DRUG CRIMEDrug related crime in Australia is closely related to many other acts of crime and criminal activities. The culture of drug use and itsrelationship to crime has changed dramatically over the last two centuries, and continues to do so.“Cannabis plants were sent to Australia by Sir Joseph Banks on the First Fleet, in hope that the new colony might grow enoughhemp to supply the British Navy with rope.” (Bolt 2010. Drugs and the law). “Cannabis importation and use was prohibited byfederal legislation in 1926 (implementing the 1925 Geneva Convention on Opium and Other Drugs)” (Bolt 2010. Drugs and thelaw).In 1953 Australia was the worlds’ largest user, per capita, of heroin. Heroins’ prohibition came about as a result of internationalpressure to conform to laws already in place in other countries. The Australian Medical Association displayed strong opposition, asthere had been no major social issue with the drug, before this time.“The notion of making drug use illegal did not really emerge in western societies until the late nineteenth century.” (Bolt, onlineaddition 2011. Drugs and the law) www.legalanswers.sl.nsw.gov.auImage source – www.drugs.health.gov.au
THE ACT OF CRIMEDrug crimes are committed by a vast range of criminals, be it as individuals or an organised crime group, also known as a drug ring orsyndicate. There are many variations of drug crimes, the most serious offences relate to the production and supply of illicit substances.“The illicit drug market is the primary criminal market that organised crime groups operate in. Other illicit markets include fraud andfinancial crime, firearms markets and intellectual property crime. Although drugs are likely to remain the primary market thatorganised criminal groups operate in, the future of organised crime may involve new sectors and activities.”(Annual report Ch.2 Criminal Intelligence, page 42 – Serious and Organised Crime 2011-2012)www.crimecommision.gov.auThe Australian Institute of Criminology states, “In its most recent annual report the AIC presented findings that two in every threeoffenders (66%) detained by the police tested positive to at least one drug, not including alcohol” (Gaffney et al. 2010).Source: AIC DUMA Q3/4 2009 [computer file] (Gaffney et al.2010) www.aic.gov.au
INFAMOUS CRIMINALSTerry ClarkTerry Clark became the head of the “Mr Asia” heroin syndicate (spanning across New Zealand, Australia,Singapore, Thailand, England and America) in Australia in the late 1970’s after killing Martin Johnstone, his“partner in crime”. Clark was renowned for murdering to solve business disputes. The title of “Mr Asia” camefrom a New Zealand journalist who knew of Johnstones’ involvement in drug crimes but could not releasehis name. Johnstone had made a fortune selling buddah sticks (Cannabis) in New Zealand and wanted tocapitalise on the heroin trade in Australia. The two men, Johnstone and Clark moved to Australia in the mid-seventies and soon flooded Australias’ streets with high quality China White heroin, importing hundreds ofkilograms of heroin into the country.Clark was arrested in England for the murder of Johnstone and died of a suspected heart attack in prison in1983. (adapted from an article from The Daily Telegraph 22/5/10, and Richard Hall - The Mr Asia Connection:The True Story of Underbelly’s Terry Clark, The Five Mile Press 2010)http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/d/d3/20130108213207!Terrance_John_Clark.jpgRobert TrimboleRobert Trimbole masterminded large amounts of cannabis grown on several properties around the Griffitharea throughout the 1970’s. He kept face in the community having a panel beating shop and his empiregrew rapidly, building a portfolio of many different types of businesses, funded by the proceeds of thesupply of cannabis. He was known to have police on his payroll to inform him of possible raids on hisproperties and eventually became involved in the heroin trade after meeting Terry Clark, through abusiness partner, who knew that Trimbole had the connections to help them evade police harassment. Helaundered a lot of his money through gambling and was also known to be involved in race fixing. It wasalleged that Trimbole had put a hit out on a man named Donald Mackay, after Mackay informed theSydney drug squad of one of Trimboles’ crops, which was then raided seized and four people werearrested. Trimbole eventually fled overseas and escaped extradition from Ireland in 1984. He died in Spainin 1987, aged 56.The Fixer: The Rise and Fall of Australian Drug Lord Robert Trimbole. BY Patrick Bellamy.Robert Trimbole, image sourced from - (www.trutv.com - <Crime Library>)
