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Green gold yearly operational report 2013

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Green gold yearly operational report 2013

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Green gold yearly operational report 2013

  1. 1. 1 Green Gold Project Yearly Operational Report (1 January – 31 December 2013) Ulaanbaatar 2013
  2. 2. 2 Green Gold Project in brief Name Green Gold Project Project Phase IV (2013-2016) Reporting period 1 January - 31 December 2013 Budget 2,833,287.25 CHF/ 5,2 billion MNT Goal Livelihoods of herders are improved and poverty is reduced in rural Mongolia. Phase IV Objective Herders – organised through collective action – manage rangeland sustainably and have better access to technological knowledge management and markets. Outcomes 1 Collective action for sustainable rangeland management: Pasture-User Groups (PUG’s) promote at the herders’ level sustainable pasture management and economic development (f/m). 2 Applied agricultural research that produces results for practitioners: Science-based understanding of range- management issues enhances the scope for sustainable range management at all levels. 3 Agricultural extension service to provide practical knowledge to the herders: The agricultural extension service delivers useful services (knowledge and services) to all herders (f/m). 4 Facilitate market access by linking yak herders to processing companies: The income of yak herders has increased. Key outputs 1 PUGs have successfully negotiated land-use contracts. 2 Institutional capacities for the interpretation and application of ecological potential-based rangeland management are developed. 3 Herders are reached via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages 4 Herders’ income increased through the improved value chain of yak wool and camel wool Geographic outreach Seven western aimags: Bayan-Ulgii, Khovd, Uvs, Gobi-Altai, Zavkhan, Bayankhongor Main beneficiaries About 100,000 herder households (500,000 individuals, of whom 45-55 percent are female). Partners MIA, NAEC, NAMEM, ALAGCG, MSUA, NUM, RIAH, aimag, soum government, Aimag Federations of Pasture-User Groups of herders, PUGs SDC Contribution 9.8 Mio CHF Government contribution 2.0 Mio CHF Herders’ contribution 0.7 Mio CHF
  3. 3. 3 Summary. In Phase IV, the Green Gold Project added two new components: An extension service for herders and marketing (yak and camel wool), and up-scaling the PUG approach to 38 new soums in four aimags: Uvs, Gobi-Altai, Arkhangai and Bayankhongor. There have also been significant changes in relation to project implementation. After seven years of being managed by a large-staffed Project Implementation Unit based in Ulaanbaatar, activities to support herders’ collective actions have been mandated to be managed and implemented by seven Aimag Federations of APUGs on the basis of cooperation agreements with aimag governors. This shift has given a big boost to APUGs and local governments in taking the lead and fostering local ownership. In the recently added soums, about 8,000 herder households (men/women/children) were reached throughout the year to create awareness about the increasing degradation of rangelands, the reasons, and methods to reduce and prevent further degradation. A total of 9,769 herder households formed 405 Pasture-User Groups (PUGs) and were given training to assess rangeland degradation and to develop rangeland-use plans as a tool to coordinate and regulate access to seasonal grazing routes and water resources, and to manage common reserve areas and haymaking fields. In Bayan-Ulgii, Khovd and Zavkhan aimags and in eight selected soums in Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Dundgobi and Tuv aimags - where Pasture-User Groups have been operating for more than 2.5 years – more and more PUGs are establishing land-use contracts with soum governors and have adopted rangeland-use plans and regulations. This has resulted in an increasing amount of degraded rangelands (or those at risk of degradation) being rested according to mutually agreed upon grazing schedules. With increasing acknowledgment of PUG rangeland-use plans and land-use contracts by local authorities, the motivation of herder households to take measures to adjust stocking rates to match rangeland carrying capacity is increasing. According to the experience of PUG and APUG leaders, measures range from reducing stocking rates during critical times of the year, intensive rotations management sending large animals to pastures at a greater distance and reserving closer pastures for small animals and investing in better-quality and higher-productivity livestock. The embedding of the Ecological Site Description methodology into PUG land-use contracts and soum annual land-management planning as a tool to monitor and enforce implementation has been successfully piloted in two soums, the results of which will be reflected in the revision of soum land use monitoring methodology by the Agency for Land Affairs, Geodesy and Cadastre (ALAGC). In cooperation with the ALAGC, Green Gold has facilitated inputs from herding communities on amendments to the new Land Law which will have a significant impact on the legal status of PUGs’ land-use contracts as the only legal document assuring their rights to their traditional rangelands. With the implementation of the government subsidy scheme on wool and leather/skin, the business scale of herders’ cooperatives has expanded. As of 2013, 30 cooperatives set up at the APUGs secured future contracts with Associations of wool processors and leather- processing companies to organize and manage the collection and delivery of sheep wool and animal skin/leather from herder households at the local level. These contracts have been the cooperatives’ major source of income. The inclusion of focused output and a budget line to support women in herding households has resulted in increased outreach to herder women in 2013. The major achievement of 2013 was, particularly in the new soums added in 2013 (38 soums), the percentage of women leaders of PUGs, soum associations and Aimag Federation steering committees significantly increased.
