element that is liquid at room temperature. Described as silvery-white in color, it is poisonous.
  21. 21. MERCURY HomeUSES• Metallic mercury is used in a variety of household products, such as barometers, thermometers and fluorescent light bulbs. Barometer Thermometer Fluorescent Light Bulb
  22. 22. MERCURY HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• Mercury has a number of effects on humans, that can all of them be simplified into the following main effects: - Disruption of the nervous system - Damage to brain functions - DNA damage and chromosomal damage - Allergic reactions, resulting in skin rashes, tiredness and headaches - Negative reproductive effects, such as sperm damage, birth defects and miscarriagesDamaged brain functions can cause degradation of learningabilities, personality changes, tremors, vision changes, deafness, muscleincoordination and memory loss. Chromosomal damage is known tocause mongolism.
  23. 23. MERCURY HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Mercury from soils can accumulate in mushrooms.• Acidic surface waters can contain significant amounts of mercury. When the pH values are between five and seven, the mercury concentrations in the water will increase due to mobilisation of mercury in the ground. Mushrooms
  24. 24. MERCURY HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Once mercury has reached surface waters or soils microorganisms can convert it to methyl mercury, a substance that can be absorbed quickly by most organisms and is known to cause nerve damage. Fish are organisms that absorb great amounts of methyl mercury from surface waters every day. As a consequence, methyl mercury can accumulate in fish and in the food chains that they are part of.• The effects that mercury has on animals are kidneys damage, stomach disruption, damage to intestines, reproductive failure and DNA alteration.
  25. 25. RADON Radon is a metallic element with the atomic number 86 and the symbol Rn. On the periodic table of elements, it is found in Group 8A and in Period 6 to the right of astatine. Radon is one of the Noble gases, also called the inert gases, along with helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. Its name comes from a variation on another element, radium.
  26. 26. RADON HomeUSES• Radon has been used in some spas for presumed medical effects. In addition, radon is used to initiate and influence chemical reactions and as a surface label in the study of surface reactions. It has been obtained by pumping the gases off of a solution of a radium salt, sparking the gas mixture to combine the hydrogen and oxygen, removing the water and carbon dioxide by adsorption, and freezing out the radon. Used in Spas
  27. 27. RADON Home EFFECTS ON HUMANS•Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer and a serious public health concern.•The primary adverse health effect associated with chronic exposure to radon is lung cancer (typically bronchogenic): -squamous cell carcinoma -small cell carcinoma -adenocarcinoma -large cell carcinoma
  28. 28. RADON Home EFFECTS ON HUMANS•Other harmful respiratory effects associated with chronic exposure to radon include: 1.) emphysema 2.) pulmonary fibrosis 3.) chronic interstitial pneumonia 4.) silicosis 5.) respiratory lesions• Radon also has the potential to generate genotoxic effects- higher incidence of chromosomal aberrations.
  29. 29. RADON HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Experimental investigations using animals, miners, and molecular and cellular studies provide supporting evidence and some understanding of the mechanisms by which radon (i.e., alpha radiation) causes lung cancer. These types of studies are not direct investigations concerning the effects of radon and may have confounding variables that need attention.• Health effects observed in animals exposed to radon and radon decay products include lung carcinomas, pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and a shortening of life-span. The incidence of respiratory tract tumors increased with an increase in cumulative exposure and with a decrease in rate of exposure.
  30. 30. NICKEL Pure nickel is silvery gray in appearance, and it can be polished to a bright shine. The metal is also ferromagnetic, and very ductile, meaning that it can easily be melted and worked. It is relatively hard and strong, making it a great addition to alloys with softer or more fragile metals. On the periodic table of elements, it is identified with the symbol Ni, and it has an atomic number of 28.
  31. 31. NICKEL HomeUSES• Nickel is a compound that occurs in the environment only at very low levels. Humans use nickel for many different applications. The most common application of nickel is the use as an ingredient of steal and other metal products. It can be found in common metal products such as jewelry. Nickel can also be found in detergents. Jewelleries Detergents
  32. 32. NICKEL HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• An uptake of too large quantities of nickel has the following consequences: - Higher chances of development of lung cancer, nose cancer, larynx cancer and prostate cancer - Sickness and dizziness after exposure to nickel gas - Lung embolism - Respiratory failure - Birth defects - Asthma and chronic bronchitis - Allergic reactions such as skin rashes, mainly from jewelry - Heart disordersNickel fumes are respiratory irritants and may cause pneumonitis.Exposure to nickel and its compounds may result in the development ofa dermatitis known as “nickel itch” in sensitized individuals.
  33. 33. NICKEL HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• For animals, nickel is an essential food stuff in small amounts. But nickel is not only favorable as an essential element; it can also be dangerous when the maximum tolerable amounts are exceeded. This can cause various kinds of cancer on different sites within the bodies of animals, mainly of those that live near refineries.• Nickel is released into the air by power plants and trash incinerators. It will than settle to the ground or fall down after reactions with raindrops. It usually takes a long time for nickel to be removed from air. Nickel can also end up in surface water when it is a part of wastewater streams.
  34. 34. URANIUM When uranium is isolated from the metal ores it occurs in, it is a silvery white, very heavy metal which is extremely reactive and a little bit softer than steel. Because uranium is so reactive, it quickly forms a thick gray to black tarnish when exposed to air. There are 14 known isotopes of uranium, and the element also appears in a number of chemical compounds, some of which have industrial uses. You can find uranium on the periodic table of elements by looking for the “U” symbol, or atomic number 92.
