A History of Advertising Janine Sykes Year tutor Creative Advertising
Things to take awayAn understanding of Key points in the historical narrative presented. The contexts (historical, political, economic etc.) in which modern advertising emerged (UK). Aspects of advertising strategy. Linked to the lecture Social Media and Communication that looks at the impact of New Media. The importance of soap.
The plot Traces how large-scale colour printing technology developed 19c Led to the soap ads for Lever Brothers These ads and the strategies initiated by Lever point towards creative advertising giants, Bernbach (DDB) and Hegarty (BBH).
Theme Integration of art & technology ‘an area of art history neglected … where art and technology meet’ (Elton, 1968, pvii)
The beginning by Wight Advertising, The Most Fun You Can Have With Your Clothes On! (R4, 2009) Robin Wight (WCRS)118 118 & The future’s bright, the future’s orange. William Hesketh Lever, (1851-1925) Lever Bros Bill Bernbach (1911-1982) (DDB) first to combine copywriters and art directors
Sunlight, Lux to Lynx Lever Brothers founders Ubiquitous brand, part of James Darcy & William the average consumers Hesketh Lever (1885). ‘mental furniture’ (Lewis, p57) Today Unilever, 900 brands Ben & Jerry’s, Most expensive real Bertoli, Bird’s Eye, estate is the corners of Brooke Bond, Comfort , somebodys mind Lux, Persil, Sunsilk, (Hegarty, 2009) Sunlight, Surf, Dove.
First British TycoonTo build a gallery and open it up for the public. Port Sunlight 19c village commissioned by William Hesketh Lever to house his soap factory workers. Centre; Lady Lever.
Lever born 1851 George Cruikshank (Etching) All the World Going to See the Great Exhibition of 1851.
1851 Great Exhibition‘Colour printing on a larger scale was not practiced until well into the nineteenth century…with the publications generated by the Great Exhibition of 1851’ (Elton, 1968, p70)Photos & 3D technology
Advertising an essentialAn essential component of any competitive market economy: driving growth and dynamism (Hegarty, 2011, p7)
Pre-packaging (Lewis, 2008) 1860s cereal companies Soap was sold in long figured out how to print, bars to grocers, who fold & fill cardboard boxes stamped (with stamp of mechanically. maker) and sliced up. John & William Kellogg
The first tablet of soap ‘I was the first to advertise extensively [and pre-package] a tablet of soap...the result was I lifted Sunlight soap to a class by itself’ (Lever in Lewis, 2008, p62) Added brand value through advertising.
Boom Advertising boom aided by abolishment of taxes on newspapers 1855 & paper in 1861 Press (newspapers) owes much to advertising News of the world ended when advertisers pulled.
A second boom Technological progress reproduction & colour printing, pictorial ads in magazines 1880s By 1890s technology enabled contemporary paintings to be reproduced Sunlight Soap Ad (1890s) www.advertisingarchives. co.uk
Lever’s context… (b1851) Height of the 1880s colour images and Empire. International reproductions in trade routes established magazines. International exhibition. 1890s reproduction of Prompted large-scale paintings possible. colour printing. Ad boom fuelled by tax reliefs in 1850s & 60s. Pre-packaging technology 1860s Co. founder Lever BrosLord Leverhulme (1920) Augustus John, Oil on canvas, Lady Lever Gallery
First Multinational Advertising transformed company from a local soap manufacturer in 1885 to one of the worlds first multinationals Largest corporation in Britain by 1930.
So (you are thinking) whatwas so amazing about hisadvertising?
Contemporary art The soap men’s extensive use of contemporary paintings in their advertising is a case in point. (Lewis, 2008, p65) Used in Sunlight soap ad with copy ‘So Clean’ Copyright (Lever) White linen (sign) Child (sign) The New Frock (1889) William Powell Frith, Lady Lever Gallery
Alice in Wonderland Exhibition Tate Liverpool Nov 2011 - 29 Jan 2012 Infant mortality rate high Children popular subject Paintings & photography Signified joy, blessings, purity, innocence and life.Alice Pleasance Liddell summer 1858 Wet Collodian glass-plate negative 15.2 x12.7 cm. Photographer Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll)
Start of exhibition George Dunlop Leslie Alice in Wonderland 1879
As good as new - emotive Bride (peasant) trying wedding dress. Leverhulme used for an advertisement poster 1889, As good as new Implies dress worn by brides mother, passing down beauty secrets. Emotional strategy enhanced by naturalism of Newlyn school (Cornwall)A Dress Rehearsal (1888) Albert Chevallier Tayler Oil on canvas 77.5 x 107.5cm
First Creative Advertising Selecting and presenting contemporary art works (RA) communicated more powerfully a desired message. Message was told in an interesting and innovative way. Imagery provided a spectacle and entertainment. By adding simple endlines, Lever managed to change the meaning of images to his advantage. Distinct from other advertising that had gone before. Encouraged consumers to collect vouchers and save for prints of the ads.
