Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
… complete theories do not fall from Heaven, and you
would have had still greater reason to be distrustful, had
any one of...
Time spent with cats is never
wasted.
Sigmund Freud
2FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
FOAR701: Research paradigms (2016)
Psychoanalytic & psychodynamic
perspectives: overview
3
Greg Downey
Department of Anthr...
First assessment
• Overwrite and heavily edit.
• Be merciless with your prose.
• This exercise is close analysis
of a text...
Sigmund Freud, the
‘talking cure’
Psychoanalysis as
dynamic and emerging
FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 5
Psychic determinism
Nothing in nature happens by
accident.
Nothing psychologically happens
by accident.
6FACULTY OF ARTS |...
You have already noticed that the
psychoanalyst is distinguished by an especially
strong belief in the determination of th...
Unconscious
Apparently inexplicable acts or
thoughts have hidden motivation.
Variously understood: trauma, wish
fulfilment...
Developmentalist
Child born with powerful drives
(infantile sexuality) and no sense
of limits (‘Oceanic’ experience).
The ...
Drive theory
Eros (libido, pleasure drive, fixates
in a fairly predictable way as
person matures).
Thanatos (‘death drive’...
Key points of
Freud’s early theory
• From Breuer, symptom is connected
to the traumatic origin of the
condition
• Symptoms...
Repression
‘Unconscious’ is actively removed
from ‘consciousness.’
Nevertheless, what is unconscious
finds ways of introje...
Paradigm: Analytical method
Inkblot test: Swiss
psychologist Hermann
Rorschach
13FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
Dream as via regia to
unconsciousness
Masked wish fulfilment
14FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
Topographical model
of mind
(conscious,
preconscious,
unconscious)
Structural model of
mind
(id, ego, superego;
‘it,’ ‘I,’...
Freudian theory of symptom (symbol)
• Connection of symptom to the
original trauma.
• Resistance creates the symbol to
mas...
Freudian theory of society
• During development, individual
faces a punishing society.
• Ego must continually negotiate
be...
We do not derive the psychic fission from a
congenital lack of capacity on the part of the mental
apparatus to synthesize ...
Key components of psychodynamic theory
• Strongly individualist foundation for analysis (but not necessarily).
• Individua...
Contrast of psychodynamic theory
• Epistemology: Deep suspicion of ability to easily know reality,
including our own psych...
Strengths of psychoanalytic paradigm
• Complex model of human subject, including how biography
transformed into psychology...
Prominent strains of psychoanalytic thought
• Ego psychology: Anna Freud (mother-child relations), Heinz Hartmann: ego wor...
psychoanalysis
today
• psychology is probably one of
the few departments where you
would be hard-pressed to find it
taught...
Criticism of psychoanalysis/psychodynamism
• Freud specifically criticised for focus on unresolved sexual
conflicts, misog...
Criticism of psychoanalysis/psychodynamism
• Quality of therapy depended heavily on therapist rather than
on ‘science.’
• ...
Thanks for your
attention!
Bibliography online at iLearn
Photos public domain at Pixabay
or as indicated.
FACULTY OF ARTS ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

FOAR 701: Psychoanalytic paradigm overview

Overview part of the lecture on psychoanalytic theory with a focus on Freud from FOAR 701: 'Research Paradigms' at Macquarie University.

