Stress by molina df2


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English Stress

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Stress by molina df2

  1. 1. ENGLISH STRESS by Molina Gil Grecia
  2. 2. WHAT IS STRESS? This is the main question. Can you think of some words that are related to stress? May be…
  3. 3. STRESS DEFINITIONS Now, let us look at some general definitions made by linguists. I will underline the key words of each concept. “Stress is a cover term for the combined effects of pitch, loudness and length- the result of which is prominence” (Dobrovolsky, Aranoff & O’Grady, 1996).
  4. 4. STRESS DEFINITIONS “The pronunciation of a syllable or word with more respiratory energy or muscular force than other syllables or words in the same utterance.” (Richards & Schmidt, 2002).
  5. 5. STRESS DEFINITIONS “It is the degree of force or loudness with which syllables are spoken in English.” (Quintana de Laya & Laya, 1994). All these definitions give us an idea of what stress is.
  6. 6. STRESS PERSPECTIVES We have two forms in which we can identify stress.
  7. 7. Syllables undergo changes according to the degree of stress on them… SYLLABLES QUALITIES STRESSED Have clear vowels UNSTRESSED Have mostly unclear vowels Have higher pitches Have lower pitches Longer duration Shorter duration communication Look at this example: / mjuˌ.nɪˌkeɪ.ʃən kəˌ Different levels of stress in each syllable
  8. 8. STRESS DEGREES This means that all syllables have stress, just in different intensities. In English there are about four levels of Stress. Here are the three most important for words stress. Let’s use a ladder to show the levels: P.D.: Secondary stress will be explained later :D Primary Carried by the clear vowel with the highest pitch. Tertiary Carried by the clear vowel which does not have primary stress. Weak Carried by the unclear vowels within the word Kukanauza y Allegra (2008)
  9. 9. Since stress is an aural thing, we need to use a conventional set of signals to indicate stress in written form. These are just three of many systems: STRESS SIGNALLING Primary Tertiary Weak Red Caps  / Blue Lower case  Black Lower case  _ .
  10. 10. Look at a sample indication of stress with each system. STRESS SIGNALLING judgeMENtal /dʒʌdʒˌmen.təl/ Remember: if you transcribe the word, you will see the sounds and type of vowels.
  11. 11. STRESS SIGNALLING    judgemental /dʒʌdʒˌmen.təl/ Many people use this one. However, some had found it unclear to determine the size of the bubble and identify the sounds. :/ If you assign a different color for each stress, the indications would be accurate though 
  12. 12. This set of marks with these color coding is the system we will use in class. Get familiar with it, use the proper colors and start marking the stress on words  _ STRESS SIGNALLING / . judgemental /dʒʌdʒˌmen.təl/
  13. 13. When you mark the stress on a word you must consider the aspects mentioned by Roach (1983, p. 8 of your DFII Book) STRESS PATTERN First, you have to identify the primary stress. This is the easiest stress to find. In this case, the diphthong /oʊ/ carries the highest pitch in the word. We mark using a red crayon. / Hello: /həlˌoʊ/ . Second, we identify the rest of stresses. Here, this vowel is considered to be an unclear vowel. Thus, we will use the symbol (.) to indicate weak stress.
  14. 14. Let us try again with a different word! STRESS PATTERN First, we identify the primary stress in this word. Where is it? Good. The / is the vowel / with the highest pitch in this word! /. _ Valentine: /væləntaɪn/ And once more, our little Schwa gets a weak stress! Second, is there any other clear vowel? Taratatan… There is. It is the diphthong /aI/. Tip: All diphthongs are full/ clear vowels (/ oʊ / is subject to exception). This sound will carries a tertiary level of stress
  15. 15. One last try: a longer word. STRESS PATTERN First, look for the primary stress in this word. The diphthong /eɪ/ has highest pitch of all. _. / . Elevation: /eləveɪʃən/ Finally, if you see, there are just two schwas left. They will both carry a weak degree of stress. Second, there is only one more clear vowel and that is /e/. It has a tertiary level of stress.
  16. 16. UNCLEAR VOWELS Ok, how come we have a disctintion between clear and unclear vowels? This distinction is caused by the stress itself. When a syllable in a word is emphasized highly the stress of rest of the syllables will be deemphasized. This effect is applied to the peaks of those syllables: the vowels. Unclear vowels are vowels that don’t have a full realization or quality, they are more or less neutral…
  17. 17. /  EXCEPTION / The diphthong / may occur / in stressed or unstressed syllables. It would be considered unclear And will take a weak stress when it occurs in unstressed positions:
  18. 18. HOMEWORK!!!  Transcribe the following words in your notebooks with the help of your dictionary and mark the stress pattern of each one. 1. Acidic 2. Garlicky 3. Bitter 4. Creamy 5. Eggy 6. Flavourful 7. Gustatory 8. Insipid 9. Tangy 10.Watery 11.Tasteless 12.Bittersweet 13.Pungent 14.Grenadine 15.Cinnamon 16.Aniseed 17.Liquorice 18.Cocoa 19.Vanilla 20.peppermint