Distinct from other ads Briggate, Leeds (1900) Photographer unknown Brears (1992)
Entertainment ‘One of our clients is Unilever who produce Axe, a product targeted at young males…The brand is about confidence – the one ingredient most teenagers need help with’ (Hegarty, 2011) http://youtu.be/kFsEx8uSCU8 Online game and real- time novel.
‘Advertising, from the moment itwas born, was trying to entertainus’ (Hegarty, 2011, p9)
The First Creative Agencies Cracknell (2011) late 19c advertising agencies sold space in newspapers commission/negotiations.• Client created content. Changed with publications (US) Rowell American Newspaper dictionary (UK) followed– fixed rates to clients.• Agencies started to offer creative services 20c model
First global campaigns Medicine, chocolate and soap manufacturers were among the foremost advertisers (Lewis, 2008, p65) Sunlight Soap among the first products to feature in a global ad campaign.
Product placement soap replace clock & cup brand loyalty The Wedding Morning (1892) John Henry Frederick Bacon. Leverhulme bought painting from the 1892 Royal Academy, specifically for use as an advertisement for Sunlight Soap.
Innovative events Lever Bros. Switzerland F. H. Lavanchy -Clarke Opening of new offices, organised a washing competition Lake Geneva,1889. 2 x steamers, washer women, sunlight soap, large crowds and a banquet.
The Queen of soaps Royal endorsement from 1892 ‘soap makers to Queen Vic. Democratisation ‘Queens will have only the best… sunlight soap is so cheap, everybody can Magazine ad 1890s (www.advertisingarchives.co.uk) afford to use it’ [copy].
Wrapper promos 1890s Sunlight soap magazine ad www.advertisingarchives. co.uk 1903 began a wrapper scheme, offering soap in return 1904 offer a gramophone + records for 750 wrappers & rolled gold watch for 4,000 (Port Sunlight Museum, 2009)
Capture the children One method beloved of advertisers ...was to capture the children. In 1890s, purchases of sunlight soap received free paper dolls with interchangeable outfits’ (Lewis, 2008, p67) Schemes for Lifebuoy soap coupons for encyclopaedias.
Target mothers Directed at mothers ensuring a lifetime of brand loyalty Associations
Investing in Advertising Lever spent £2m first two decades of making soap. 1899 Lever purchased a Philadelphia soap firm – owner Sidney Gross became a director. ‘Gross was expert at picking the right artist for advertisements’ (Lewis, 2008,p69)
Art Direction Gross suggested plantol should depict tropical climates & express the care that is exercised in refining oils. A vision to disguise the forced slavery? Dove… are the biggest single user of palm oil, in the world Palm oil was one of the www.greenblog.org main ingredients (pure vegetable soap).
First Worldwide ECD Collaborative creativity Lever employed (international) expertise Overseer of advertising Constantly researching & studying the art form Sent examples of (American) adverts across the company (colour magazine) creating discussion. Journals, web blogs & Cop
First ambient Innovative spaces, doors left open at stations. Choosey, where advertised, avoided left- wing newspapers, ‘firm known by...quality of medium in which it advertises’ (Lewis, 2008, p71)
Ad Expertise The power of truth... the trick Lever amassed and was is to tell the among innovators of truth but make advertising expertise it interesting. Truth can be Advocated truth in disarming. advertising is an asset; falsehood in advertising is a liability. Lewis (2008) (Hegarty, 2009)
Salvation with Sunlight Many of his early ads emphasised that Sunlight soap would save women from drudgery (Lewis, 2008, p74) Answer: washing day toil, solution; Sunlight soap. Copy: a girl of 12 or 13 can do a large wash without being tired. Ease a repeated theme
Targeting audiences Copy in Sunlight soap Sunlight Almanac ads spoke directly to (annually) 1895-1900) working-class Woman’s World 470p housewives. illustrated book Salvation of Sunlight, High-feeling/emotive improves their life, strategy leaving quality-time for Lewis (2008) romance.
Examples 1893 ad copy Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News “home is to be the very dearest spot on earth, if the mother or wife brightens it with the sunlight of her cheerful smile…when things go right in the kitchen and laundry…the good housewife’s face is lit up” (Lewis, 2008, p77) ‘Another talked of a mother’s special responsibilities in the transmission of knowledge to her daughter…before her daughter is about… to be married’ (Lewis, 2008, p77)
World domination 20c Lever used different international agencies. Domestic and imperial markets Britishness suited all. Royal connections, national and imperial imagery Context of thousands of ads trading on Britannia, Where the British flag flies, Dunlop Tyres are paramount’(1902) (Lewis, 2008, p78)
Imperial Mission (Lewis) To civilize No commodity aided more this than soap. Wash and clothe the native and cleanse the great unwashed of British working classes. In Britain advertising posters, packaging brought to a wide audience the notion of imperialism as benign (Lewis, 2008, p79) Empire was celebrated on biscuits, cigarettes, soap, chocolate: part of the working class fabric.
