The most significant traditional clothing being adopted is the Chamanto, here shown being worn by public figures like Carlos Cardoen and the Apec leaders in the 2004 summit.
Huasos are one of the most significant traditions still carried out today. The Chile cowboy is here to stay.
In both pictures you see the Huasos and his dance partner dressed in traditional clothing. In the lower right pricture you see a man in the middle of the picture wearing modern clothing consisting of a polo shirt and jeans. Here is were the traditional meets the modern.
The business styles can vary but there is a certain amount of tradition in what you wear in certain areas. The casual attire can be just about anything. Most of the casual clothes are worn in the city, when you go out into the rural areas you see more work clothes for labor jobs like you would see here in America, blue jeans, denim, t-shirts, anything that is cheap and durable, along with personal choice.
Most of the styles are similar to here in America. The old wearing more traditional style and the young wearing the rebel style, hip style. Most of the websites I visited and looked at, I could hardly tell it was in Chile that the pictures where taken. The crowds had a varying style of clothes like you would see here in America with a few exceptions of course. There is a big movement to preserve the traditions of the native culture not only in clothing, but in language, traditions, and way of live.
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This magazine is dedicated to the promotion of the better understanding of thelife and culture of Chile. A people proud of their long history and diverse heritage,Chileans want to have good relations with the rest of the world.Welcome. We hope you enjoy this presentation.Traditional through Modern Clothing Religious Affairs A Cult of Machismo Roles of the Family by Rick Wolf by Gaelan Hartleip by Victoria Quaintance by Annalee Stockton Page 9 Page 15 Page 20 Page 2
TRADITIONAL THROUGH MODERN CLOTHING FORM THE CHILEAN CULTURE By Rick Wolf Chile has a long history of culture that has been influenced by the Spanish, British, and Americans, along with native cultures, Mapuche, Yaghan, and other tribes. Chile is the only Latin American country preserving their national culture (8). One of the cultures they are preserving is the world’s southernmost indigenous culture in Chile, the Yaghan language and culture (8). Another culture they are preserving is the Mapuche culture and this can be seen in traditional clothing and dance.
TRADITIONAL CHAMANTOChamanto is a traditional decorative garment from central Chile. The differencebetween a chamanto and other ponchos is their reversibility, as both sides — one light,one dark — are fully finished. Traditionally, the dark side of the poncho is used duringthe day, while its light side is mostly worn at night. The making of achamanto demands great diligence, because of the exquisiteness involved in the weaving of the silk and wool, plus the intricacy of the design sketched by crossing the threads. The figures embellishing the chamantos include copihues — Chile’s national flower— barley and wheat ears, blackberries, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation leaders bunches of grapes, fuchsias, wearing chamantos during the 2004 summit. pansies and various birdsChilean businessman representative of the nationaland weaponscientist, Carlos fauna. (1)Cardoen, wearing achamanto and achupalla sombrero.
HUASOS Huasos in Chile are similar to the Guachosof Argentina, the Llaneros of Venezuela and the cowboys of the United States. The difference between the Chilean Huasos and their similar counterparts in other regions is that the Huasos not only deal with cattle but can also be involved in agriculture. Most Chilean Huasos live South of Santiago where there are a lot of cattle farms. Huaso is also the name used to refer to the man dancing in the Cueca (the Chilean national dance) since he wears their traditional clothing. The female in this dance is called the China (with the flowery dress) or Huasaurbana (with the elegant dress).The essential clothing of a Huaso consists of:A hat with a round rim which is ironing board flat. This is traditionallyblack but you will find many that wear light-colored ones.Knee-high leather boots with spurs at the heels.A wide sash around the waist with part of it hanging towards the left. It isusually black, grey or beige.A jacket which is shorter around the waist than normal so that it doesntcover the sash.The jacket is covered by a Poncho. This Poncho is what characterizeseach Huaso since they are each known for their own colors. (2)
TRADITIONAL DANCE CLOTHES The national dance of Chile is called the Cueca. The traditional Chilean clothing for the dance is the men dress as a Huasos (Chilean cowboy): hat, shirt, chamanto, riding pants, short jacket, riding boots, and spurs. Women wear a flowered dress with an apron. (3)This dance is usuallyperformed during festivals andnational holidays. Thetraditional Huasos outfit isalso worn at the rodeo events(4)
MODERN CLOTHES Business attire Casual attire Business and casual clothes have both a European influence and a North American influence.
