Heat pump presentation


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RenEnergy presentation on heat pumps at Petersfield Renewable Energy Day 8 October 2011

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Heat pump presentation

  1. 1. Heat Pumps and the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) By Graham Johnson
  2. 2. 27% of UK CO 2 emissions come from domestic heating, lighting & appliances
  3. 3. How does a heat pump work??
  4. 4. Heat Pumps <ul><li>Defined by where the low grade heat is sourced from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ground (8 o C to 12 o C)... source heat pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air (30 o C to -15 o C)... source heat pump </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water (4 o C-10 o C)... source heat pump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concentrates low grade heat (-15 o C to 12 o C) to provide useful heat for space heating and hot water in your home up to 55 o C </li></ul><ul><li>Contrary to popular belief heat pumps are capable of covering entire space/pool heating AND hot water loads annually if required </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is COP? <ul><li>Heat pump efficiency is measured using the parameter CoP </li></ul><ul><li>CoP = “Coefficient of Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Total energy output (KWh) </li></ul><ul><li>CoP = ------------------------------------ </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical input (KWh) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Heat Pump efficiencies <ul><li>Electric Heater – COP 1.0! </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Source – Seasonal COP’s 4.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal collector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borehole – closed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Source – Seasonal COP’s 5.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal collector eg lake, river, canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Borehole – open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Source – Seasonal COP’s 3.5 </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Design/installation considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat loss of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrofitting can be disruptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emitter requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available land and access for the ground loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existing utility supplies: 16kW largest on single phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil type (wet clay = good, dry sand = bad) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need large plant room to accommodate pump, buffer tank and pipework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also provide cooling </li></ul></ul>Ground Source Heat Pumps
  8. 8. Ground source heat pumps – typical excavation Ground collectors
  9. 9. GSHP - sources of heat from the ground Boreholes
  10. 10. Large installation: 32kW Viessmann, 200l buffer 500l DHW with LPG backup
  11. 11. Community installation: 16kW Vaillant GSHP
  12. 12. <ul><li>Design/installation considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require planning permission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require space for outdoor unit and space for plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monobloc or split </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper and easier to integrate than GSHP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temp ASHP can be integrated with existing emitter system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temp ASHP will require special tank for hot water and emitter such as UFH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work well in cities/multiple unit scenarios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and sizing KEY (a 16kW ASHP only produces 16KW when it is 7 degrees at -5 it will produce 12kW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise considerations </li></ul></ul>Air Source Heat Pumps
  13. 13. 8kW Air Source Heat Pump: Domestic application Daikin Altherma 8kW installation - Lindford
  14. 14. Twin 16kW Air Source Heat Pump: Industrial application
  15. 15. <ul><li>Underfloor Heating </li></ul><ul><li>Convention Radiators </li></ul><ul><li>Special ‘Low temperature’ radiators </li></ul>How to get heat into the building?
  16. 16. <ul><li>Example:- Existing 5 bedroom house, existing radiators, double glazed, average insulation, possibility of mains gas, daily family use. Annual energy usage = 36,000kWh </li></ul><ul><li>Oil fuel bill = £2,160 Pa (6p/kWh) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas fuel bill = £1,440 Pa (4p/kWh) </li></ul><ul><li>ASHP fuel bill = £1,340 Pa (3.7p/kWh) </li></ul><ul><li>GSHP fuel bill = £1,170 Pa (3.25p/kWh) </li></ul><ul><li>Note: No FIT benefits included only efficiency savings </li></ul>Running costs comparison
  17. 17. <ul><li>The concept of the RHI has been around since April 2010 but it was only officially announced in March 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Aim is to encourage people to switch to renewable heat source from fossil fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Many aspects still to be clarified ! </li></ul><ul><li>2 phases:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first phase began in Aug 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second phase begins in October 2012 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase one: long term tariff support targeted in the non-domestic sectors (industrial, business and public sectors). There is also support for households through the RHPP (Renewable Heat Premium Payment) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase two will see households moved to long-term tariff support. </li></ul><ul><li>See www.energysavingtrust.org.uk </li></ul>Renewable Heat Incentive
  18. 18. <ul><li>To qualify for RHI installation will have to be OFGEM accredited. Ofgem will determine whether an installation meets criteria such as acceptable heat use and metering arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Projects under 45kW will have to use MCS accredited products and MCS accredited installers </li></ul><ul><li>Owner will have obligations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide information to Ofgem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To allow inspection </li></ul></ul>Eligibility Criteria
  19. 19. Domestic Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) <ul><li>RHPP (Renewable Heat Premium Payment) vouchers available - basically a one off payment for 2011/12 until they have sorted out the level of annual RHI. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who take up RHPP will be eligible for RHI tariff from October 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>RHI will be backdated for accredited systems installed from 15 th July 2009 (but no RHPP available for these systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible technologies and tariff rates - see table </li></ul>
  20. 20. RHPP * You can only apply if you do not currently use gas as your main heating fuel Technology Voucher value Ground Source Heat Pump* £1250 Air Source Heat Pump* £850 Solar Thermal £300 Biomass* £950
  21. 21. Question Time
  22. 22. <ul><li>The following technologies are eligible </li></ul><ul><li>Ground Source/Water Source Heat Pumps </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Thermal </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass Boilers </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic digesters </li></ul><ul><li>Heat will be metered and support calculated from the amount of eligible heat multiplied by the tariff rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The tariffs will payable quarterly over a 20 year period </li></ul><ul><li>Owner of the system will have to apply to Ofgem for the RHI support. Application will be online, by post or over the phone. </li></ul>Commercial tariff – how it works
  23. 23. Commercial RHI Tariff Rates Technology S Scale S Tariff Level Ta Tariff Lifetime Small Ground Source <100kW 4.3p 20 yrs Large Ground Source 100kW 3p 20 yrs Solar Thermal Less than 200KW 8.5p 20 yrs Small Biomass Less than 200kW Tier 1 7.6p Tier 2 1.9p 20 yrs
  24. 24. Heat Pumps – The “heat pump cycle”
  25. 25. 630kW ASHP Chicken shed installation <ul><li>17,500sqm floor area </li></ul><ul><li>73km of UFH pipe </li></ul><ul><li>280,000 warm chicks </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Chris Huhne has announced that the UK will reduce Carbon emissions by 50% (from 1990 levels) by 2025. </li></ul><ul><li>One technology alone will not provide the solution. A mixture of required but heat solutions are key – look at the following graph. </li></ul>Introduction