Nutrition Research at Ridgetown

Paul H. Luimes, Ph.D.
2010-2011
Can corn silage be profitable?
Component

Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis)
0% CS

25% CS

50% CS

Corn silage

...
Feeding
Average lamb weight (lbs).
105

Lamb Weight, lbs

100
95
90
85

80
75
70
65
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Week
0% CS

25% CS

50% C...
Performance from 70 to 105 lbs
Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis)
0% CS

25% CS

50% CS

average daily gain

lb/d...
Ration Analysis (on DM basis)
Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis)

0% CS

25% CS

50% CS

Crude protein (CP)

16.4...
Additional notes
• 4 lambs on the 50% CS treatment died
▫ 1 rectal prolapse
▫ 3 listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)

• Ma...
So would I feed corn silage to
lambs?
• Maybe…if…
▫ Around 25% inclusion
 A bit more if I wanted to slow lambs down for a...
So would I feed corn silage to
lambs?

• Say I brought in

Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM
basis)

▫ 70 lb lambs
▫ on...
2012
DDGS
First of all…what is corn?

•
•
•
•
•

Starch
Oil
Protein
NDF
Minerals

72.6%
4.3%
9.8%
9.0%
1.6%

Encyclopedia Brita...
Corn
Ground
Cooked

Digested
(“Liquifaction”)

Basic Process
Distillers’
Grains

Centrifugation

Fermentation

Distillatio...
Corn
Ground
Cooked

Digested
(“Liquifaction”)

Modified Process
Distillers’
Grains

Centrifugation

Fermentation

Distilla...
How much DDGS can we feed profitably?
Commodity

$/tonne

0% DDGS

15% DDGS

30% DDGS

Corn

$300

25.5%

25.5%

25.5%

Mi...
Average lamb weights, lb
120
115
110
105

Weight, lbs

100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Week
0% DDGS

15% DDG...
Performance from 70 to 110 lbs
Percentage DDGS in Ration
0% DDGS

15% DDGS

30% DDGS

Average daily gain

lb/d

0.78

0.80...
Ration Analysis
Percentage DDGS in Ration
0% DDGS

15% DDGS

30% DDGS

Dry Matter

88.9%

88.8%

89.5%

Crude Protein

18....
At the start…
At market…
At market…
Challenges
• No death losses
• Typical illnesses
▫ Some pink-eye
▫ Some coughing
Bunk Management
• Feed was offered as textured feed
▫ Lambs consumed corn, barley and oats first
▫ Consumed ground feed (s...
Sorting

At feeding

Approx. 8 hrs after feeding
Some thoughts on refusals*…
0% DDGS

15% DDGS

30% DDGS

Feed offered, lbs/d

4.13

4.13

3.65

Feed refused, lbs/d

0.53
...
So would I feed DDGS?
• Absolutely
▫ If I could do “tight” bunk management
 I’d feed at least 30%

▫ If I was feeding ad ...
2013
To “requirements”
0% DDGS

High CP
0% DDGS

30% DDGS

not
pelleted

pelleted

not
pelleted

pelleted

not
pelleted

pellet...
The treatments
• Form
▫ Pellet vs. Non-Pellet

• Content
▫ Low CP (SBM)
▫ High CP (SBM)
▫ High CP (DDGS)
Performance
Form
Non-Pellet

Content

Pellet

Low CP
(SBM)

High CP
(SBM)

High CP
(DDGS)

Average
daily feed
intake (lb/d...
Ration Analysis
Form

Content

Non-Pellet

Pellet

Low CP
(SBM)

High CP
(SBM)

High CP
(DDGS)

Dry matter

86.7%x

86.9%x...
Feed bunks…
Issues
• Completed in two groups
▫ Group 1
 No major issues
 One lamb was euthanized after a physical injury