HISTORICAL CRIMESSallie-Anne Huckstep – www.smh.com.auThe murder of Sallie-Anne Huckstep was one of the most controversial murders in Sydneys’ history. Huckstep wasa prostitute and a heroin addict, who had been dating a heroin dealer Warren Lanfranchi. Huckstep claimed thatLanfranchi had been murdered in 1981 by an alleged corrupt detective, Roger Rogerson. Huckstep made severalmedia allegations about a relationship between Rogerson and notorious criminal Arthur (Neddy) Smith, andclaimed that Rogerson had murdered her boyfriend, Lanfranchi.These allegations and the allegations from another detective, Michael Drury, that Rogerson had tried to bribe himto change evidence (about to be used in a trial), sparked a major investigation into police corruption.Sallie-Anne was murdered in Centennial Park in 1986 and Smith was charged with her murder but then lateracquitted. Smith was a convicted rapist and armed robber who then got into heroin dealing, after becoming astand over man for Murry Riley, a former Australian representative in rowing, who had started a heroin supplysyndicate.There are many unanswered questions and a great deal of speculation surrounding the murder and corruptionissues. One thing is for certain though, heroin played a very big role in society and crime in Sydney throughout the1970’s and 1980’s. (Fairfax press releases)
THE LEGAL SYSTEMThe original laws against drugs were mainly import duties on Opium, the first being in 1857, then later, regulation and control ofmedicinal substances (under various state Poisons Acts). Over time this changed to incorporate separate laws in regards to trafficking,supply, possession and consumption. In 1985 a focus was put on Harm reduction in federal and state parliaments although ‘supplyreduction’ was still the main issue for resource allocation, in regards to drug related crime.“The Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985The NSW Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act 1985 classifies a wide range of drugs as prohibited drugs (and prohibited plants in the case ofcannabis, opium and coca). The Act creates offences for:• use of prohibited drugs• possession of prohibited drugs• supply and trafficking of prohibited drugs (with the seriousness of the offence dependingon the quantities involved)• cultivation and possession of prohibited plants• manufacture of prohibited drugs• aiding and abetting and taking part in offences involving prohibited drugs or plants• possession of drug-use implements.Specific offences are covered in more detail the section, Possession, use and supply.The drugs covered by the Act are listed in a schedule. They include the common street drugs - cannabis (marijuana), heroin, ecstasy,amphetamines, LSD, cocaine, methadone - and many others.”(Drugs and the law by Steve Bolt, online edition 2011.)www.afp.gov.au provides a media release (through media centre) about Australias’ largest ever ‘ice’ seizure. It includes the mediareleased article as well as eight photos and a two minute video of some of the scenes from the seizure.The policing of drug laws is maintained by state and federal police as well as customs and border control and is subject, to whichjurisdiction “the act of the crime” comes under. In most cases drug trafficking is a major operation that involves very sophisticatedcriminal organisations.Image source – www.afp.gov.au