  4. 4. 4 Outcome 1: Pasture-User Groups (PUGs) promote at the herders’ level sustainable pasture management and economic development (f/m). Output 1.1 PUGs have successfully negotiated land-use agreements (LUAs) Output 1.2 APUGs are successfully accessing public and private funding Output 1.3 Change of marketed volume and turnover of livestock products in cooperatives Output 1.4 Women’s increased participation in the PUG system Output 1.1: PUGs have successfully negotiated land- use agreements (LUAs) One of the main results Green Gold aims for is contributing to secure land-user rights for herders. With the current Land Law, an organized group/community of herders may use public land on the basis of agreements. In the past 20 years, Mongolia has been transitioning from open access to the regulated use of rangelands. Historically, rangelands have always been open-access public property, which worked when both rangelands and livestock belonged to the state. However, with the transition to a free-market economic system under which livestock was privatized to herders while rangelands remained open access, conflicts of interest have emerged and have begun to take a toll on the quality and health of public rangelands. The interest of herder households in increasing their number of animals as a way to increase income has led to considerable degradation of rangelands through overgrazing and irresponsible land management. As a first step, the government has made amendments to Land Law reflecting the use of public rangelands on the basis of conditions stipulated in land-use contracts between herder households and local governments. However, implementation of the law has been inadequate and there has been weak local government capacity and problems reaching out to the nomadic herding community. Green Gold has facilitated the formation of PUGs and organized capacity- development activities at the community, soum and aimag level that are geared towards the regulated use of public rangelands and in order to gradually stop the degradation that threatens the livelihoods of local herding communities and national food security in the longer term. A PUG is a voluntary group of herder households sharing access to common seasonal rangelands and mutually agreed upon land use and regulations that are eventually able to develop contractual agreements with local governments. According to Green Gold experiences, having clear plans, regulations and agreements has not only improved the responsibility of both herder households and governments in relation to the sustainable management of rangeland resources, but also has become the basis to constructively plan local investments and more efficiently address challenges. In 2013, Green Gold expanded into 38 new soums covering all of Gobi-Altai and Uvs aimags (35 soums) and three new soums in Arkhangai and Bayankhongor aimags where yak and camel herding is the major source of income. In the course of a year, about 8000 herding households (men/women/children) were reached to create awareness on the increasing degradation of rangelands, the main reasons and consequences, and methods to reduce and prevent from further degradation. A total of 9,769 herder households formed 405 PUGs and were provided with training to assess rangeland degradation levels and to develop rangeland- use plans as a tool to coordinate and regulate access to common seasonal grazing routes,
  5. 5. 5 critical water points, and reserve and haymaking areas. As of November 2013, 12 PUGs - on the basis of consensus among more than 50 percent of members - adopted rangeland-use plans and regulations. A total of 4,717 herder households enrolled in the PUG “Herders’ Matching Fund”, each contributing CHF 15 (Green Gold contributes a matching amount). Overall, herders have pooled together about MNT 268,595 million in the fund. The development of the fund is an important step in building trust and team work between members. The operational management of the fund lies with elected PUG leaders and fund disbursement is decided among members. Green Gold has seen that it is mainly used to cover cash shortages in critical times, in sending kids to school, for winter preparation and for health emergencies. As herder households earn income seasonally, and only twice a year during autumn meat sales and spring cashmere and wool sales, having an opportunity to access to cash accumulated in the fund is greatly appreciated (See Table 1). Table 1: Progress of PUG formation in new