▫ Group 2
...
A few points of consideration
• Assumed all feeds were purchased (non-pelleted
as well as pelleted)
▫ This artificially ra...
So would I pellet feed?
• I would formulate my concentrate
▫ Assuming not pelleting
 Limiting available ingredients
 Use...
Protein level
• It appears the NRC targeted levels for growing
lambs may be too low for protein
▫ 0.70 vs. 0.79 lb/d (low ...
Cost of disease
• I cannot determine this statistically so it is only
an estimate to illustrate
▫ $0.23/lb
▫ For 65 to 110...
DDGS
• Once again feeding DDGS is profitable
▫ $0.10/lb ~ $4.50 per lamb
▫ Very close to same savings as last time
DDGS value $/tonne =
(0.5417 x corn $/tonne) +
(0.4344 x soybean $/tonne)
$

125 $

150 $

Corn
175 $
200 $

225 $

250 $
...
Acknowledgements
• Funding
▫ OSMA and FIP

• Lambs
▫ Wicketthorn Livestock

• Feed
▫
▫
▫
▫
▫

Agribrands Purina Ltd.
Flora...
Future Directions
• OSMA (FIP) - funded
▫ Ewe feed efficiency (preliminary trial)
 Breeding, gestation, lactation feed vs...
Questions?
Paul Luimes
519-674-1500 x63550

pluimes@uoguelph.ca
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Lamb Feeding Research at Ridgetown Campus

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Dr. Paul Luimes, College Professor, University of Guelph Ridgetown Campus

Dr. Paul Luimes will review the lamb nutrition projects that have been completed at the Ridgetown Campus over the past few years. Projects include feeding corn silage to lambs, feeding dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to lambs and the latest project, which is to determine whether pelleting is cost effective for lamb production.

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  • Trt = 0.0001, gender < 0.0001, gender*trt = 0.1181, week < 0.0001, trt*week = 0.3753, gender*trt*week = 0.9994
  • The refusals were not analyzed but let’s say they were 85% either DDGS, SBM or a mixture of the two…what would their estimated actual CP intake be then?
  • Corn SBM DDGS DM 89% DM 90% DM 91% CP (dry) 10.0% CP (dry) 54.0% CP (dry) 28.5% TDN (dry) 88.0% TDN (dry) 87.0% TDN (dry) 84.0%
  • Lamb Feeding Research at Ridgetown Campus

