The Collapse of the Axis Powers


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World War II is now winding down. This presentation covers the battles that led to the fall of the axis powers as a threat to the world, including the battles of El Alamein, D-Day, and Market Garden.

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The Collapse of the Axis Powers

  1. 1. El Alamein D-Day Market Garden
  2. 2.    Italian army fighting British forces for control of the continent North Africa very important because of how close it is to Europe, and the port cities it includes Italian troops are struggling, so a German panzer force is sent to support them
  3. 3.     Nicknamed “The Desert Fox” Superb commander Thought to be unbeatable Fought for Germany, not for Hitler or the Nazis
  4. 4.    Rommel makes an advance toward the port city of Alexandria, Egypt and he is stopped by British forces led by Claude Auchinleck after a month of fighting Churchill demands Auchinleck immediately pursue Rommel after the battle, but he does not Replaced by Bernard Montgomery
  5. 5.    With Montgomery in command, he attacks Rommel, penetrates his front line, and forces him on a 2,000 mile retreat across Egypt For the first time, Rommel is no longer seen as invincible Strategic losses:   Germans are no longer a threat in Egypt or in control of its ports and coastline Major error: failure to capture the Island of Malta in the Mediterranean Sea
  6. 6. The Allied Invasion of Normandy (Enter Jacob, Daniel, Scotty)
  7. 7.       Major French ports are nearby Within range of fighter plane cover from England There are exits above the beaches Strong tides and winds Home ports are nearby in Southern England, across the English Channel Enemy strength is not along the beaches, but in a nearby town of Pas-de-Calais
  8. 8.  Weather Report (June 4)     Near perfect weather turns stormy Causes commander Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower to delay the attack…again Meteorologist J.M Stagg predicts a break in the weather on June 6 Eisenhower and Montgomery agree that they must call for the attack
  9. 9.     Not thinking the allies would attack, the German Air Force (Wehrmacht) stands down Top generals leave Normandy for map exercises in Rennes on June 5 Rommel leaves to visit his wife on her birthday on the morning of June 6 Reserve Panzer Division not called into action  The only way they could be moved out of reserve was by direct order of Hitler…who was taking a nap at the time and did not want to be disturbed
  10. 10.    Allies: 156,000 Axis: 10,000 Note: this is a strategic operation, NOT a battle. The object was not to kill as many enemies as they could, but to push the Germans off the beach and inland
  11. 11.    Before the beach invasion could begin, men needed to be dropped behind enemy lines Some parachuted in while others flew in on gliders, which were light-weight planes with no engines/gasoline that crashed intentionally near their targets to drop off the soldiers The gliders reached their intended targets while the paratroopers missed on several occasions  Disaster at Ste-Mere-Eglise
  12. 12.    Codenamed: Utah, Sword, Juno and Gold There was also Point-du-Hoc which was a Cliffside that jutted out onto the beach, which soldiers had to climb while getting shot at Many casualties were sustained, as the Germans had machine guns set up and shot at the soldiers as they ran across the beach
  13. 13.   Allies suffered more casualties (12,000) than the Germans (9,000) but they forced them from the beaches and were able to take over their command centers It was the largest invasion in modern military history until…
  14. 14. The Allied Invasion of the Netherlands Market: Air troops Garden: Ground troops So, Market Garden = an attack by AIR and LAND
  15. 15.   Invasion of the Netherlands Was an attempt by the Allies to “end the war by Christmas” of 1944     Invasion occurred in September Commanded by British Generals Montgomery and Frederick Browning, with help from Polish General Stanislaw Sosabowski Combined 46,000 American and British troops (paratroopers and gliders) against a still unknown amount of Germans Small amounts of Polish and Dutch troops went in for support
  16. 16.  Goal: To capture and hold three very important Dutch bridges in the towns of Eindhoven, Nimwegen, and Arnhem (“the prize”)  Punch a hole 64 miles deep behind German lines  While units were defending these bridges, an attack force led by Col. Joe Vandeleur was to travel up the only road and relieve each unit of their bridge  No one was expecting any resistance 
  17. 17.  Doomed from the start   The Operation would have a very ironic beginning Everything went wrong…even the radios
  18. 18.     Complete disaster due to many different reasons The Arnhem unit which had 8,000 men suffered nearly 2,000 killed while the rest were captured British recon planes had taken pictures BEFORE the Operation, and saw tanks and soldiers, but Browning would not swallow his pride and call it off, saying the pictures were not evidence enough Casualties Allies: 17,200  German: 6,000 (estimated) 