soums covered from 1 May 2014 Aimags Total herder households Enrolled in PUGs Adopted rangeland- use plan Adopted rangeland- use regulations Herder households enrolled in “Herders’ Matching Fund” Total monetary value of “Herders Matching Fund” 000’MNT Gobi-Altai 5568 3666 0 0 1668 113,670.0 Uvs 8635 4218 4 4 2344 131,580.0 Arkhangai (2 soums) 1885 1885 8 8 645 21,845.0 Bayankhongor (1 soum) 633 633 0 0 60 1,500.0 Total 16 721 10402 12 12 4717 268,595.0 In Bayan-Ulgii, Khovd and Zavkhan aimags and in eight selected soums in Arkhangai, Bayankhongor, Dundgobi and Tuv aimags - where Pasture-User Groups have been operating for more than 2.5 years - Green Gold support is geared towards formalization and acceptance of PUG-based rangeland management at the bagh, soum and aimag levels: Approval of PUG rangeland-use plans at Bagh Citizens’ Meetings and Soum Citizens’ Meetings, integration into soum annual land-management planning and budgeting, the establishment of Land-User Contracts between PUGs and soum governors, and the creation of joint enforcement and monitoring mechanisms. These activities are the core of Green Gold’s capacity-development endeavors. In order to receive updates and monitor progress, Green Gold has developed indicators and (as of December 2012) created a baseline in conjunction with local partners that will be updated annually. According to the PUG-based indicators in Table 2, an increasing number of PUGs are establishing land-use contracts with soum governors and have adopted rangeland-use plans and regulations. This has resulted in an increasing amount of degraded rangelands (or those at risk of degradation) being rested according to mutually agreed upon grazing schedules. As of 2013, about 4 million hectares of autumn and summer rangelands were under regular rotation, and 6.1 million hectares of winter and spring rangelands were being rested for recovery.
  6. 6. 6 Table 2: PUG-based rangeland management of the soums Aimags Number of PUGs established LUCs with soum governor PUGs adopted rangeland-use plan and regulations Autumn and summer rangelands under regular rotational use for recovery (000‘ ha cumulative) Winter and spring rangelands under regular resting for recovery (000’ ha cumulative) 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 18 30 18 28 9,3 13,6 42,8 81,2 Bayankhongor 3 4 6 7 - - 0.1 0.3 Bayan-Ulgii 12 12 59 162 1,325.6 1,682.0 812,4 1,236.4 Gobi-Altai - - - - - - - - Zavkhan 96 125 96 125 1,573.0 1,773.1 2,659.5 2,659.7 Uvs - 2 - 4 - 2,0 - 1,0 Khovd 45 59 - 38 243.0 622.8 1,206.0 2,163.0 Total 174 230 183 464 3,141.9 4,093.5 4,720.8 6,141.6 *(-) no data available. Of the 96 soums in which Green Gold is operating, 38 have adopted PUG-based rangeland management planning and budgeting. This means PUGs’ rangeland-use plans are submitted and approved by Bagh Citizens’ Meetings and Soum Citizens’ Meetings, which renders them official legal documents on which to base soum annual land-management planning and budgeting. With increasing acknowledgment of PUG rangeland-use plans and land-use contracts by local authorities, the motivation of herder households to take measures to adjust stocking rates to match rangeland carrying capacity is increasing. According to the experience of PUG and APUG leaders, and as is reflected in monitoring data, measures range from reducing stocking rates during critical times of the year and rotating pastures to sending some members of the community with large animals to pastures at a greater distance and reserving closer pastures for those with small animals and investing in better-quality and higher- productivity livestock. Picture 1: “Shar-Gobi” PUG from Bayan-Olgy aimag, summer/autumn grazing areas recovering after 3.5 years of resting Before After
  7. 7. 7 Table 3: PUG-based soum annual land-management plan Aimags Number of soums adopted PUG- based annual soum land- management planning and budgeting (cumulative) Number of PUGs taking measures to adjust herd size to CC (cumulative) 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 0 2 2 4 Bayankhongor 3 4 0 0 Bayan-Ulgii 12 12 121 153 Gobi-Altai 0 0 0 0 Zavkhan 13 13 64 96 Uvs 0 2 1 20 Khovd 1 5 0 5 Total 29 38 188 278 Output 1.2 APUGs are successfully accessing public and private funding Previously, for the purpose of promoting PUG-based rangeland-use planning and land-use contracts, the cost for implementation was sourced from Green Gold. But with the start of Phase IV, it was negotiated with PUG/ APUGs and local governments