CASUAL VS. BUSINESS I think this picture sums up the modern style. On the right you have the business man in a suit, the man in the middle is wearing a casual style suit jacket, dress shirt and jeans, while the man on the left, is younger and wearing t-shirt and jeans with a retro rolled up pant legs and tennis shoes. (7)
SOURCES(1) Chamanto From Widipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamanto(2) Huasos, South America: Chile http://www.southamerica.cl/Chile/Huasos.htm(3) Chile’s National Dance: The Cueca, Pepe’s Chile, Joes Kitchenhttp://www.joeskitchen.com/chile/2007/08/24/chiles-national-dance-the-cueca/(4) Images of The Cueca, Google imageshttp://www.google.com/search?q=The+Cueca&hl=en&biw=1782&bih=872&prmd=imvns&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ei=yn_BTrCoJIGNigL-0PyxAw&ved=0CDcQsAQ(5) Business and Modern clothing, Google imageshttp://www.google.com/search?q=business+clothing+of+Chile&hl=en&biw=1623&bih=872&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&ei=bHLBTsDuH6qsiAKv6JT-Ag&sa=X&oi=mode_link&ct=mode&cd=2&sqi=2&ved=0CDUQ_AUoAQ#q=business+clothing+of+Chile&hl=en&sa=X&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=252180ee14dd8f86&biw=1782&bih=872(6) Clothing, Zazzle.com http://www.zazzle.com/kiss_me_im_chilean_tshirt-235295886910203409(7) ―A good moment for Chilean cinema‖ This is Chile.cl http://www.thisischile.cl/6189/2/a-good-moment-for-chilean-cinema-says-director-matias-bize/News.aspx
Religious AffairsBy Gaelan Hartliep Throughout this article we will explore the effects of religion on the culture of Chile. The article will also look at the obstacles generated by religious differences and ways to get around them.
The Religious Demographic An estimated 73% of the population in Chile claim to be catholic (Silva, 2011). 15% of the Chilean population are associated with the protestant church (Silva, 2011). 8% of the Chilean population abstain from religion (Silva, 2011). The remaining 4% claim some other religion (Silva, 2011). Religion is a very important aspect of the Chilean culture. Chileans hold the upmost respect for others religious affiliations, and expect to be treated the same.
Walls and Barriers Certain differences create large gaps to be vaulted when it comes to adapting to another culture. One barrier can be a difference in religious beliefs. Ethnocentrism is assuming that one’s cultural traditions are better then someone else’s (Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., Ivy, Lane, Redmond, 2011, p. 157) This concept can be applied to religious beliefs as well. Belief that your religion is better or more correct. Stereotyping and prejudice form two other barriers that go hand in hand. Making assumptions about a person because of their affiliations, religious or not, and then judging them based on those assumptions.
Building Bridges Religious tolerance is a necessity when trying to adapt and effectively communicate with others that have different beliefs. You do not need to compromise your own beliefs, but accept that someone has a different viewpoint. This can be done through a form of Ethnorelative cultural perspective, which is ―an appreciation for and sensitivity to cultural differences‖ (Beebe et al, 2011, p. 162). Simply take this concept and apply it to religious differences. A way to combat stereotyping and prejudice is to seek information. Do not go into another culture or religion with preconceived notions. Look to truly learn and understand about them, rather then going on what you think you may know.
