Aviation maintenance methods asci609 final presentation_gstamp

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Aviation maintenance methods asci609 final presentation_gstamp

  1. 1. Aviation Maintenance Methods:A Proposed Multi-Disciplinary Approach Gregory C. Stamp Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University 14 December 2009
  2. 2. Outline Background General Maintenance Aviation Maintenance Aviation Maintenance Methodology Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Strategic Maintenance Management (SMM) Summary References 2
  3. 3. Background Performance of machine will inevitably deviate from specified performance standards-leading to failures. Driving need to minimize failures because of our dependence on machines Typical Aircraft Maintenance Program: • Understand failure process involving functional and potential failures. Characteristics of Modern Industrial Societies: • Dependence on high-tech machines to produce goods and services • Company productivity and outputs  Dependent upon the equipment’s operational quality Various maintenance methods being implemented across several industries (e.g. transportation, manufacturing, and mining). 3
  4. 4. General Maintenance (1 of 3) Maintenance: • Definition: “A process of ensuring that a system continually performs its intended in level of reliability and safety” (Kinnison, 2004) Entropy: The “Unavailable Energy”: • Thermodynamic concept that is used to explain the reduce designed in level of perfection of a system. • Direct correlation between entropy and required maintenance of a system  As entropy increases the system reliability reduces dramatically, which requires increase maintenance Maintenance from two different perspective: • Engineer: Primary role is the minimize entropy during system design • Mechanic: Primary function is to execute preventive methods to minimize the effects of entropy of the system through its life cycle. Two Main types of Maintenance: • Schedule Maintenance: Preventive maintenance that is executed at regular time frames (e.g. daily, every 1000 cycles, etc…) • Unscheduled Maintenance: Un-predictable maintenance intervals which may require significant effort to restore the system 4
  5. 5. General Maintenance (2 of 3) 1 From “Aviation Maintenance Management” by Harry A. Kinnison, 2004. Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1Illustration of the natural decay of a system affecting the systems level of perfection Designed in level of perfection deteriorates over time Inherent reliability of system is compromised Corrective action needed to restore system back to original levels 5
  6. 6. General Maintenance (3 of 3) From “Aviation Maintenance Management” by Harry A. Kinnison, 2004. 1 Copyright 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1Illustration of the effects of applied schedule maintenance to restoring original level of perfection Schedule maintenance at optimum time period for restoration • Preventive maintenance is an effective means of restoring the system back to original inherent reliability Extreme corrective action taken during unscheduled 6
  7. 7. Aviation Maintenance (1 of 2) Pre-World War I (WW I): • Wright Brothers reported of one the first aircraft maintenance discrepancies from the famous Wright “Flyer” • Manufacturing simply aircrafts • Carefree attitude towards flight checks (pre/post flight) During WW I: • Early maintenance methods focused on repairing damages From that occurred during take off and landing www.nasa.gov/.../image_feature_976.html • Reliability and maintainability not high priority while instituting a maintenance program After WW II: • Development of complex aircrafts (technology) • Justification of the need for preventive maintenance as the complexity of machines increased • Development of structured schedule maintenance programs From www.gereports.com/.../ to prolong the use of aircraft • Unscheduled maintenance remained a significant challenge for industry experts 7
  8. 8. Aviation Maintenance (2 of 2) During 1950’s: • Drastic change in the perception about maintenance • Implementation of maintenance techniques viewed as critical to not only to airlines but to the public in general  Proper maintenance inspection saves not only cost but also lives of passengers. • Determined previous maintenance efforts resulted in the wasting of valuable resources • Safety and reliability became paramount 8
  9. 9. Aviation Maintenance Methodology (1 of 3) Increasing complex systems and subsystems in modern jetliners: • Individual mechanics effort becomes next to impossible • Comprehensive team effort needed From www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic- art/71246/... Aviation Maintenance Programs in 1960s: • Boeing 747 “jumbo jet” ushered in the modern era of aviation maintenance program • Creation of team of subject matter experts to formulate possible solution to address complex maintenance problems 9
  10. 10. Aviation Maintenance Methodology ( 2 of 3) Committee developed maintenance steering group (MSG): • Involves several industry working groups (IWGs): structures, mechanical systems, engines and auxiliary power plant, ect… • Considered to be a “bottom up” approach • Successfully applied the Boeing 747 During the 1970s industry experts modified process to develop MSG-2: • Created schedule maintenance programs for Lockheed 1011 and Douglas DC-10 • MSG-2 simplifies the process to be categorized in three main areas (components, structures, and engines) Primary objectives of the techniques outlined in MSG-1and MSG-2: • Develop a schedule maintenance program to assured the maximum safety and inherent reliability • Provide the reliability at the lowest cost Used logically process flow diagram: 10 • Determine the necessary steps to resolve the maintenance issues.
  11. 11. Aviation Maintenance Methodology (3 of 3) During the early 1980’s: • Air Transportation Association of America (ATA) created the MSG-3 task- oriented maintenance method for the aviation industry. Differences between MSG-3 and MSG-2 schedule maintenance: • MSG-3 Approach- “Top- Down” instead of the “Bottom- Up” approach in the MSG-2 • The MSG-3 also known as the “consequence of failure” approach • Failure analysis conducted at the “highest manageable level of the aircraft systems instead of the component level” United Airlines contracted to develop a more comprehensive approach to the MSG: • Capability to apply schedule maintenance to other types of equipments and account for various shortcomings • New process created comprehensive maintenance philosophy:  Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM)  RCM: used to determine the maintenance requirement of any machine  Accounts for machines operating environment  Consider this approach to be central aspect of aviation maintenance program. 11