to contribute a matching amount with Green Gold funding only made available if there was a contribution from herders and local budgets. This is also designed to foster closer cooperation between PUG/APUG leaders and local authorities. According to the data collected, as of the first year of Phase IV, overall there were significant changes in the amount of contributions from herders and governments in 2013 (see Table 4). In Arkhangai, Bayan-Ulgii and Uvs aimags, herders and local contributions increased considerably; in Zavkhan and Bayankhongor, the level has been maintained; and in Khovd there has been a decline. Table 4: Contribution from herders and local governments Aimags Percentage of herders' contributions (cash, in-kind) to implement and enforce PUG rangeland-use plan and land-use agreements Percentage of local government contributions (cash, in-kind) to implement and PUG rangeland-use plan and land-use agreement 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 0.0 13.7 0.0 49.2 Bayankhongor 23.6 23.8 54.6 50.7 Bayan-Ulgii 0.0 26.8 0.0 73.1 Gobi-Altai 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Zavkhan 2.5 1.2 79.3 91.5 Uvs 0.0 1.2 0.0 97.5 Khovd 38.5 2.7 50.3 95.1 Tables 5 and 6 show joint investment projects implemented in 2013 by PUGs/APUGs, local governments and Green Gold: Fenced haymaking areas, forage planting, well rehabilitation and improving winter/spring shelters for animals. For instance, in order to support PUGs, Aimag Federation APUGs in Gobi-Altai aimag (with financial support from Green Gold) co-financed 11 projects to rehabilitate broken and old pasture wells. This enabled the PUGs to extend rotational grazing routes by 60,000 ha. The Gobi-Altai aimag government allocated MNT 920.7 million for
  8. 8. 8 rangeland management in 2013; PUGs and APUGs from 10 soums benefited with MNT 143,100 million (15 percent of the total) in the form of cash and in-kind support to implement rangeland management-related projects. With the support of Green Gold, four Soum Associations of APUGs in Gobi-Altai built a Herders’ Information and Training Centre which will also be used by Soum APUGs and herder cooperatives. The Uvs aimag governor has been very supportive of the Green Gold initiative. Cooperation with Green Gold and PUGs/APUGs is included in annual performance contracts between aimag and soum governors as one of the criteria to measure performance. All Soum APUG leaders receive remuneration from local income tax. The Uvs aimag governor issued a resolution stipulating that no less than one-third of the Soum Local Development Fund was to be spent on rangeland- improvement activities. As a pilot, in Davst soum a quadripartite agreement was developed between PUG leaders, the APUG leader, and bagh and soum governors on the autumn and summer rotational grazing schedule. At the request of Aimag Federation of APUGs a “live animal sales” market and slaughterhouse is planned for the aimag center under the management of the Aimag Federation of APUGs. With support from Green Gold, the Uvs Aimag Federation of APUGs co-financed the following collective initiatives by PUGs and herder households: The fencing of 300ha haymaking area, the rehabilitation of 26 pasture wells, the building of Herders’ Information and Training Centre premises in four soums, and the rehabilitation of more than 100 winter and spring shelters for both small and large animals. Green Gold Project operates in five soums in Arkhangai aimag, where yak herding is the major source of income. Rangeland degradation and overgrazing are more serious in this aimag, located at the migration junction from remote rural areas to urban centres and which is often used as a refuge pasture for livestock from neighboring aimags during difficult winters. Green Gold support is mainly focused on improving herd management and livestock productivity alongside rangeland-management issues. With assistance from Green Gold, the Arkhangai Aimag Federation of APUGs supported the following initiatives of PUGs, APUGs and herder cooperatives: Planting 27ha of forage, fencing 74ha of haymaking area, supplying sheep for improved meat production in western aimags at a discounted price (40 percent), establishing seven wells in remote unused rangelands in three soums, and rehabilitating 176 winter and spring livestock shelters. Picture 3: Soum Herders’ Training and Information Center Picture 2: Herders repairing old pasture well