Adapting to Others While some will have no issue adapting to the religious aspect of Chile, others need to understand how it comes into play in the culture and how to adapt to it. Intercultural Communication Competence is defined as ―The ability to adapt one’s behavior toward another person in ways that are appropriate to the other person’s culture‖ (Beebe et al, 2011, p. 161) It is important to be able to change one’s behavior to honor another persons culture, especially when it pertains to religion.
Sources Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., Ivy, D. K., Lane, S. D., Redmond, M. V. (2011). The Blue Book of Communication Studies. Boston, MA: Pearson Learning Solutions. Image of the Bridge. Retrieved November 11, 2011, from http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla%3Aen- US%3Aofficial&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=706&q=building+bridges&gbv =2&oq=building+bridges&aq=f&aqi=g8g- m2&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=1043l3400l0l3550l16l14l0l2l2l0l173l1169l6.6l12l0 Image of Church. Retrieved November 11, 2011, from http://thegreatamericandisconnect.blogspot.com/2010/11/catholic-church- screams-we-are.html Image of Cats. Retrieved November 11, 2011, from http://cheezburger.com/Roanna/lolz/View/2994248704 Image of The Great Wall of China. Retrieved November 11, 2011, from http://www.google.com/search?tbm=isch&client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla%3Aen- US%3Aofficial&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1440&bih=706&q=building+bridges&gbv =2&oq=building+bridges&aq=f&aqi=g8g- m2&aql=&gs_sm=e&gs_upl=1043l3400l0l3550l16l14l0l2l2l0l173l1169l6.6l12l0 Library of Congress Country Studies. (n.d.) Chile: Religion and Churches. Retrieved November 5 2011, from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi- bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field%28DOCID+cl0067%29 Silva, P., (2011). Chile. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://www.everyculture.com/Bo-Co/Chile.html
A CultVictoriaMachismo By of QuaintanceMachismo pervades all aspects of life in Chile,including relationships and interactions with Machismoism: prominentlyother cultures. Realizing the similarity of the exhibited or excessive masculinity ordomination and mistreatment of less powerful manliness. Ranging from a sense ofminorities in our own culture to those treated virility to male chauvinism,that way in Chile could lead to better, more machismo characteristics includenuanced communication.(Beebe, et. al.) domination, fierceness, aggressiveness and bravado in ways“I was born in ancient times, at the end of the that are showily and histrionicallyworld, in a patriarchal Catholic and tough. (Dictionary.com)(Farlex)conservative family. No wonder that by agefive I was a raging feminist - although the termhad not reached Chile yet, so nobody knewwhat the heck was wrong with me.”Isabel Allende, Chilean human rights advocate(Allende)
Where is machismo found in Chile?• Chilean men often believe that they can demonstrate their lovethough violent behavior and so perpetuate an environment where violence against women can thrive. Nearly a third of college age women report being the victim of sexual assault since age 14, with 17% being victimized in the last year alone. (Lehlear, et. al.). Why do you make me hurt you?• Media- Camila Vallejo, the 23 year old student president of the nation’s largest university, leads protests again political corruption and ill treatment of the poor. The paternalistic and sexist media reported "she would fit better on a models runway than at the barricades," and when she refused to dance at a demonstration; "Camila wont move her butt”.(Vergara)• Politics- Female representatives make up only 15% of the government, one of the lowest in Latin America. Women have little influence in making policy or working on social, economic and political changes that effect communities as a whole.(VelosoOlguin)• Gangs- Chileans have set up and are joining criminal organizations for drug trafficking.(Gallardo) A macho based code of ethics and a standard of behavior based on bravado pervade gangs who fight for turf control and rights. Overlords exploit the machismo culture for power and wealth.• Catholic Church- An ideal of women’s purity achieved through acting as the Virgin Mary in their daily lives has made them valuable as “mothers”. Women are expected to be selfless, devoted to family, and to always put off career or personal goals in favor of other family members. Their moral and sexual immaculacy is directly tied to the honor of male family members.(Chappelle)