Gang crimes means the attempt to commit, conspiring to commit, or solicitation or two or more criminal acts, providedthe criminal acts were committed on separate dates or by two or more persons who are members of, or belong to,the same criminal street gang”These can consist of assault with a deadly weapon or by means of force likely to produce great bodily injury; robbery;Unlawful homicide or manslaughter; Sale, possession for sale, transportation, manufacture, offer for sale, or offer tomanufacture controlled substances; Shooting at an inhabited dwelling or occupied motor vehicle; Discharging orpermitting the discharge of a firearm from a motor vehicle; Arson; Intimidation of witnesses and victims; Grandtheft; Grand theft of any firearm, vehicle, trailer, or vessel; Burglary; Rape; Looting; Money laundering; Kidnapping;Mayhem; Aggravated mayhem; Torture; Felony extortion; Felony vandalism; Carjacking; Sale, delivery, or transfer ofa firearm; Possession of a pistol, revolver, or other firearm; Threats to commit crimes resulting in death or greatbodily injury; Theft or unlawful taking or driving of a vehicle; Counterfeiting, designing, using, or attempting to usean access card; Felony fraudulent use of an access card or account information; Unlawful use of personal identifyinginformation to obtain credit, goods, services, or medical information; Wrongfully obtaining Department of MotorVehicles documentation; Prohibited possession of a firearm; Carrying a concealed firearm; Carrying a loadedfirearms.(http://gangs23456.tripod.com/id3.html)GANG RELATED CRIME
Alphonse GangitanoAlphonse Gangitano was one of the biggest members ofthe Melbourne Underground Crime. As a child hedreamed of being a gangster, his first arrest was in1970’s in which he then joined the ‘Carlton Crew’. Hewas named ‘The Black Prince of Lygon Street’. As thegroup expanded they then go involved withingambling and methamphetamine labs. He worked veryclosely with Mick Gatto and Jason Moran. Alphonsehad a love for violence and committed his first killingfor cold hard cash. He had two children who he loveddearly. His life came to an end when he was murderedin 1998 in his own laundry.Brian Leslie O’CallaghanBrain O’Callaghan was described as Melbourne’sheaviest underworld figures during the 1970’s. Hewas a well known robber whom was highlyregarded among gang criminals. He escaped fromLong Bay prison in 1979 when his mate RaymondBennett was murdered. He worked with theKangaroo Gang getting jewellery. Bookie robberywas his greatest talent but his heroin addictiondrove him broke. He died at age 62.(Capo, Herald Sun, October 12th 2010)INFAMOUS CRIMINALS
HISTORICAL CRIMES. Melbourne Gangland WarsMelbourne Ganglands wars was made aware from early 1990’s right up until April 2010. Many different men were involved as wellas their wifes. It was brought to everyones attention within 1998 when Alphonse Gangitano was murdered. Different guysfrom different areas of Melbourne were in different gangs. Main gang was ‘The Carlton Crew’ which was ran by Mick Gattothey were highly involved with amphetamines and “speed” market as well as gambling. This then lead to deaths and shootingstrying to out do one another and be the best in the market. Police were always trying to get on top of it and trying to bringdown all the big ones! Some got caught up in the moment then some won their cases and sent them to jail!!Below is a link to a timeline of Melbourne’s Underworldhttp://www.3aw.com.au/blogs/3aw-generic-blog/timeline-of-melbournes-underworld/20100419-sou8.html. Milperra MassacreMil[erra Massacre was a firearm battle between a rival motorcycle gang members on Father’s Day September 2nd 1984. It beganbecause a group of Comancheros broke away and formed their own group, being the first Bandidos Motorcycle Club chapter inAustralia. Seven people were killed that day, six motorcycle gang members and one 14 year old female bystander, 28 peoplewere injured with 20 of them needing medical help. It started about one 1pm when both the motorcycle clubs went to amotorcycle swap meet in the Viking Tavern heavily armed, cars full with heavy machinery. Each clubs were positioned on etherside of the car parks when William George Ross also known as “Jock” waived his machete in the air signaling fight and bothclubs charged at each other. Over 200 police turned up at the scene during the massacre but they members of the gangcontinued to fight. A total of 43 people were charged with seven counts of murder.