  9. 9. 9 In Bayankhongor aimag, Green Gold covers four soums in the Gobi region that have large camel herds. Herders in the Gobi maintain intensive range and herd management systems with more frequent migrations (8-12 times a year) between seasonal grazing routes in the span of long-distance rangelands (50-500km). Access to water and additional hay and forage reserves is a big challenge. In 2013, the Bayankhongor Aimag Federation of APUGs based in Bogd soum organised field activities; Green Gold and the herders and local government jointly invested n the rehabilitation of 18 pasture wells, the fencing of reserve pastures and 22ha of haymaking area, and the rehabilitation of 23 winter and spring livestock shelters. In two soums, Bayangobi and Gurvanbulag, a Herders’ Training and Information Centre building was built. Table 5: Investments for improved range management (1) Aimags Fenced haymaking area (ha) cumulative Hay prepared (tonnes) cumulative Fodder prepared (tons) cumulative 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 26 100 143 240 6,580 10,202 Bayankhongor 2,000 4,200 40 50 45 53 Bayan-Ulgii 37,261 43,600 283 446 78,248 95,920 Gobi-Altai - - 0 0 - - Zavkhan 650 667 865 2,883 12 18 Uvs - 718 0 1,988 - 40,123 Khovd 550 766 0 211 - 25,722 Total 40487 50051 1331 5818 84873 172038 Table 6: Investments made in improved rangeland management (2) Aimags Number of wells rehabilitated and newly built (cumulative) Number of new and improved winter/spring shelters and barns (cumulative) 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 5 12 158 384 Bayankhongor 14 18 20 23 Bayan-Ulgii - 17 - 132 Gobi-Altai - - - - Zavkhan 30 52 126 309 Uvs - 25 - 100 Khovd - 55 - 72 Total 49 179 304 1020 In Bayan-Ulgii, Zavkhan and Khovd aimags - where Green Gold has operated for more than years on average - in 2013 it mainly focused on the capacity development of Soum Associations of APUGs (54 soums) and Aimag Federations of APUGs (three aimags). One of the main objectives set forth for Green Gold Phase IV is to strengthen the capacity of APUGs as a civil society institution in rural areas to represent the interests of herding communities (men/women/children). With the aim of measuring the progress of capacity development, acceptance and the operational outreach of the APUGs, Green Gold has developed a few key indicators, such as income earned annually from sources other than Green Gold to cover operational costs, and the amount of contracted services from local government and other partners (see Tables 8 and 9).
  10. 10. 10 Table 8: Operational capacity development of Aimag Federations of APUGs. Aimags Annual income other than Green Gold support (000’ MNT) Amount of contracted services/mandates from local government and other partners (000’ MNT) 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 1,8 - 10,5 33.5 Bayankhongor - - - - Bayan-Ulgii - - - 1,1 Gobi-Altai - - - 143,1 Zavkhan - 36,0 - - Uvs - 5,0 - 68,0 Khovd - - - 86,0 Total 1,8 41,0 10,5 331,7 Table 9: Operational capacity development of Soum Associations of PUGs Aimags Number of APUGs adopted business plan- based management and operations (cumulative) Number of APUGs implementing contracts from other partners other than GG (cumulative) Annual income earned from other sources in total APUG income (000’ MNT) Amount of contracted services/mandates from local government and other partners (000’ MNT) 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai - - - 2 - 4,0 - - Bayankhongor - - - - - - - - Bayan-Ulgii - 5 3 4 - 2,5 - 11.7 Gobi-Altai - - - 10 - 3,0 - 50.0 Zavkhan 5 5 5 5 - 6,6 - 95.7 Uvs - 1 1 1 - 1,5 - 100.0 Khovd 2 4 3 4 - 3,0 - 50.0 Total 7 15 11 26 - 20,6 - 277,4 Output 1.3 Change of marketed volume and turnover of livestock products in cooperatives The importance of economic incentives for sustainable rangeland management is one of the main lessons of Green Gold Phase IV. If collective rangeland management does not yield improvements in income, it is difficult to sustain herders’ involved. Green Gold has therefore allocated special action lines and a budget for the promotion and support of initiatives from PUGs/APUGs to develop business enterprises, often in the form of cooperatives. The focal areas of support are the internal organization and management of producer cooperatives, access to technologies and skills for value addition, business planning, access to credit and product marketing. According to two key monitoring indicators of about 60 cooperatives created at the APUGs: Capital share (collective equity) and dividends distributed to members show an increasing trend (see Table 10). The main income of cooperatives is derived from the sale of livestock raw materials and products for household consumption. With the implementation of the
