Nazi Germany: 1933-1939


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This presentation details the atmosphere of pre-WWII Nazi Germany, with some of the events to occur, laws enacted, and organizations aimed at the youth of the country.

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Nazi Germany: 1933-1939

  1. 1. NAZI GERMANY (1933-1939)
  2. 2. Hitler appointed Chancellor  In 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Hindenburg due to his popularity  This is known as the Nazi’s “Seizure of Power”  The Nazi Party was taking control of the government through delegates  Single Party Dictatorship
  3. 3. Reichstag Fire (1933)  German government building set on fire by the Nazi’s, so they could blame the Communists  Hitler’s chance to use the moment to attack communists
  4. 4. 1934  Act to Rebuild the Reich  Gave Hitler total power to save Germany  Government became centralized with Hitler  Local governments of small towns eliminated  Government appointed mayors of larger towns
  5. 5. Total Power (1934)  “The Night of the Long Knives”  Hitler and the Nazi Party’s plot to murder those who were suspected of being against them  S.A leader Ernst Rohm killed, as well as Gregor Strasser (who replaced Hitler while in prison), former German Chancellor Kurt von Schleicher, and the man who suppressed the Beer Hall Putsch, Gustav Ritter von Kahr.
  6. 6. Rohm’s Murder  He was captured and held in a prison while Hitler decided what to do with him  Upon deciding that he had to die, he made S.S officer Michael Lippert visit him and give him a gun, ordering him to kill himself or they would do it for him  "If I am to be killed, let Adolf do it himself.“  He refused, and Lippert shot him point-blank
  7. 7. Continued…  During the one night, 85 people were murdered and more than a thousand were arrested  All of this was secretly carried out by the S.S and newly formed Gestapo, which was the Nazi’s secret police  The Nazi’s were now getting close to total, absolute power, and the S.S became one of the most feared organizations in Europe
  8. 8. Nuremberg Laws (1935)  Created at the annual Nuremberg Rallies  A series of anti-Semitic laws to make life unbearable for the Jewish people  Followed an already-in-progress national boycott of Jewish businesses  Took away German citizenship of Jews  Eugenics
  9. 9. What the Laws Stated:  1) “Marriages between Jews and citizens of German or kindred blood are forbidden. Marriages concluded in defiance of this law are void, even if, for the purpose of evading this law, they were concluded abroad.”  2)“Proceedings for annulment may be initiated only by the Public Prosecutor.”  3) “Relationships between Jews and Germans are not allowed”  Known as “Blutschande”
  10. 10. Continued…  4) “Jews will not be permitted to employ female citizens under the age of 45, of German or kindred blood, as domestic workers.”  5) “Jews are forbidden to display the Reich and national flag or the national colors.”  6) “On the other hand they are permitted to display the Jewish colors. The exercise of this right is protected by the State.”
  11. 11. Continued…  Children were taught this in schools, and made to memorize poems that talked about why German and Jewish blood should not mix: “Keep your blood pure, it is not yours alone, it comes from far away, it flows into the distance laden with thousands of ancestors, and it holds the entire future! It is your eternal life.”
  12. 12. Hitler Youth  For male youths aged 14-18 (think of this as a Nazi version of the Boy Scouts)  Purpose was to induct its members into the S.S when they turned 18  They would train and learn to fight, and above all, learn obedience to their leader, Adolf Hitler  Motto was “Blut und Ehre” or “Blood and Honor”
  13. 13. Continued…  This was key to the future of Germany, because children were involved from a very young age  There was even a branch of the organization for girls, called “The League of German Girls”
  14. 14. Moving Towards War  Hitler begins to move away from the Versailles Treaty and towards war, by rearming Germany and building up the military  Goal was to increase Lebensraum, and expand the Third Reich into a superpower  Lebensraum: Living Space
  15. 15. 1938  German army moves into a part of Austria, known as the Anschluss, where Hitler would annex (or bring in) Austria to become a part of Germany  Occupies the Sudetenland, which is a part of Czechoslovakia
  16. 16. Agreements in 1939  Pact of Steel with Italy  Enables either country to come to the aid of each other if attacked or in a war  Russo-German Non-Aggression Pact  Russia allows Germany to invade Poland, promising not to attack  Permits Russia to occupy eastern Poland and the Baltic Sea, creating a buffer zone between Russia and Germany
  17. 17. Next week… WAR!