    1. 1. Nutrition Research at Ridgetown Paul H. Luimes, Ph.D.
    2. 2. 2010-2011
    3. 3. Can corn silage be profitable? Component Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis) 0% CS 25% CS 50% CS Corn silage 0.0% ( 0.0%) 44.8% (25.0%) 71.0% (50.0%) Corn grain 30.4% (30.0%) 15.4% (20.6%) 6.7% ( 11.3%) Mixed grain 50.2% (50.0%) 25.4% (34.4%) 11.0% ( 18.8%) Protein supplement A* 19.4% (20.0%) 7.2% (10.0%) 0.0% ( 0.0%) Protein supplement B* 0.0% ( 0.0%) 7.2% (10.0%) 11.4% (20.0%) Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Cost/tonne $311.81 $219.61 $165.72 Protein supplements supplied by Floradale Feed Mill Supplement A – “off the shelf” product (34.25% CP, 61.72% TDN) Supplement B – “custom made” product (41.1% CP, 65.30% TDN)
    4. 4. Feeding
    5. 5. Average lamb weight (lbs). 105 Lamb Weight, lbs 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Week 0% CS 25% CS 50% CS 7 8 9 10
    6. 6. Performance from 70 to 105 lbs Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis) 0% CS 25% CS 50% CS average daily gain lb/d 0.71a 0.67a 0.46b feed intake (dry matter) lb/d 3.11a 2.99a 2.54b feed intake (as fed) lb/d 3.48a 4.55b 4.88c days to market1 d 49.3 52.2 76.1 4.43a 4.54a 6.08b $0.703a $0.689a $0.878b feed (dry matter) to gain feed cost/lb gain2 a,bNumbers $/lb across rows with a different superscript are different (p < 0.10). calculated based on other values presented in table 2Feed cost was calculated based on corn silage costing $65/tonne, corn grain costing $260/tonne, mixed grain costing $255/tonne and the protein supplement costing on average $595/tonne 1Values
    7. 7. Ration Analysis (on DM basis) Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis) 0% CS 25% CS 50% CS Crude protein (CP) 16.4% 16.4% 16.4% Total digestible nutrients (TDN) 79.0% 77.1% 75.2%
    8. 8. Additional notes • 4 lambs on the 50% CS treatment died ▫ 1 rectal prolapse ▫ 3 listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes) • Management will require more attention with corn silage ▫ Harvesting ▫ Storage ▫ Bunk
    9. 9. So would I feed corn silage to lambs? • Maybe…if… ▫ Around 25% inclusion  A bit more if I wanted to slow lambs down for a market (like a late Easter) ▫ I had they system already in place to do so  If I was already feeding it to my ewes  Not worth decreasing automation over ▫ I’d keep some beef cattle around for “clean up”  Keep fresher feed in lamb/ewe bunks  At least get some return for “wasted” feed
    10. 10. So would I feed corn silage to lambs? • Say I brought in Percentage Corn Silage in Ration (DM basis) ▫ 70 lb lambs ▫ on February 1, 2011 • And raised them ▫ on the 3 diets ▫ to 105 lbs • As long as death loss is kept under control! 0% CS 25% CS 50% CS End date Mar. 22 Mar. 25 Apr. 18 Total feed cost $24.61 $24.12 $30.73 - -$0.49 $6.13 $234.71 $245.04 Diff Lamb value on end date* Diff $234.71 - - $10.33 *calculated from OSMA market reports
    11. 11. 2012
    12. 12. DDGS First of all…what is corn? • • • • • Starch Oil Protein NDF Minerals 72.6% 4.3% 9.8% 9.0% 1.6% Encyclopedia Britannica
    13. 13. Corn Ground Cooked Digested (“Liquifaction”) Basic Process Distillers’ Grains Centrifugation Fermentation Distillation CO2 Ethanol DDGS Wet Condensed Solubles
    14. 14. Corn Ground Cooked Digested (“Liquifaction”) Modified Process Distillers’ Grains Centrifugation Fermentation Distillation CO2 Ethanol De-oiled DDGS Wet Condensed Solubles Corn Oil De-oiled WCS