  11. 11. 11 government’s subsidy scheme for wool and leather/skin in the past two years, cooperative business has expanded. As of 2013, 30 cooperatives set up at the APUGs secured future contracts with Associations of Wool Processors and leather-processing companies to organize and manage the collection and delivery of sheep wool and animal skin/leather from herder households at the local level. These contracts have been cooperatives’ major source of income and business. In the policy pursued by key ministries - the Ministry of Industry and Agriculture, the Ministry of Economic Development, and the Ministry Employment and Labour - rural cooperatives are seen as the major form of rural enterprise to create value addition and to boost local economic development and employment. For this purpose, the Soum Development Fund (SDF) was created to provide soft loans to locally embedded business enterprises. However, with limited economic capacity and an insufficient material base, newly established herder cooperatives have the least access, and thus benefits. Table 10: Operational capacity development of herder cooperatives Aimags Cooperative share capital (000’ MNT cumulative) Cooperative annual dividends distributed to members (000’MNT) 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 9,215.0 35,415.0 24,200.0 34,017.0 Bayankhongor 4,000.0 10,000.0 - - Bayan-Ulgii 399,470.0 508,031.0 - 63,227.0 Gobi-Altai - - - - Zavkhan 41,660.0 68,330.0 13,450.0 33,980.0 Uvs - 200,000.0 - 80,000.0 Khovd - 90,524.0 - 7,295.0 Total 454,255.0 912,300.0 37,650.0 218,519.0 Output 1.4: Women’s increased participation in the PUG system Empowering herder women in PUG organisations is one of main results of Green Gold Phase IV. The inclusion of a focused output and budget line to support women in herding households has resulted in increased outreach to herder women in 2013. During the planning process, three main action lines were developed by women herders: Skills training to engage in additional income-generation activities, access to start-up working capital from project funding, and Herder Picture 4: Wool and skin/leather collection in Hovd aimag
  12. 12. 12 Matching Fund and leadership training and capacity development activities so that women can assume decision-making positions in PUGs/APUGs and herder cooperatives. Green Gold negotiated all activities supported by project funding the minimum level of participation of women herders (no less than 30 percent). According to training reports, about 1000 women herders participated in various training and capacity-development activities organised by PUGs/APUGs and partners with support from Green Gold funding. The major achievement of 2013 was that, particularly in the new soums covered in 2013 (54 soums), the percentage of women leaders in PUGs, Soum Associations and Aimag Federation steering committees significantly increased (see Table 11). Table 11: Women leadership in PUGs/APUGs Aimags % of women among PUG leaders % of women among APUGs heads (cumulative) Number of women in APUGs SCs (cumulative) Number of women in the leadership of herder cooperatives Number of women in Bagh and Soum Citizens’ Meetings 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 2012 2013 Arkhangai 100 60 8 9 13 16 Bayankhongor 22.2 25.0 3 3 13 16 Bayan-Ulgii 4.5 5.9 16.7 16.7 4 6 18 21 Gobi-Altai 10.0 25 28 24 Zavkhan 9.8 11.1 17.4 21.7 1 2 30 39 92 132 Uvs 16.8 38.9 18 5 10 Khovd 4.7 6.4 12.5 18.8 6 6 6 9 5 5 Total 41,7 75,2 146,6 253,2 22 69 54 102 123 203 Lessons learned and Implications for future operations:  In the Phase IV, Green Gold handed over the implementation and management of collective action component to seven Aimag Federation of APUGs instead of having it managed a large-staffed Project Implementation Unit based in Ulaanbaatar (46 employees). This has clearly boosted the sense of local ownership, creativity and self- responsibility on the part of APUG leaders. Picture 5 Mrs N. Erdenetuya, APUG Leader, Erdene soum of Gobi-Altai aimag: “ By 20 June, our herders have been organized into 4 PUGs, and 290 herder families joined PUGs out of total soum herder families of 398. We pooled together 4,900,000 MNT in our Matching Fund. I am so thrilled to receive an award from Soum Governor for tgood work and the achievement.