LEGAL SYSTEMLegal system has only recently within the last few years come down harder more than ever on gang crimes around Australia, a lotmore murders and crimes such as drug trafficking has some up to the surface. The technology today allows it easier for thepolice to catch people and keep a close watch on them. Each state in Australia has different laws for example NSW just bannedMotorcycle Club in wearing their club patch out in public as well as riding around in groups as they cause to much publicdisturbance. Victoria on the other hand stated that their laws are already tough enough for dealing with organised crime sothey wont be introducing a new law.Victoria introduced certain powers making sure that the Victorian Police had the power to investigate organised crime.They implemented:The Crimes (Controlled Operations) Act 2004, which enables police to engage in activities which may otherwise be illegal, whileundertaking ‘undercover’ duties;The Surveillance Devices (Amendment) Act 2004, which provides police with powers in relation to the installation, use,maintenance and retrieval of surveillance devices for the purposes of investigating serious and organised crime;Tthe Crimes (Assumed Identities) Act 2004, which allows for the lawful acquisition and use of assumed identities to facilitateinvestigations and intelligence gathering; andThe Evidence (Witness Identity Protection) Act 2004, which provides for the protection of the identity of covert operatives whomay be required to give evidence.(Bartel, 2010, p.7)
VIOLENT CRIMEViolent crime is any crime that includes the use of un-consensual violent act/s against a person/victim.This includes the offences of homicide, assault, sexual assault and robbery. Violent crimes are not justlimited to an act of violence, threatening to use violence is also an offence.Violence is in our television shows, news, movies and video games almost on a daily basis, youngchildren are exposed to it and its effects everyday. Seeing violent activities everyday makes us believethat violent crimes are happening constantly. However of every 100 crimes recorded by the police inAustralia, less than 10% were violent, whilst public opinion believed that 80% were violent crimes.(Hayes & Prenzler, 2012)However some violent crimes are not reported especially sexual assaults and rapes. This unknownnumber is called the dark figure of crime, which we may never fully know. (Hayes & Prenzler, 2012)Violence however is not necessarily a crime, depending on context. Context and reason are alsoconsidered in a court to determine if an act of violence is a crime.A wife who has been beaten by her husband fights back whilst this is a violent act it is considered self-defense and not a criminal action.
INFAMOUS CRIMINALSIvan Milat- the backpacker murdersThe backpacker murderer, Ivan Milat, possibly the mostfamous serial killer in Australia killed at least severalpeople in the New South Wales outback. All of Milat’svictims were backpackers or tourists aged between 19-22. He was arrested on May 22 in 1994 after a pair oftrial runners discovered the corpses of Caroline Clarkand Joanne Walters, eventually more victims followed.All of his victims had bee stabbed and dumped inBelanglo State Forest. He is currently serving sevenconsecutive life sentences plus 18 years.(Murderpedia.com, N.D.)Martin Bryant- port author massacreBorn in Tasmania, Martin Bryant had a low I.Q. andworked as a handyman. However on April 28, 1996 hewalked into a café at Port Arthur and shot and killed 35people, the next day he was under arrest. He received 35life sentences and is residing at Tasmania’s Risdon Prison.Unfortunately it is not fully known why he embarked onthis massacre, many books have been written trying tocomprehend this tragedy. There are also a number ofconspiracy theories surrounding that fateful day in April.(Bryant Martin, 2013)
HISTORICAL CRIMESNed KellyAustralia’s most famous thief, Ned Kelly born in 1855 in Victoria became the leader of theKelly gang. He was in and out of police custody for theft related crimes until Ned shot 3 policedead. The wanted men went on to take over sheep stations, hotels and banks taking theirgold and money. Ned was armed with his infamous headpiece, breast piece, back piece andapron which weighed 41kg altogether.In 1880 Ned and his gang were involved in a shootout with the police. Most of the gang wasshot and killed. Ned was captured and in October of the same year he was sentenced todeath.Kelly was hanged on 11th November 1880. His last words were speculated to be ‘Such is life’.(Barry, J.,1975)Myall Creek MassacreIn the early days of British settlement in Australia there were countless massacres of the aboriginalpeople, the massacre at Myall Creek on Sunday 10th June 1838 was special however. Eleven stockmencame across a group of 28 aborigines camping by the creek.The stockmen brutally slaughtered everyone camping there, including women and children. Thestockman were arrested, the first time in Australia’s history were Caucasian men were arrested,charged and hanged for the murder of aboriginals. People were horrified by the massacre with bodiedbeing dismembered and burnt. On the 18th December 1838 several men were hung for the part in themassacre.(Myall Creek Massacre, N.D.)