  12. 12. Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM): • Systematic approach used to optimize preventive maintenance • RCM methodology was created in the aircraft industry as a result of a number of reliability studies concerning complex equipment. RCM based maintenance program philosophy: • Determines requirements for any item whose loss of function or mode of failure could have safety consequences • Develop preventive task to reduce the risk and failures • Redesign equipment to change its failure consequences (if needed) RCM logic categorizes four main types of failure of consequences: • Safety • Operational Costs • Non-operation costs • Hidden Failure consequences 12
  13. 13. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) ( 1 of 2) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM): • Began in the Japanese car industry back in the 1970’s. • Considered to be a critical link in achieving Total Quality Control (TQC) and Just in Time (JIT) reduction • According to premier subject matter experts (M. Seichi Nakajima):  Defines TPM as a comprehensive productive maintenance that requires the total participation from everyone within the company TPM Environment: • Focus on identifying and “preventing problems at the source” • Creates conducive environment for managers and line workers • Incorporate a highly effective maintenance program that implements the reliability-centered maintenance methodology. 13
  14. 14. Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) (2 of 2) Several key TPM elements include the following: • Maximize equipment effectiveness • Establish a in-depth preventative maintenance for the equipments entire life span. • Implement through various departments (i.e. engineering, maintenance, and operations). • Involves every single employee, from top management to workers on the floor. • Promotes preventive maintenance through motivation and management of autonomous small group activities TPM Impacts: • Bottom-line by revitalizing and enhancing quality management approach. • Integration with RCM • Outcomes -improved capacity and reducing both maintenance cost and overall operational costs (Kennedy, 1996). Comparison to RCM: • TPM seen as more management oriented • RCM is oriented towards engineering level tasks • RCM handles the preventative maintenance standard 14 • TPM establishes the overall company mindset for continuous improvement
  15. 15. Strategic Maintenance Management (SMM) Strategic Maintenance Management (SMM): • Focuses on the long-term strategic issues of the company • Differs from narrow (short-term) operating context observed in the RCM and TPM • Forms an integral part of the management process Two key elements of SMM methodology are the following: • Maintenance management is a vital core business activity  Critical to business survival and success • Effective maintenance management needs to be based on quantitative business models  Integrate maintenance with other decisions such as production Overall effective maintenance management involves: • Formulating maintenance strategies • Implementing these strategies for business success companies Multi-Disciplinary Approach: • Integration with both traditional TPM and RCM methodologies is possible • Compliments existing policies by providing strategic focus and perspective • Applied to overall company maintenance strategies with SMM • Modern effective maintenance management program requires a multi- 15 disciplinary approach (strategic approach to maintenance)
  16. 16. Summary Pervasive Presence of Machines: • Indicates our reliance on machines ease some of tedious burdens • Expected system degradations and failures Developed Several Methods: • Systematical approach these imperfections. • Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) involves a logical approach to preventive maintenance (RCM). • Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) involves each employee in the continuous improvement process. • Strategic Maintenance Management (SMM) involves top-level management incorporate maintenance in the company’s strategic planning by supporting a methodology. Multi-Disciplinary Approach: • Incorporates RCM, TPM, and SMM in a maintenance program • Capable of improving the overall effectiveness of the company  Reduces operational and maintenance cost as well as improve productivity  Strive to minimize failures and save lives 16
  17. 17. ReferencesAmerican Psychological Association. (2001). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC.: American Psychological Association.Ben-Daya, Mohammed. (2000). You may need RCM to enhance TPM implementation. Journal of Quality in Maintenance, 6, 2, 82-85.Cobb, T. W. (2005). Aircraft Maintenance Management (2nd ed.). Florida: Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityKennedy, R. (1996). Examining the process of RCM and TPM: What do they ultimately achieve and are the two approaches compatible? [Electronic Version]. Retrieved December, 3 2009 from The Centre of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)-Australasia.Kinnison, H. A. (2004). Aviation Maintenance Management. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.Lahiri, R.N., Sinha, A. Chowdhury, S., Chowdhury, S.P., Crossley, P.A. (2008). Importance of strategic maintenance management for Indian utility industry [Electronic Version]. Retrieved December, 3 2009 from IEEE Xplore.Matteson, T.D., & Nowlan, F.S. (1967). Current trends in airline maintenance programs. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 67-379. 17
  18. 18. ReferencesMurthy, D.N.P., Atrens, A., Eccleston, J.A. (2002). Strategic maintenance management. Journal of Quality in Maintenance, 8, 4, 287-305.Nowlan, F.S. (1978). Preventive maintenance- past, present, and future. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 78-1529.Perotti, G. (n.d). Maintenance integrated system: The right recipe of TPM and RCM [Electronic Version]. Retrieved December, 3 2009 from http: // www.terosonline.itReyes-Picknell, J. (2006). RCM vs. TPM: Which is best? [Electronic Version]. Retrieved December, 3 2009 from http://uptimethebook.blogspot.com/2006/07/rcm-vs-tpm-which- works-best.html 18
  19. 19. Any Questions? 19

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