  13. 13. 13  The approval or disapproval of amendments to the new Land Law will have a significant impact on the status of land-use contracts as the only legal document assuring PUGs of their rights to traditional rangelands. When there is no legal pressure on the soum and aimag governors, there is a widespread tendency to see it as voluntary document with no legal backing.  With PUGs/APUGs increasingly becoming recognized within communities as herders’ collective organizations, there is a political pressure. Many of the soum governors try to consolidate votes and create interest groups within their local communities and this can impact on PUG/APUG leaders if they don’t belong to the same political party as the soum or aimag governor.  There is an increasing threat of land-grabbing of traditional rangelands by the mining industry. Because of the large territory and sparse scattering of herders with often little formal organization, their traditional user rights are violated in many ways by mining companies. There is interest among PUGs/APUGs to join force at the national level, but issues related to allegiances in terms of leadership and organizational development have proved challenging.  In the wake of the government subsidy scheme on the collective sale of wool and leather/skins through cooperatives, many new cooperatives have emerged often set up a few local elites not membership based and to take advantage of an easy access to financial benefits. Herders’ cooperatives also face strong competition from very wealthy and powerful middle men with access to the government’s power to control the sales and purchase of livestock raw materials. For real membership based herders’ cooperatives to develop takes time.  It is important to raise awareness of Green Gold activities with soum and aimag governments at the outset in order to make clear the expectations and to secure agreement on cooperation modalities. In two aimags, Gobi-Altai and Uvs, the aimag governors were extremely supportive of the PUG approach and sustainable rangeland management has since been clearly promoted.  Green Gold was designed with the understanding that in the next four years, through the Local Development Fund and the Soum Development Fund, a large amount of financial resources would be made available locally. In 2013, the majority of LDF and SDF were spent on urgent expenses at the soum level, such as building public showers, and refurbishing local hospitals, schools and service centers. In 2014, LDF funding will be eight times less than the previous year, according to latest approved state budget. This means there will be little financial opportunity for PUGs/APUGs to access funding with the exception of the limited funding made available through Green Gold.  Having four components of the Green Gold being managed by different organizations increases coordination tasks to make sure that project funding is used efficiently and effectively, and contributing to the ultimate objectives of the project. Thus far, it has been agreed among partners that all field level activities will be coordinated, extension messages need to be developed in a coherent manner, and training/ workshops will be organized if possible jointly. At the moment, Green Gold PCU agreed to have bi weekly GG team meeting including project coordinators from extension and marketing components so that there is timely and efficient flow and exchange of information and knowledge.
  14. 14. 14 Outcome 2 - Applied agricultural research that produces results for practitioners: Science-based understanding of range-management issues enhances the scope for sustainable range management at all levels Output 2.1 Human and institutional capacity is created within relevant ministries that enables: i) Improved data management; ii) The use of ecological site description-related concepts to interpret monitoring data; and iii) Serves by consistent products on regional and national dynamics. Output 2.2 The ESD concepts, documents, map products and extension materials are jointly produced with the target soums to be used by PUGs/soums. They will serve as a foundation for the spatial expansion of ESD development. Output 2.3 New technologies for forage production with annuals and perennials and for pasture rehabilitation are developed and demonstrated in experiments for the new ecological conditions of the target areas of GG IV, are tested with PUGs and transferred to extension services for further up-scaling. Output 2.4 The human and institutional capacities for the interpretation of existing data and the independent adaptation of rangeland management and forage production to present and future challenges are developed. Output 2.1 Human and institutional capacity is created within relevant ministries that enables: i) Improved data management; ii) The use of ecological site description-related concepts to interpret monitoring data; and iii) Serves by consistent products on regional and national dynamics The National Agency for Meteorology and Environmental Monitoring (NAMEM) is the main institution Green Gold aims to build the capacity of, with expected expertise needed to introduce ESD methodology in Mongolia. 2013 is the third year NAMEM has collected national rangeland health monitoring data using methodology introduced by Green Gold. Three major actions carried out in 2013 to continue building the capacity of NAMEM were:  Maintenance of a national monitoring database;  Follow-up training on data-collection methodologies at the level of aimag technicians and provision of working manuals;  Training to identify plant species coding and use of the national monitoring database program for aimag technicians. To maintain consistency in the collection of rangeland monitoring data and proper interpretation, there is still a need to make significant improvements in plant species identification by local technicians. This year, indoor and field trainings were organized for local level (aimag and soum) meteorology technicians and engineers on the characteristics of rangeland vegetation species. Local trainers were prepared from the National University of Mongolia, the Academy of Science and the Mongolian State University of Agriculture. About 300 technicians and engineers from 10 aimags learned to use species identification keys to identify the most common and indicator species in different types of rangelands and at same time to prepare a herbarium of local species as a reference.