    15. 15. How much DDGS can we feed profitably? Commodity $/tonne 0% DDGS 15% DDGS 30% DDGS Corn $300 25.5% 25.5% 25.5% Mixed grain1 $314 42.5% 42.5% 42.5% Soybean meal $450 16.7% 8.3% 0.0% Oat hulls $240 13.3% 6.7% 0.0% DDGS $235 0.0% 15.0% 30.0% Premix2 $1,100 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Cost/tonne $339.01 $320.62 $302.44 Mixed grain is barley and oats at 50%:50% mix 2 Premix supplied by KenPal Farm Products Inc. 1
    16. 16. Average lamb weights, lb 120 115 110 105 Weight, lbs 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Week 0% DDGS 15% DDGS 30% DDGS 8 9 10
    17. 17. Performance from 70 to 110 lbs Percentage DDGS in Ration 0% DDGS 15% DDGS 30% DDGS Average daily gain lb/d 0.78 0.80 0.71 Feed intake lb/d 3.60a 3.54a 3.13b Days to market1 d 51.3 50.0 56.3 4.79 4.56 4.62 $0.769a $0.693b $0.664b Feed to gain Feed cost/lb gain2 a,bNumbers $/lb across rows with a different superscript are different (p < 0.10). 1Values calculated based on other values presented in table 2Feed cost was calculated based on feed costing from previous slide
    18. 18. Ration Analysis Percentage DDGS in Ration 0% DDGS 15% DDGS 30% DDGS Dry Matter 88.9% 88.8% 89.5% Crude Protein 18.8% 16.1% 15.6% Total Digestible Nutrients 85.9% 84.4% 86.8% Acid Detergent Fibre 11.0% 12.6% 9.9% Neutral Detergent Fibre 20.1% 23.9% 23.9% Calcium 1.00% 0.90% 0.82% Phosphorus 0.46% 0.45% 0.44% There is a fair amount of error associated with these numbers.
    19. 19. At the start…
    20. 20. At market…
    21. 21. At market…
    22. 22. Challenges • No death losses • Typical illnesses ▫ Some pink-eye ▫ Some coughing
    23. 23. Bunk Management • Feed was offered as textured feed ▫ Lambs consumed corn, barley and oats first ▫ Consumed ground feed (soybean meal/DDGS/premix) later ▫ Sorting of soybean meal was not as noticeable as sorting of DDGS • Most of the time the refusals were almost exclusively ground feed ▫ Targeted around 5-10% refusals ▫ Actual was around 12.5%
    24. 24. Sorting At feeding Approx. 8 hrs after feeding
    25. 25. Some thoughts on refusals*… 0% DDGS 15% DDGS 30% DDGS Feed offered, lbs/d 4.13 4.13 3.65 Feed refused, lbs/d 0.53 0.58 0.52 Feed intake, lbs/d 3.60 3.55 3.13 Average daily gain, lbs/d 0.78 0.80 0.71 Estimated sorting None Some Considerable CP offered, %1 17.0 17.0 17.0 CP refused, %2 17.0 22.0 27.0 CP offered, lbs/d 0.702 0.702 0.621 CP refused, lbs/d 0.090 0.128 0.140 CP intake, lbs/d 0.612 0.575 0.480 1Calculated 2Assuming estimated sorting *On a per lamb basis
    26. 26. So would I feed DDGS? • Absolutely ▫ If I could do “tight” bunk management  I’d feed at least 30% ▫ If I was feeding ad lib (like hog feeders)  I might drop it a bit to 15%  Or pellet it • At $4.20 savings per lamb (70-110 lbs), not feeding DDGS is a missed opportunity • Since lambs are refusing expensive protein, could we improve gains or make it cheaper by pelleting?
    27. 27. 2013
    28. 28. To “requirements” 0% DDGS High CP 0% DDGS 30% DDGS not pelleted pelleted not pelleted pelleted not pelleted pelleted Corn 32.2% 22.2% 25.5% 15.5% 25.5% 15.5% Barley 28.0% 28.0% 21.35% 21.35% 21.35% 21.35% Oats 28.0% 28.0% 21.35 21.35 21.35% 21.35% Wheat Soybean meal 10.0% 3.0% 3.0% 10.0% 10.0% 10.0% 10.0% DDGS 30.0% 30.0% Wheat shorts 7.0% 7.0% 20.0 20.0 Premix 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% Limestone 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% $/tonne $373.00 $383.00 $386.50 $396.50 $378.00 $388.00 Premixes, feeds and pelleting supplied by B-W Feed and Seed, New Hamburg, ON
    29. 29. The treatments • Form ▫ Pellet vs. Non-Pellet • Content ▫ Low CP (SBM) ▫ High CP (SBM) ▫ High CP (DDGS)
