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Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Agenda
5
 Contributing Factors
 Risk Awareness
 Rem...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
6
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 N...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Moral Luck
7
Moral Luck
http://www.iep.utm.edu/morallu...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
8
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 N...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Moral Hazard
9
What is moral hazard? By Andrew Beattie...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
10
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 ...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Normalization of Deviance
11
Bedford and the Normaliza...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
12
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 ...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Willful Blindness
13
Willful Blindness
https://www.nac...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
14
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 ...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Hubris
15
Hubris
http://literarydevices.net/hubris/
"....
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributing Factors
16
 Moral Luck
 Moral Hazard
 ...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Disengagement/Disenchantment
17
Employee Disengagement...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #1
20
$4.5M office supply scheme inside Las Vegas...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #2
21
Target settles for $39 million over data br...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #3
22
The Trusted Grown-Ups Who Steal Millions Fr...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #4
23
Retail Shrinkage
Study: Shrink costs U.S. r...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #5
24
Stolen Proprietary Software
Car thefts – Tw...
Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Case #6
25
Famous cybercrime groups and hacktivists “b...
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Insider threat contributing factors and some case studies

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I used these contributing factors and case studies as part of my Quest webinar "How you protect your valuable data from the insider threat". The significance of the human factor in (in)security.

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Insider threat contributing factors and some case studies