To find law regarding violent acts for the Commonwealth of Australia it is best to consult the Criminal Law Consolidation Act of 1935. Each state has their ownseparate codes and laws that may differ in definition or punishment. Part 3 – offences against the person etc. of the Criminal Law Consolidation Act of 1935 revolvesaround violent acts.MURDER Part 3 Division 1 (Commonwealth of Australia, 1935)Sect 11- Murder:Any person who commits murder shall be guilty of an offence and shall be imprisoned for lifeMurder is an extreme offence that those convicted receive life imprisonment. Section 12A goes on to explain that any intentional act of violence that causes thedeath of another is also guilty of murder.MANSLAUGHTER Part 3 Division 1 (Commonwealth of Australia, 1935)Section 13-1) Any person who is convicted of manslaughter shall be liable to be imprisoned for life or to pay such fine as the court awards or to both such imprisonment and fine.Section 13 goes on to address death by motor vehicle, that the convicted person must be disqualified from holding or obtaining a driver’s license for a minimum of10 years. Section 13a delves into issues of suicide and assisted suicide.RAPE/SEXUAL ASSUALT Part 3 Division 11 (Commonwealth of Australia, 1935)Section 481) A person (the "offender") is guilty of the offence of rape if he or she engages, or continues to engage, in sexual intercourse with another person who—a) does not consent to engaging in the sexual intercourse; orb) has withdrawn consent to the sexual intercourse,and the offender knows, or is recklessly indifferent to, the fact that the other person does not so consent or has so withdrawn consent (as the case may be).Maximum penalty for someone convicted of rape is life imprisonment, per accusation of rape. Division 11 also includes sexual manipulation, unlawful sexualintercourse, indecent assault and many more sexual offences.To view more in-depth copy of each Division a full copy can be viewed athttp://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/clca1935262/THE LEGAL SYSTEM
There are a broad range of possible definitions for the terms ”Serial Murder” or “Serial Killer” therefore Australian academicsand crime specialists tend to use the classification used by the FBI;“Serial murders are those that involve three or more separate events (Douglas et al. 1992), and most importantly, are repetitivesequential homicides of any nature”.The Australian Institute of Criminology has what they call the National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP). The NHMPresearches and collects data on all known homicides and reports on the details of the crime and the characteristics of theoffender(s). During a period beginning July 1989 and ending June 2006, the NHMP have reported that there were over 5,000homicides and that included 11 groups of Serial Murder with 13 identified killers. All but one of these groups only involved 1offender (the exclusion being the “Snowtown Murders” as mentioned below. Twelve out of the 13 serial killers were maleand the majority were unemployed at the time of their arrest (Mouzos and West; 2007).Serial Killers have been divided into four basic categories to classify their motivation behind their behavior (Holmes & DeBurger1998);VisionaryVoices or visions in the killers mind (usually from God/Angels or the Devil/Demons) encouraging the murders,HedonisticGenerally motivated by Lust or by the thrill. Lust killings generally coincide with sex (before, during or after death),Mission-orientatedDriven by the outcome that murder will achieve, such as removing pedophiles from society – they have a sense ofachievement, like they have done a good deed,Control/Power orientatedThey have the need to feel important and powerful. They achieve this by taking total control of the victim and the situation.Killers who are power driven tend to draw out the murder over a period of time to prolong the sense of satisfaction andachievementThese categories have been divided further over the years so that each murderer can be classified into a unique group, givingreference to their behaviours, motivations and characteristics. In general, research conducted throughout the worldsuggests that most serial murders are sexually driven. The offenders are on average more intelligent that other criminals andmore often than not, Caucasian males between 20 and 40 years of age.SERIAL KILLERS
Male serial killers are found to use more personal and physical modes of killingsuch as strangulation, beating and using weapons to stab their victims. Men arelikely to target the face, head or genital region and also are more likely toconstrain the victim and sexually assault them.Women as serial murderers on the other hand are less personal. Females tendto be somewhat removed from the victim physically, and will generally poisontheir victim when they are acting alone. Males and females are usually driven bydifferent motives. Women are generally motivated by revenge, security orfinancial gain where as men are driven more by power, sex and the thrill of thecrime. (Kraemer, Lord & Heilbrun 2004; Hickey and Homes 1991; Ridel 1998).SERIAL KILLERS