  35. 35. URANIUM HomeUSES• Uranium is also used as the fissile explosive to create nuclearweaponry.• Uranium is used to power nuclear powered submarines and ships.• Uranium was used in photographic chemicals, lamp filaments, to improve the whiteness of dentures and in the leather and wood industry as stains and dyes.• Uranium is also mined to isolate radium for use in glow in the dark paints for clock faces and aircraft dials.• The radioisotopes from uranium are used in smoke detectors.• Uranium metal is used as ballasts in yachts and airplanes.
  36. 36. URANIUM HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• Uranium is harmful to humans because it is an essential nuclear element. As far as human knowledge knows anything that has a nuclear composition is not good to humans. Uranium exposure can affect the human body system. It can depreciate the functions of vital organs such as the heart, brain, liver and kidney. Uranium can be retained in many different ways. It has smaller components known as radon. This can be exhaled through contaminated food or water. But, such exposure is only minor. Major exposures include working in factories or government facilities that uses uranium.
  37. 37. URANIUM HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Uranium is a possible polluting agent of the natural environment.• Uranium is a toxic and radioactive chemical element.• Uranium release radium and radon.
  38. 38. The instability of this element makes it difficult for scientists to identify itsPOLONIUM chemical properties. It takes on a solid shape in pure form, and appears to have a crystalline physical structure. It is typically classified as a metalloid, and as one might imagine, it is highly toxic due to its radioactivity. Given the rarity of polonium, you are unlikely to encounter it; if you see enough to be able to be able to examine its physical properties, you will be dead from radiation exposure. On the periodic table of elements, you can find polonium under Po, and it has an atomic number of 84.
  39. 39. POLONIUM HomeUSES• It has recently been found in the tobacco used in cigarettes.• It is used on brushes to clean film, and can provide thermoelectric power in space satellites.• It can also be used as a poison, Tobacco in Cigars Brushes in cleaning Poison films
  40. 40. POLONIUM HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS•Polonium is harmful both through its chemical toxicity and its radioactivity. Exposure to polonium increases the risk of getting various cancers.•Polonium is an extremely dangerous substance. When it breaks down, it gives off alpha particles. These particles are tiny, atom-sized particles that can destroy cells. Polonium is considered to be more than 100 billion times more dangerous than hydrogen cyanide. The maximum suggested exposure to the element is no more than about seven one hundred-billionths of a gram.
  41. 41. POLONIUM HomeEFFECTS ON HUMANS• Polonium is an extremely dangerous material. It has recently been found in the tobacco used in cigarettes.• A relatively new hazard of polonium has recently been identified. The element has been found in the tobacco used in cigarettes and other products. The amount of polonium taken in by a smoker is approximately equal to that taken in from all other sources. Polonium must be added, therefore, to the list of harmful chemicals inhaled during smoking.
  42. 42. POLONIUM HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Polonium is the only component of cigarette smoke to produce cancer in laboratory animals. The polonium in tobacco is absorbed from phosphate fertilizers. Tobacco in Cigars
  43. 43. BISMUTH In addition to occurring in various minerals, bismuth also can be found in pure form in nature. When it is pure, the element is white with a reddish tinge, and sometimes almost pink. It has a crystalline chemical structure that makes it extremely brittle, and it is rather unique among the elements for having a liquid state that is more dense than its solid; water shares this interesting property. On the periodic table of elements, bismuth is identified as Bi, and the element has an atomic number of 83.
  44. 44. BISMUTH HomeUSES• Bismuth is mostly used as an ingredient in pharmaceutical products. It is used to treat diarrhea and some other digestive problems and diseases. It is also added to some eye drops that are used to treat eye infections.• A common feature of alloys of bismuth is a low melting point. This means that they are suitable for use as solders. The added benefit of this is that toxic solders containing lead can be replaced by the safer bismuth.• Another alloy containing bismuth utilizes its low melting point for fire detection.
  45. 45. BISMUTH HomeUSES• Lead is commonly being replaced by bismuth in many applications for safety reasons. Some of these replacements include; pigment for paint, fishing sinkers, bullets and shot, brass for plumbing and as an ingredient in grease for lubrication.• A specific isotope of bismuth is used for treating patients with leukemia.• It is used in ceramic glazes to produce iridescence (where a color of an object appears to change as you view it from a different angle).• Bismuth and tellurium form a compound called Bismuth telluride, which is used in mobile refrigerators and for cooling computer processors.
  46. 46. BISMUTH Home EFFECTS ON HUMANS• Routes of entry: Inhalation, skin and ingestion. Acute effects: - Inhalation: POISON  May be a nuisance dust causing respiratory irritation. May c cause foul breath, metallic taste and gingivitis. - Ingestion: POISON • May cause nausea, loss of appetite and weight, malaise, albuminuria, diarrhea, skin reactions, stomatitis, headache, fever, sleeplessness, depressio n, rheumatic pain and a black line may form on gums in the mouth due to deposition of bismuth sulphide. - Skin: May cause irritation. - Eyes: May cause irritation.
  47. 47. BISMUTH Home EFFECTS ON HUMANS Chronic effects: - Inhalation: May affect the function of the liver and the kidneys. - Ingestion: May affect the function of the liver and the kidneys. May cause anemia, black line may form on gums and ulcerative stomatitis. - Skin: May cause dermatitis. - Eyes: No chronic health effects recorded.• Medical conditions generally aggravated by the exposure: Pre-existing skin and respiratory disorders.• Bismuth is not considered a human carcinogen.
  48. 48. BISMUTH HomeEFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT• Bismuth metal is not considered toxic and poses minimum threat to the environment. Bismuth compounds generally have very low solubility but they should be handled with care, as there is only limited information on their effects and fate in the environment.
  49. 49. The elements are not really harmful.They are even helpful to us. They onlybecome harmful to us if we use themexcessively. As they say, “Too much isdangerous”, we should not abuse them.Using high amounts of these is bad forour body and to the environment. CONCLUSION