  1. 1. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Agenda 5  Contributing Factors  Risk Awareness  Remediations/Access Controls  Useful Links
  2. 2. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 6  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  3. 3. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Moral Luck 7 Moral Luck http://www.iep.utm.edu/moralluc/ "... A case of moral luck occurs whenever luck makes a moral difference. The problem of moral luck arises from a clash between the apparently widely held intuition that cases of moral luck should not occur with the fact that it is arguably impossible to prevent such cases from arising."
  4. 4. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 8  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  5. 5. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Moral Hazard 9 What is moral hazard? By Andrew Beattie http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/09/moral-hazard.asp "... The idea of a corporation being too big or too important to fail also represents a moral hazard. If the public and the management of a corporation believe that the company will receive a financial bailout to keep it going, then the management may take more risks in pursuit of profits. Government safety nets create moral hazards that lead to more risk taking, and the fallout from markets with unreasonable risks - meltdowns, crashes, and panics - reinforces the need for more government controls. Consequently, the government feels the need to strengthen these nets through regulations and controls that increase the moral hazard in the future."
  6. 6. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 10  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  7. 7. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Normalization of Deviance 11 Bedford and the Normalization of Deviance by Ron Rapp on December 20, 2015 http://www.rapp.org/archives/2015/12/normalization-of-deviance/ "... Social normalization of deviance means that people within the organization become so much accustomed to a deviant behavior that they don’t consider it as deviant, despite the fact that they far exceed their own rules for the elementary safety. People grow more accustomed to the deviant behavior the more it occurs. To people outside of the organization, the activities seem deviant; however, people within the organization do not recognize the deviance because it is seen as a normal occurrence. In hindsight, people within the organization realize that their seemingly normal behavior was deviant."
  8. 8. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 12  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  9. 9. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Willful Blindness 13 Willful Blindness https://www.nacdl.org/criminaldefense.aspx?id=21211 "... Willful blindness, also known as conscious avoidance, is a judicially-made doctrine that expands the definition of knowledge to include closing one's eyes to the high probability a fact exists. While the doctrine originated in the context of drug trafficking cases, it has since been expanded to a wide array of prosecutions and is increasingly used in the white collar cases. Consistently benefiting the prosecution, a request to instruct the jury on willful blindness usually comes on the heels of weak evidence of knowledge, without any advance warning to the defense, and invites the jury to convict based on evidence of mere negligence or recklessness."
  10. 10. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 14  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  11. 11. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Hubris 15 Hubris http://literarydevices.net/hubris/ "... Hubris is a typical flaw in the personality of a character who enjoys a powerful position; as a result of which, he overestimates his capabilities to such an extent that he loses contact with reality. A character suffering from Hubris tries to cross normal human limits and violates moral codes. Examples of Hubris are found in major characters of tragic plays."
  12. 12. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Contributing Factors 16  Moral Luck  Moral Hazard  Normalization of Deviance  Willful Blindness  Hubris  Disengagement/Disenchantment
  13. 13. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Disengagement/Disenchantment 17 Employee Disengagement Underlies Saga of Sabotage http://inbusinessmag.com/in-business/employee-disengagement-underlies-saga-sabotage "... Most insider threats are made, not born. Employees do not often join the world of work with overt intentions to steal from, damage or sabotage their organization. Instead, they are jaded after a sequence of disenchanting events, leaving them cynical, angry, and driven to balance the scales. Disenchantment is not a solitary existence, but instead clusters around ineffective and damaging management practice. Managers account for nearly 70 percent of the reasons an employee is disenchanted. Organizations are often unaware of how their culture increases their vulnerability to the insider threat."
  14. 14. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #1 20 $4.5M office supply scheme inside Las Vegas water district draws FBI inquiry http://www.reviewjournal.com/news/las-vegas/45m-office-supply-scheme-inside-las- vegas-water-district-draws-fbi-inquiry ... The scheme, which unfolded over three years, involved an employee in the district’s purchasing division who fraudulently ordered office supplies through the water utility’s vendor, then sold the items to a company in New Jersey and kept the money.
  15. 15. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #2 21 Target settles for $39 million over data breach http://money.cnn.com/2015/12/02/news/companies/target-data-breach-settlement/ Target agreed to a $39 million settlement with several U.S. banks on Wednesday over a data breach that affected roughly 40 million customers. The banks lost millions when they were forced to reimburse customers who lost money in the massive 2013 hack of Target's database.
  16. 16. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #3 22 The Trusted Grown-Ups Who Steal Millions From Youth Sports http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/10/sports/youth-sports-embezzlement-by- adults.html Prosecutors in several states say embezzlement investigations involving youth sports have become common. ... Across the country, people who volunteered as treasurers and other officers for Little Leagues and sports clubs have been prosecuted for pilfering gobs of money from the coffers: $220,000 in Washington, $431,000 in Minnesota, $560,000 in New Jersey, and so on, according to law enforcement authorities, league officials, experts on nonprofit organizations and news reports.
  17. 17. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #4 23 Retail Shrinkage Study: Shrink costs U.S. retailers $42 billion; employee theft tops shoplifting http://www.chainstoreage.com/article/study-shrink-costs-us-retailers-42-billion-employee-theft-tops-shoplifting "... While shoplifting is the biggest cause of all retail shrink in 16 of the 24 countries surveyed, in the United States, employee theft ranked first at 42.9%, with shoplifting next at 37.4%" Self-Service Checkouts Can Turn Customers Into Shoplifters, Study Says http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/11/business/self-service-checkouts-can-turn-customers-into-shoplifters-study-says.html?_r=0 "... The scanning technology, which grew in popularity about 10 years ago, relies largely on the honor system. Instead of having a cashier ring up and bag a purchase, the shopper is solely responsible for completing the transaction. That absence of human intervention, however, reduces the perception of risk and could make shoplifting more common, the report said."
  18. 18. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #5 24 Stolen Proprietary Software Car thefts – Two men used a pirated software running on a Laptop to steal more than 100 cars http://securityaffairs.co/wordpress/50070/cyber-crime/car-theft-laptop.html "... Fiat Chrysler and the authorities are investigating the case, in particular, it is important to understand if the crooks got access to a computerized database of codes used by dealers, and how. Data in the database are used by auto repair shops to replace lost key fobs."
  19. 19. Copyright © 2016 Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Case #6 25 Famous cybercrime groups and hacktivists “brands” may be a smokescreen to cover sophisticated insider attacks. http://www.csoonline.com/article/3107987/hacktivism/fake-attack-by-insider-tries-to-fool-company.html "... One of the company’s web portals was lightly defaced (using its admin panel functionality) with insulting slogans, criticizing the company for globalization. A few moments later, attackers also erased all website content they had access to, including HTTP logs on the breached web server. A first internal notification about the incident came from a web administrator working at the company for 15 years. It also contained a link to zone-h defacement mirror saying that hacktivists compromised and probably backdoored the server, urging server re-installation from scratch. As the attackers were known, he recommended skipping the formal investigation process in order to reduce the downtime of the server. His management gave a green light to move forward without proper system mirroring for further forensics investigation."

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