John Justin Bunting(Pictured on the right along with co-accused Robert Joe Wagner)Bunting has been described as Australia’s worst serial killer. With eleven victims in total,he used his hatred for homosexuals and pedophiles to select his male victims which ledto one of Australia’s largest investigations – the “Bodies in the Barrels Murders”.The alleged murders carried out between 1992 and 1999 have made the mid-northSouth Australian town called Snowtown, infamous for the hideous crimes which werediscovered in the vault of an old bank. Only one murder was actually carried out inSnowtown, the other 10 victims being killed in various suburbs surrounding Adelaide.Using his hate for obese people, homosexuals, drug users and suspected pedophiles,Bunting formed a group of 4 males, of which he was the leader. He would select theirvictims from people known to himself or his followers before torturing and beatingthem to death. Twelve people in total fell victim to the groups desire to kill, but JohnBunting was only found guilty for 11 of those murders.SERIAL KILLERS
Leonard John FraserKnown as “The Rockhampton Rapist”, Fraser was convicted of the rape andmurder of three women and a nine year old girl. Suspected of being responsiblefor several disappearances in the Rockhampton community but was neverconvicted of any charges relating to those victims, despite having confessed toraping and murdering them.There was insufficient evidence to formally charge Fraser for the crimes to whichhe confessed although there were many tokens and even locks of hair fromother unknown victims. Many of the females whose whereabouts remainunknown from the time that Fraser took his first victim, are thought to havebeen lost to Fraser’s murderous urge.SERIAL KILLERS
Serial killings are covered under the Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 Section 11 – Murder.“Any person who commits murder shall be guilty of an offence and shall be imprisoned for life”In Australia, the death penalty was abolished in 1968 under theDeath Penalty Abolition Act 1973:“An Act to abolish Capital Punishment under the Laws of the Commonwealth, of the States and of theTerritories, and under certain other Laws in relation to which the Powers of the Parliament extend”Since the law to abolish the death penalty was introduced, the criminal act of serial murder is nowsentenced under the same laws as murder (the Criminal Law Consolidation Act 1935 Sect. 11 – asmentioned previously). Offenders, if convicted are sentenced to one Life Sentence for every victimthey are found guilty of murdering. A Life Sentence (also known as “Penal Servitude for Life”) has noexact length of time, but rather the minimum term is set at sentencing.SERIAL KILLERS & THE LAW
Given that sixty six percent of offenders detained by the police test positive to at leastone drug, other than alcohol, I would conclude by saying that there is quite sufficientevidence to indicate that drug consumption attributes to a significant amount of thecrime committed in Australia. It is also obvious that reducing the supply of drugs shouldnot just be of concern to criminal justice departments but should be of major concernfor the Australian government and public sector also.Overall gang crimes can be a number of various crimes, remembering it is a crime thatis committed with two or more personals. While all states have different views on theirlaws for gang members, they all have very harsh penalties for the crimes that arecommitted by them. They have also implemented different acts to help police be ableto keep this crime rate down and behind bars to keep them off our streetsViolent crime is the most serious offence a person can commit and carries the toughestsentencing. Those that do commit a violent crime are shunned by society andcondemned in the media. Unfortunately violent crime is everywhere today, which canbe extremely confusing especially to children.Considering that the majority of Australian serial killers were not working at the time oftheir arrest, perhaps the Federal Government needs to give more funding to help theunemployed find appropriate support in the form of counselling. When looking back atthe subjects we have presented, there seems to be a consistency in the age and sex ofthe criminals (being younger males), there definitely needs to be more social awarenessinto the devastating effects that mental instability or illness has on the community.Australia as a whole should be focusing on preventing these hideous crimes rather thanoutlawing and punishing criminals.