Machismo in America?• Sexism: Sexual harassment is simply an everyday part of life for middle and high school students. Half of American students, grades 7-12, report being sexually harassed while in school. (Hill, et. al.) “Sexism in American society seems more tolerated than racism, and certainly more acceptable or forgivable,” Katie Couric, CBS news anchor.(Frid, et. al.)• Every 45 seconds in the US someone is sexually assaulted. 14% of women in college have been raped, however 9 out of 10 women raped on campus never tell anyone. (Crisis Connection)Cost to Chilean Society The Catholic Bishops’ Conference of Chile issued a• Suppression of Women statement rejecting any legislation that would – Abortion is illegal in Chile yet is the highest rate decriminalize Chile’s restriction on abortion by in South America: 43 unsafe abortions per 100 live allowing exceptions in the cases of rape, to save births, one of the highest in the world. (WHO) the life of the mother, or fetal deformity. (Ertelt) • Victims are forced to patronize the under- ground medical system with unregulated facilities that are unsanitary, unlicensed and undertrained which results in back ally and self-induced “coat-hanger” abortions. • Results: unwanted children which overwhelmingly affects the poor• Women in the Work Force – Women earn far less than men for the same employment – Subject to rampant discrimination and sexual advances at work• Women do all housework. If working outside the home they essentially pull a double shift every day unless earning enough Women protesting violence. to pay for domestic help. Concepcion, Chile
• Domestic Violence – Women are trapped in abusive relationships – Despite increased record keeping there is little tangible support from the state. – Rape- Most women can not afford or do not have access to emergency contraceptives. – Femicide (term for the murder of women) averages 50 per year• Suppression of Children and Aged – Women are tasked with care of other oppressed classes resulting in further stress on the fabric of society – Disasters (natural or manmade) strike especially hard at women with already stretched resources and those who rely on them.• Human trafficking – Chile is a known route and has no laws against this abuse. Women and girls are lured into responding to false ads for jobs A Chilean woman looks at an and forced into prostitution and labor enslavement for domestic use and “empty shoe” femicide exhibit for shipment to other countries.(Pratt) displaying the names of victims. Power exchanges The similarities between life in the US and Chile are striking. Both cultures value women and the feminine as lesser than men. These are just the facts while the reasons behind them are much more convoluted and difficult to understand. Power exchanges in common interactions will shape outcomes so it is important to have a working knowledge of how the practice of machismoism Where is she? permeates life in Chile when dealing with that culture. Thanks for reading this article.
ReferencesAllende, I. (2009) Isabel Allende tells tales of pasion, Video, http://www.ted.com/talks/isabel_allende_tells_tales_of_passion.htmlBeebe, S. J., Beebe, S. A., Ivy, D. K., Lane, S. D., Redmond, M. V., Assuming Differences pg. 158 (2011) The Blue Book of Communication Studies, Tacoma Community College Custom Edition, Pearson PublishingChappell, D.; Women’s Influence in Chile (the last 150 years)http://www.spotlightchile.com/women.htmCrisis Connection (11-2011), http://www.crisisconnectioninc.org/sexualassault/rapestatistics.htmDictionary.com, 11-9-2011 http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/machismoErtelt, S. Catholic Bishops of Chile Oppose Weakening Abortion Ban (1-2011) LifeNews.com http://www.lifenews.com/2011/01/04/catholic-bishops-of-chile-oppose-weakening-abortion-ban/Lehrer, J., Lehrer, V., Lehrer, E., and Oyarzún, P., (2007) Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Sexual Victimization in College Women in Chile, International Family Planning Perspectives Vol. 33, No. 4, Dec. 2007: Guttmacher InstituteThe Free Dictionary by Farlex, 11-9-2011 http://www.thefreedictionary.com/machismoFrid, Y.; There’s only one Katie Couric – and now she’s in Israel, Harretz.com 7-22-2008 http://www.haaretz.com/print- edition/features/there-s-only-one-katie-couric-and-now-she-s-in-israel-1.250186Gallardo, E.: Chile Fears Influx of Drug Gangs, The Seattle Times, 11-9-2011,Hill, C., Holly, K.; Crossing the Line, Sexual Harassment at School (2011): AAUW http://www.aauw.org/learn/research/upload/CrossingTheLine.pdfPatt, M., (11-2011)"Human Trafficking & Modern-day Slavery - Chilehttp://gvnet.com/humantrafficking/Chile.htmUnsafe abortion: global and regional estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated mortality in 2008 -- 6th ed. (2008) pg. 19. World Health Organization http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501118_eng.pdfVergara, E. Pressure grows as Chile student leader opens talks, The Guardian, Associated Press, 10-05-2011 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/9879980VelosoOlguin, J.F.; Women demand greater representation in Chilean politics, The Santiago Times, 11-3-2011 http://www.santiagotimes.cl/chile/politics/22809-women-demand-greater-representation-in-chilean-politics
