There are however advantages to the term sustainable devleop
Whats missing from this model is the relationship that exists between these variables. And it is these relationships that are all important. What is also missing from he matrix interpretation is the idea of power and influence and a questioning of the influences of social norms
1.Sustainability science and inter- disciplinarity 2. Education for sustainable development
1. Discuss the similarities and differences between sustainability science and science for sustainable development? 2.What is the difference between education about sustainable development and education for sustainable development. How does this difference impact on the way education is delivered and received?
Question 1: Discuss the similarities and differences between sustainability science and science for sustainable development? Todays talk is just the tip of the iceberg- An introduction to the main themes Tomorrows seminar opportunity for questions and clarification Make sure you look at the recommended reading
1. Sustainable Development- the pro‟s and cons2. Wicked Problems- a new kind of interaction3. Disciplines and inter disciplinarily4. Sustainability Science- An orchestration of the science
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland 1987-Our Common Future ) Development? Needs? Compromise?
Oxymoron- Contradiction in terms Fuzzy concept –means all things to all people no real world relevance, ineffective for policy development Worse still - A means for continuing legitimisation of global strategies of development which will continue the hegemony of the northern industrialised countries
Acceptance- of the unsustainable nature current developmental pathways Focal Point- A concept that disparate organisations and institutions can come together around and try to look for solutions Orchestration of the sciences – Promotes inter- disciplinarity –New world views that reflect real world problems
Why are todays problems different from previous centuries or even decades problemClimate Change Complex Uncertain Ambiguous Non –linear
The very nature of these problems causes challenges traditional disciplines As Jeffrey Sachs recognises „The problems just refuse to arrive in the neat categories of academic departments‟ Sachs, J. (2008) Common Wealth, Economics for a Crowded Planet
Structuring modes of academic practiceCommunities of scholars who: Specialize in some aspects of knowledge; Share interests, concepts, methods and ways of knowing the world Share a particular way of thinking about the nature of reality and knowledge
Thought domains, consisting of problems, theories and methods of investigationSurveyInterviewTelescopeHaldron Collodor
Mono-disciplinarity Research using one discipline aloneUni-directional disciplinarity Research driven largely by one disciplineMultidisciplinarity Involvement of multiple disciplines but with little or no integration of knowledge. CompetitionInterdisciplinarity Several disciplines working together to produce knowledge greater than the sum of the whole. CooperationTransdisciplinarity Integrated knowledge across several disciplines that leads to new knowledge paradigms within the disciplines themselves as well as research results
Hinders communication Leads to incomplete view of reality Methodology determines problems Methodologies driven the discipline. (closed cycle)
Avoids partial framing of a problem Socially contextualises environmental and technological constraints and opportunities Provides holistic solutions Enhances potential for stakeholder interactions and a more „sustainable‟ knowledge approach (participation, methods, monitoring and analysis of the social side of process)
4. Sustainability Sciencean orchestration of the sciences
Sustainability Goals Social Environmental Systems systemsSustainability Science
Is it a science which seeks to maintain the scale of human society within physically defined carrying capacity of planet? ◦ Interdisciplinary endeavor: ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, etc. plus policy sciences ◦ Transdisciplinary endeavor: ethics, philosophy, psychology, economics, cultural values, etc.
Multiple issues have to be consideredApossible approach is the following matrix
Meeting Human Needs for… while Preserving Life Support Systems of…
The QuestionSustainability science or science for sustainable development?
What‟s missing from thematrix model? Relationship Context Difficult to incorporate wicked problems
• Uncertainty, complexity and ignorance• Values matter• Decisions are urgent• Stakes are high
Introduced by Gregory Batesman 1958 – A Science that as yet has no satisfactory name Sustainable Development has provided the language Post-normal science is a term that is used by Jerrome Ravetz and others to describe, complex value laden, socially engaged science Post-normal science to precautionary science
A system is a perceived as a whole whose elements are interconnected Systems thinking has developed a substantial body of knowledge drawn from a number of areas of study including: Cybernetics, ecology and complexity theory Emphasises the positive and the negative interactions within a system.
The use of pesticides on crops is one example of how a solution to one problem has created greater problems. While trying to combat a pest or disease to improve food production, pesticides in many cases have disrupted ecosystems, some of which indirectly support the crop being grown and have had adverse health effects on people from pesticide residues on food crops
TRADITIONAL SCIENCE SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Mechanistic Evolutionary Curiosity-driven Problem-driven; problem-solving Value free Value inclusive Divide and conquer Integrate and be open No direct policy user Potential users included Reduce and eliminate the rest Systemic, complex system Expert / corporate dominated Extended peer-reviewed Profit /prestige seeking Socially relevant Linear evolution of Non-linear evolution of knowled knowledge Place-based analysis Product focused Process focused, capacity buildin (paper, patent, …)
Integrate stakeholder into every aspect of the problem ◦ Framing the problem ◦ Local knowledge ◦ Stakeholder values Also need to work with unbiased „stakeholders‟, those who care about the problem but are not directly affected by it.
Normative questions ◦ valuing, evaluating, measuring Analytic questions ◦ causes, consequences, control Operational questions ◦ models, methods and data Strategic questions ◦ engaging real world problems
Sustainability science confronts new problems, demands new approaches from academia Move away from study of disciplines and towards study of problems Values matter: we need to integrate “non-expert” opinion Sustainability science needs to be action-oriented Moving in the right direction, but a long ways to go
What are the values shaping interactions between human development and the natural environment? How, and with what consequences for sustainability, do these vary across space, time, and social groups? How should we evaluate progress toward sustainability in ways that fully account for the dependence of human well-being on the natural environment? (eg. „Green GDP‟) What should be the human use of the earth?
Driving forces (long term, large scale) ◦ What are the principal shapers of the “longue duree” relations between humans and the environment? ◦ What are the origins of fundamental “transitions” in those long term trends (beyond the demographic)? ◦ How, and with what implications for sustainability, are spatial relationships of production and consumption changing under the impetus of globalization? Impacts / consequences ◦ How can we build a rigorous understanding of “limits,” carrying capacities, tipping points in H-E systems? ◦ What determines the vulnerability and resilience of couple H-E systems to multiple stresses? ◦ How do humans adapt to environmental change?
Borne, G., (2010) A Framework for Global Sustainable Development and effective Governance of Risk, New York, Edwin Mellen Press Kates, et al. (2001). „Sustainability Science‟. Science, 292:641-2. Clark, W., et. Al. (2005) Science for global sustainability towards a new paradigm, Cambridge, Harvard University Press Jager, J., (2009) The Governance of Science for Sustainability, In Adger & Jordon, Governing Sustainability, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press