DRUG RELATED CRIMEState Library of NSW – Hot topics series, No.59 revised in 2011.(Bolt 2010. Drugs and the law) and (Bolt online edition 2011. Drugs and the law)www.legalanswers.sl.nsw.gov.auDepartment of Health and Ageing - Heroin - Image sourcewww.drugs.health.gov.auAustralian Crime Commission – Annual reportCh.2 Criminal Intelligence page 42. Serious and Organised Crimewww.crimecommission.gov.auAustralian Institute of Criminology – Table 2 – Image source(gaffrey et al.2010)www.aic.gov.auThe Daily Telegraph 22/05/10Terry Clark – Image source - http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/archive/d/d3/20130108213207!Terrance_John_Clark.jpg(Hall 2010. The Mr Asia Connection) The Five Mile press 2010.(Bellamy online publication for crime library - The Fixer) www.trutv.comFairfax press (Bacon and others) Sallie-Anne Huckstep – Image source - www.smh.comICE – Police Image – www.afp.gov.auGANG RELATED CRIMEhttp://mafiatoday.com/tag/melbourne-gangland/Federal and State Definitions, 2012, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from<http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Content/Documents/Definitions.pdfGangs in Australia, Wikipedia, 2001, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangs_in_Australia
GANG RELATED CRIME CONT…National Gang Centre, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from<http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis/Gang-Related-OffensesAussie Criminals and Crooks Do not Enter, Robbo, 2012, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from>http://aussiecriminals.com.au/tag/gangs-2/Capo, Melbourne Gangland figure dies, 2010, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from< http://mafiatoday.com/tag/melbourne-gangland/Aussie Criminals and Crooks Do not Enter, Robbo, 2012, Retrieved from 13th May 2013, from<http://aussiecriminals.com.au/2012/05/15/the-milperra-massacre/Bartels,L, 2010, 2nd Ed., “ The Status of laws on outlaw motorcycle gangs in Australia”, Australian Institute of Criminology”, Austrlian Government, p.1-10Getty/Ferlong, C., Photography, 2012<http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/crime-and-justice-blog/2012/feb/08/met-police-new-gang-crime-initiativeWikipedia. (n.d.). Australia-Image.Retrieved 18th May 2013, from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Australia_locator-MJC_coloured.png/350px-Australia_locator-MJC_coloured.pngVIOLENT CRIMEHayes, Hennessey and Tim Prenzler 2012. An Introduction to Crime and Criminology, 3ed. Pearson Australia.unknown (n.d.). Ivan Robert Marko MILAT. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://murderpedia.org/male.M/m/milat-ivan.htmBryant Martin. (2013). The Biography Channel website. Retrieved May 13, 2013, from http://www.biography.com/people/martin-bryant-235987.Commonwealth of Australia. (1935). Criminal Law Consolidation Act of 1935. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/clca1935262/unknown (n.d.). THE MYALL CREEK MASSACRE. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://www.myallcreekmassacre.com/Myall_Creek_Massacre/About_this_site.htmlBarry, J. (1975). Kelly, Edward (Ned) (1855–1880). Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/kelly-edward-ned-3933IMAGESBradley, R. (3 April 2012). Crime Fiction. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://lifeinclarity.blogspot.com.au/2012/04/crime-fiction.htmlLeifert, L. (n.d.). New Stats Show Crime Down in Broward, Palm Beach County. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://www.florida-criminal-lawyer-blog.com/violent_crimes/Helena (July 2011). Becoming Layla. Retrieved 13 may 2013, from http://www.becominglayla.com/?tag=self-defense
SERIAL KILLERSAn examination of Serial Murder in Australia” by Jenny Mouzos and David West (2007); Australian Institute of Criminology; Located at www.aic.gov.auHolmes & DeBurger (1998). “Profiles in terror: the serial murderer”, in Holmes & Holmes , Contemporary perspectives on serial murder.Ranker Website;“Famous Australian Serial Killers”; located at www.ranker.com MurderpediaJuan Ignacio Blanco. “Leonard John Fraser”; located at http://murderpedia.org/male.F/f/fraser-leonard.htmFind the Data website; located at http://serial-killers.findthedata.org/d/d/AustraliaAussie Criminals website; located at www.aussiecriminals.comThe Brisbane Times Website; “Inquest begins into serial killers death in custody” by Courtney Trenwith (16th June 2010); Located at http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/inquest-begins-into-serial-killers-death-in-custody-20100616-yegj.htmlDouglas JE (1992). Crime classification manual: a standard system for investigating and classifying violent crimes. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Hickey EW & Holmes RM, (1991). “Female serial murderesses: constructing differentiating typologies”. Contemporary journal of criminal justiceAggarwal, V. (n.d.). Some Disease are Different for Men & Women. Retrieved 18th May 2013, from http://www.medicalboox.com/2013/03/some-disease-are-different-for-men-women.html