• Extended family is very important in the Chilean culture. In fact, it is a central idea.• Many businesses in Chile are family owned and operated.• Family is seen as a safety network in case something goes wrong, which is why the family remains so close.• Weekends and holidays are spent with the family.Family as a Network
In Chile nowadays, immediate families are normally made up of a husband, wife, and two to three children. Many generations ago, immediate families could have been made up of a husband, wife, and six to seven kids. The family members that are considered to be “extended” family are Aunts, Uncles, cousins Grandparents, and in some cases, very close family friends. “It is also common for close friendships among adults to lead to links that are family-like. For example, children often refer to their parents friends as „uncle‟ or „aunt.‟” (Chile-family structure and 1994)Family Structure
Men: The men of Chile were considered to bethe primary providers for the household. Theystill do most of the working today, although it Women:is becoming more accustom for women to help Women in the Chilean Culture werewith the work. The men are never expected to expected to just stay home anddo any of the housework. take care of the children and household. However, nowadays many women go to school so they can work and help provide for the family.“By 1990 about half the students in the nations primary and secondary schools were female.” (Lewis, J. J.1994) Women are still expected to perform the duties of the house such as cooking and cleaning.Family Roles
Children: The role of the children of a Extended Family: The role of the family in Chile is actually gender specific. extended family is to be around for The female children stay home and work support. Often, if both parents work or on „wifely‟ skills with their mothers (if their are gone for any reason, the children of mothers don‟t work). If the mother does that couple go to the care of the extended work, then they girls are home with a family during the time of the parents‟ female maid. The male children leave for absence. Although, as previously stated, the day with their father and help with the the role of the extended family in that work. This way, each gender of children respect has lately been turned over to can learn from their parents how to maids. The main role of the extended behave when they grow up and run their family is and remains to this day, to own household. provide strong support for one another.Roles Continued
Chile-family structure and attitudes toward gender roles. (1994, March). Retrieved from http://www.mongabay.com/history/chile/chile- family_structure_and_attitudes_toward_gender_roles.html Chile - language, culture, customs and etiquette . (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global- etiquette/chile.html Have you met any chilean people?. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.chile-attractions.com/chilean-people.html Lewis, J. J. (1994, March). Chile- family and gender issues. Retrieved from http://womenshistory.about.com/library/ency/blwh_chile_gender _family.htmSources
We hope you take away from this presentationa better understanding of the culture of a countryso far away from ours yet with many similarities. These common elementscan lead to better communication and friendship between our peoples.Please consider responding to these questions. Thank you. Questions• My question is about the modern clothing. What style do you think influenced the most for the modern clothes of Chile?• How is religion relevant in Chilean culture today and how do religious differences affect communication within the population of Chile?• How do you react to macho, sexist domination when you find it in your culture and what do you think such an encounter would feel like if you found it in a different form, just as ingrained, in another society? How could cooperation between Chile and America make a difference to women in both countries?