    30. 30. Performance Form Non-Pellet Content Pellet Low CP (SBM) High CP (SBM) High CP (DDGS) Average daily feed intake (lb/d) 3.36x 3.46y 3.31a 3.49b 3.42ab Average daily gain (lb/d) 0.75x 0.76x 0.70a 0.76ab 0.82b 60 59 64 60 55 Feed to gain ratio 5.07x 5.03x 5.32a 5.15a 4.67b Feed $/lb of gain $0.81x $0.82x $0.84a $0.85a $0.75b Days to market* *Calculated based on 45 lb gain
    31. 31. Ration Analysis Form Content Non-Pellet Pellet Low CP (SBM) High CP (SBM) High CP (DDGS) Dry matter 86.7%x 86.9%x 87.1%a 86.3%b 87.0%a Crude protein 13.1%x 13.8%x 11.3%a 14.1%b 14.9%b TDN 81.9%x 82.7%x 83.4%a 82.5%a 81.1%a NDF 18.0%x 19.2%y 16.9%a 17.6%a 21.2%b ADF 8.5%x 8.3%x 8.1%a 7.5%a 9.5%b Calcium 0.56%x 0.55%x 0.50%a 0.58%a 0.59%a Phosphorus 0.41%x 0.45%y 0.37%a 0.45%a 0.48%b Ca:P 1.36%x 1.22%x 1.35%a 1.29%a 1.24%a
    32. 32. Feed bunks…
    33. 33. Issues • Completed in two groups ▫ Group 1  No major issues  One lamb was euthanized after a physical injury ▫ Group 2  Many lambs suffered from chronic lung infection  Early struggle with coccidiosis  Some deworming failure  Detected by FAMACHA
    34. 34. A few points of consideration • Assumed all feeds were purchased (non-pelleted as well as pelleted) ▫ This artificially raised cost of non-pelleted ration • Used fixed number of feeds (other feeds could be available especially for pelleted ration) ▫ This artificially raised cost of pelleted ration
    35. 35. So would I pellet feed? • I would formulate my concentrate ▫ Assuming not pelleting  Limiting available ingredients  Use home grown grains ▫ Assuming pelleting  Using full number of available ingredients  Both using and not using home grown grains • Is pelleted ration is within $10 more per tonne of non-pelleted ration ▫ Yes? Then “yes” I’d pellet ▫ No? Depends on labour savings potential
    36. 36. Protein level • It appears the NRC targeted levels for growing lambs may be too low for protein ▫ 0.70 vs. 0.79 lb/d (low vs. avg. high) • But higher levels (of same ingredient) were no cheaper per lb of gain ▫ 0.84 vs. $0.85 per lb of gain • Is optimal in the middle somewhere? ▫ I don’t know
    37. 37. Cost of disease • I cannot determine this statistically so it is only an estimate to illustrate ▫ $0.23/lb ▫ For 65 to 110 lb this means $10.35/lamb • Not including ▫ Medicine ▫ Dead lambs ▫ Frustration
    38. 38. DDGS • Once again feeding DDGS is profitable ▫ $0.10/lb ~ $4.50 per lamb ▫ Very close to same savings as last time
    39. 39. DDGS value $/tonne = (0.5417 x corn $/tonne) + (0.4344 x soybean $/tonne) $ 125 $ 150 $ Corn 175 $ 200 $ 225 $ 250 $ 275 525 $ 296 $ 309 $ 323 $ 336 $ 350 $ 364 $ 377 $ Soybean Meal $ 550 $ 307 $ 320 $ 334 $ 347 $ 361 $ 374 $ 388 $ 575 $ 318 $ 331 $ 345 $ 358 $ 372 $ 385 $ 399 $ 600 $ 328 $ 342 $ 355 $ 369 $ 383 $ 396 $ 410 $ 625 $ 339 $ 353 $ 366 $ 380 $ 393 $ 407 $ 420 $ 650 $ 350 $ 364 $ 377 $ 391 $ 404 $ 418 $ 431 $ 675 $ 361 $ 375 $ 388 $ 402 $ 415 $ 429 $ 442
    40. 40. Acknowledgements • Funding ▫ OSMA and FIP • Lambs ▫ Wicketthorn Livestock • Feed ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Agribrands Purina Ltd. Floradale Feed Mill Ltd. KenPal Farm Products Inc. B-W Feed and Seed Ltd. Greenfield Ethanol • Collaboration ▫ Ridgetown Campus Sheep Advisory Group ▫ Shepherds
    41. 41. Future Directions • OSMA (FIP) - funded ▫ Ewe feed efficiency (preliminary trial)  Breeding, gestation, lactation feed vs. lb of weaned lamb • OMAF - applied ▫ Lamb feed trials ▫ Ewe feed efficiency ▫ Pasture efficiency
    42. 42. Questions? Paul Luimes 519-674-1500 x63550 pluimes@uoguelph.ca

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