  • Login to see the comments

  • Be the first to like this

FOAR 701: Psychoanalytic paradigm overview

  1. 1. … complete theories do not fall from Heaven, and you would have had still greater reason to be distrustful, had any one offered you at the beginning of his observations a well-rounded theory, without any gaps; such a theory could only be the child of his speculations and not the fruit of an unprejudiced investigation of the facts. Sigmund Freud 1FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  2. 2. Time spent with cats is never wasted. Sigmund Freud 2FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  3. 3. FOAR701: Research paradigms (2016) Psychoanalytic & psychodynamic perspectives: overview 3 Greg Downey Department of Anthropology Faculty of Arts Macquarie University greg.downey@mq.edu.au Twitter: @gregdowney1
  4. 4. First assessment • Overwrite and heavily edit. • Be merciless with your prose. • This exercise is close analysis of a text – do not be vague, but show in the text. • You don’t have to answer every question, but: Why choose these paradigms? How successful? How does the combination work? What issues are being finessed or ignored? 4FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  5. 5. Sigmund Freud, the ‘talking cure’ Psychoanalysis as dynamic and emerging FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 5
  6. 6. Psychic determinism Nothing in nature happens by accident. Nothing psychologically happens by accident. 6FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  7. 7. You have already noticed that the psychoanalyst is distinguished by an especially strong belief in the determination of the psychic life. For him there is in the expressions of the psyche nothing trifling, nothing arbitrary and lawless, he expects everywhere a widespread motivation, where customarily such claims are not made; more than that, he is even prepared to find a manifold motivation of these psychic expressions, while our supposedly inborn causal need is satisfied with a single psychic cause. Sigmund Freud (1910: 204-205) 7FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  8. 8. Unconscious Apparently inexplicable acts or thoughts have hidden motivation. Variously understood: trauma, wish fulfilment, drive that cannot be acknowledged… 8FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  9. 9. Developmentalist Child born with powerful drives (infantile sexuality) and no sense of limits (‘Oceanic’ experience). The Self or ‘Ego’ trapped between the desires ‘Id’ and reality outside it. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  10. 10. Drive theory Eros (libido, pleasure drive, fixates in a fairly predictable way as person matures). Thanatos (‘death drive’ - later addition: drive for order, stability, preventing change) 10FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  11. 11. Key points of Freud’s early theory • From Breuer, symptom is connected to the traumatic origin of the condition • Symptoms are condensation of history; force of the disorder is the unexpressed emotion. • Therapy involves bringing unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness with support to resolve. • Role of early development in the shaping of individual psyche. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR70111
  12. 12. Repression ‘Unconscious’ is actively removed from ‘consciousness.’ Nevertheless, what is unconscious finds ways of introjecting into consciousness (determination). 12FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  13. 13. Paradigm: Analytical method Inkblot test: Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach 13FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  14. 14. Dream as via regia to unconsciousness Masked wish fulfilment 14FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  15. 15. Topographical model of mind (conscious, preconscious, unconscious) Structural model of mind (id, ego, superego; ‘it,’ ‘I,’ ‘Over-I.’) 15FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  16. 16. Freudian theory of symptom (symbol) • Connection of symptom to the original trauma. • Resistance creates the symbol to mask. • Degree of resistance leads to greater ‘disguise’ of original idea. • Utterly individualist theory of symbolic meaning. • ‘Hermeneutics of suspicion’ (Paul Ricoeur on Freud, Marx & Nietzsche). 16FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  17. 17. Freudian theory of society • During development, individual faces a punishing society. • Ego must continually negotiate between excitation & energy and the demands of world. • Conflict between individual and social repression. • Societies may not be equally difficult to negotiate. • e.g. Oedipal complex in matrilineal society. 17FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  18. 18. We do not derive the psychic fission from a congenital lack of capacity on the part of the mental apparatus to synthesize its experiences, but we explain it dynamically by the conflict of opposing mental forces, we recognize in it the result of an active striving of each mental complex against the other. Sigmund Freud (1910: 194) 18FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  19. 19. Key components of psychodynamic theory • Strongly individualist foundation for analysis (but not necessarily). • Individual-level formative dramas crucial, with focus on conflict. • Narrative inquiry (use of psychoanalysis as a method). • ‘Psychologism’: societies & institutions elaborate core psychological dramas or cause entrenched intra-subjective conflict. • Emphasis on emotion, memory and mechanisms for resolving discomfort or self erosion. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 19
  20. 20. Contrast of psychodynamic theory • Epistemology: Deep suspicion of ability to easily know reality, including our own psychic realities (psychoanalysis as arduous process). Each individual is distinctive, so knowing mental worlds requires careful attention to specifics. • Ontology: Internal reality is determinant & mental forces are considered very real. • Methodology: Practitioners disagree, but many use a hermeneutic or interpretive approach, including on non-obvious forms of disclosure. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 20
  21. 21. Strengths of psychoanalytic paradigm • Complex model of human subject, including how biography transformed into psychology… • Unconscious, although not explained in the way Freud did, recognised to be a crucial quality for much cognitive activity. (Some support for possibility of unconscious emotional ‘processing’.) • Individualist, but not a reduced ‘rational actor’ or cognitive individual • Talking therapies have been shown effective and may not have the same side effects as more pharmaceutical approaches. More effective with some disorders than others (PTSD, personality disorders, anorexia; but not with schizophrenia). • Psychoanalysis has become cultural common sense in many ways.FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 21
  22. 22. Prominent strains of psychoanalytic thought • Ego psychology: Anna Freud (mother-child relations), Heinz Hartmann: ego works to defend itself & contain the id, successfully adapts and develops ‘conflict free’ zone. • Interpersonal and relational psychoanalysis: Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Henry Stack Sullivan, Erik Erikson, Otto Rank (many ‘neo-Freudians’): focus more on relationships, interactional more than intra-psychic, rejected strong focus on instinctual drives. • Individual psychology: Alfred Adler (social relations, inferiority complex). • Object relations theory: Melanie Klein (focus on mother), Otto Rank, D.W. Winnicott: close relation to mother & drive to acquire objects. • Analytical or ‘Jungian’ psychology: Carl Jung, quest for personal wholeness (individuation) & shared symbols (archetypes). • Lacanian analysis: Jacques Lacan, focus on language, self objectification (mirror stage, gap between image & experience), radical alterity (Other, aspects of self that cannot be assimilated). • Feminist psychoanalysis: Karen Horney (very early), Luce Irigaray, Julia Kristeva (attack on Lacan’s phallocentrism), Simone de Beauvoir, Elisabeth Grosz. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 22
  23. 23. psychoanalysis today • psychology is probably one of the few departments where you would be hard-pressed to find it taught. • anthropology, cultural studies, gender studies, history, literature. • psychoanalysis – therapy, paradigm and research method. • Pervasive influence on Western popular culture. 23FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701
  24. 24. Criticism of psychoanalysis/psychodynamism • Freud specifically criticised for focus on unresolved sexual conflicts, misogyny (but his writing on femininity make it clear he does not naturalise femininity). • Unfalsifiable interpretive exercise (Karl Popper: ‘pseudoscience’). • Mentalist and contemporary psychiatry striving to be bio- neurological (William Wundt). • Freud mis-diagnosed patients, ignored physiological explanations and missed what modern day clinicians see as easy to diagnose issues. • Socially naive in blaming children for what were the effects of childhood trauma. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 24
  25. 25. Criticism of psychoanalysis/psychodynamism • Quality of therapy depended heavily on therapist rather than on ‘science.’ • Problem with cross-cultural validity. • Psychoanalysis as a discipline became a centre of power & replicated confessional practice (Foucault, Deleuze) • Strongly normalising in approach to sexual and developmental difference. • Interpretations of other cultures have been, well, appalling: Primitivist, simplistic, preposterous (Totem and Taboo, Moses and Monotheism, Civilisation and Its Discontents held up better). FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 25
  26. 26. Thanks for your attention! Bibliography online at iLearn Photos public domain at Pixabay or as indicated. FACULTY OF ARTS | FOAR701 26

×