The successful global campaign Lever’s achievement ‘to convince people all over the world that they did not just want this product, they needed it’ (Port Sunlight Museum, 2009).
How? Victorians conquered the world & problem of corporeal aromas. Sanitary achievements drains, sewage & soap. Advertisers made it their business to persuade consumers of their hygiene problems.
The Lynx effect “The message was clear, if one wished to gain or retain a partner, a job, a reputation and self esteem, one needed to attend to personal hygiene…sales skyrocketed” (Lewis, 2008, p81) High-feeling strategy
Psychology of Advertising Advertisers, more than any other group of people, made hay with new understandings of human psychology in the twentieth century (Lewis, 2008, p81) The Psychology of Advertising (1908) US, Walter Dill Scott Edward Berneys, nephew of Freud Propaganda (1928) Discrepancy theory – widespread
Discrepancy theory Discrepancy between self & ideal image of self. Publics leisure practices, bathing habits etc. were inferior to those depicted. Lever Bros Lux ads by mid 20s said to preserve ‘soft, youthful lovely feminine hands’ + celebrity endorsement ‘nine out of ten screen stars care for their skin with Lux soap’ (Lewis, 2008) From a Lux ad in the February 1925 issue of McCalls magazine.
First soap opera Continuing dramas 1930s radio (US) Procter and Gamble led the way, sponsoring O’Neils with ivory soap.
Soap & aesthetics P & G promotions: held sculpture event at gallery for children. Berneys wrote about it as a fine example, harnessing psychological motives, aesthetic, competitive maternal exhibitionist Strategy informed by sound psychology and enlightened self-interest (Lewis, 2008, p84)
Unilever Series Sponsor annual contemporary artist, Turbine hall Tate Modern Oct 11 - March 2012 FILM is an 11-minute silent 35mm film projected onto a gigantic white monolith standing 13m. First work in series devoted to the moving image, and celebrates analogue film-making.
Critics of Admass Boom in consumption Highly criticised in interwar years ‘countless critics on the left – appalled by products of capitalism and mechanisation ‘People degenerated into drones: docile bodies or blind mouths etc…unable to think beyond free market capitalism’ (Lewis, 2008, p84) Hausmann, Mechanical Head [Spirit of our age] 1920
Admass Advocates Economic liberals, Advertising celebrated unfettered creates more jobs agency of the consuming individual. Good trade relations between countries reduces conflict. Capitalism, commerce and consumption improves well being of population (Lewis, 2008).
Role of Advertising Fundamentals of honest business, will continue to advance humanity to brotherhood…honesty in advertising …is a cardinal principle in your country and in mine…the advertiser…is building for those who follow after him. It should be the same with nations’ Leverhulme NY (1923)
Summary This history Wight (R4)- library, So Clean Lewis (2008) Sunlight Vision and Alice in Wonderland exhibitions. Focus on the beginning. Included historical, political, economic and technological contexts which enabled Lever’s modern advertising to emerge. Colour printing and reproduction technological developments 19c. Creative advertising strategy, art and copy. Advertising principles truth and entertainment. The importance of advertising to an economy, soap to imperialism. Social Media and Communication, impact of New Media on advertising and creativity.
Remember in the beginning there was soap… Thank you
References The Drum (2008)‘The peacock’s tale: Robin Wight shows his colours’ http://www.thedrum.co.uk/indepth/1543-the-peacock-s-tale-robin-wight-shows-his- colours <accessed 10th Jan 09> Leufstedt, S. (2008) Dove beauty products causes forest destruction, species extinction and climate change (Online) http://www.green-blog.org/2008/04/24/dove- beauty-products-causes-forest-destruction-species-extinction-and-climate-change (accessed 31/1/12) Port Sunlight Museum http://www.portsunlightvillage.com/page.asp?pageid=MUSVIL <accessed 10th Jan 09> Advertising, The Most Fun You Can Have With Your Clothes On! (R4, 2009) Mon 12 Jan 2009 20:00 BBC Radio 4 The Unilever Series: Tate Modern Lewis, B (2008) So Clean Manchester Press. Sir John Hegarty [talks] 5th March, 2009 & March, 2010 (BBH) Leeds College of Art• Cracknell (2011) The Real Mad Men London: Quercus.• Hegarty, J. (2011) Hegarty on Advertising London: Thames & Hudson.• Elton, A. (ed) (1968) Art and the Industrial Revolution: Evelyn, Adams & Mackay.