  15. 15. 15 According to the assessment carried out before the training all participants used to identify plant species based on photo album but after the training they were able to identify the plant species more consistently based on its morphological characteristics. Picture 6. Plant identification field training in Selenge and Arkhangai aimags with rangeland professors such as Tserendash, ScD, and Lkhagvajav, PhD Lessons learnt and implications for further operations:  NAMEM has high expectations from the national rangeland monitoring report that is planned to be delivered to the Mongolian government in the second quarter of 2014 as a strong scientific platform upon which to make progress in defining the concept of rangeland degradation and the degradation level in Mongolia, as well as for desertification.  NAMEM was requested to publish relevant information for policymakers on the state of rangeland health and desertification in Mongolia from 2013 based on the national rangeland monitoring database, representing both an opportunity and a large responsibility for Green Gold. Output 2.2. The ESD concepts, documents, map products and extension materials are jointly produced with the target soums to be used by PUGs/soums. They will serve as a foundation for the spatial expansion of ESD development. At the start of Green Gold Phase IV, a cooperation agreement was signed with the Agency of Land Affairs and Geodesy and Cadastre (ALAGAC) on “Piloting ecological site description- based land management approach at the PUG and soum level”. As part of cooperation agreement, Green Gold assisted ALAGAC in setting up a research unit comprised of three Green Gold-trained researchers. The following scheme summarised the main achievements of the ESD and PUG-based rangeland management approach in selected pilot soums (see Figure 1):
  16. 16. 16 Figure.1 Achievements of ESD and PUG based rangeland management approach in selected soums Step 1 - ESD field campaign in selected soums: In 2013, pilot activities were carried out in two selected soums: Undurshireet soum in Tuv aimag, representing the steppe zone, and Chandmani soum in Khovd aimag, representing the desert steppe zone, covering a total of 72 plots in Undurshireet and 27 plots in Chandmani. Steppe and desert steppe zones comprise about 60 percent of the Mongolian rangeland. These plots were preliminarily selected because of their geomorphological representation indicated via satellite images. Study was undertaken of the geomorphology, soil profile, vegetation cover and management history of each plot in order to define ecological potential and dynamics. Local stakeholders - such as the soum land manager, rangeland officer, bagh governor and soum APUG leaders - were involved in field studies. This served two purposes: It was a part of the training on the ESD concept and methodologies, and it enabled the research team to gain more in-depth knowledge from the local community about land-management practices and areas with severe degradation problems. Step 2. Development of the ESD concept and mapping: Based on intensive measurement data collected in first part of growing season in above mentioned 2 target soums, ESD database created in previous stages of GG and literature reviews, ESD concept for steppe and desert steppe is drafted. In second part of season a collaborative field visit with USDA expats was organised where the proposed ESD concepts were reviewed, ecological sites boundaries are refined and compared with existing satellite images. Step 1. ESD field campaign in selected soums Step 2. Development of ESD concept and mapping Step 3. ESD & PUG based soum land management planning Step 4. Short term monitoring of management impact
  17. 17. 17 Figure 2: Analysis of ESD defining factors in Mongolia As our research findings demonstrated, generally the available moisture in the top 50cm strata of soil has a strong impact on ecological potential. This means that in the forest steppe zone, where there is a relatively higher level of precipitation and air temperatures, soil fertility could have an important role, while the potential of the dryer zones is primarily defined by landform and the soil’s physical properties. Based on these experiences, we defined four main ecological sites: The Stipa-Forb community in gravelly hills; the Stipa-dominated community in loamy fan; the Caragana community in sandy valley bottoms; and the Achnatherum community in sub- irrigated ecological sites of the steppe zone; and following four main ecological sites: The small bunch grass community in steep mountains; the Caragana Grass community in mountains; the Allium-Stipa in gravelly plains; and a Stipa-Anabasis in salty plains of the desert steppe zone. In trying to define the boundary between these ecological sites, we conducted a number of studies and reviews of existing soil and the vegetation map of Mongolia. The biggest problem we faced was that the existing soil and vegetation maps were so coarse that it was difficult to ascertain good local-level information, and most of available satellite images did not show vegetation community boundaries. As a result of the field study, an ecological potential map for two selected soums was drafted. Figure 3. ESD draft maps for Undurshireet (steppe) and Chandmani (desert steppe) where ecological sites differ in climate, soils, landscape position, composition and production of vegetation, and how vegetation degrades and is restored
  18. 18. 18 Step 3. ESD & PUG-based soum land management: With the aim of applying the ESD concept as a rangeland management tool at the soum and PUG levels, land managers and soum APUG leaders from 15 pilot soums were trained in the ESD-based soum annual land- management planning approach. As a result, these soums’ 2014 annual land-management plans were approved at Soum Citizens’ Meetings. As a result of the work of soum APUG leaders, one of the key achievements in the planning procedure was that aimag and soum governments were supportive and agreed to fund up to 60 percent of the implementation cost. In preparation for ESD-based planning, an ESD workshop was organised for soum and bagh governors, soum land managers, rangeland specialists, APUG and PUG leaders, and herders’ representatives from pilot 15 soums, focusing on the topics “What are the advantages of using ESD?”, “Opportunities of ESD application as a management tool” and “The importance of the active collaboration of local government in ESD projects”. Estimates on productivity and carrying capacity were undertaken in order to support herders and local stakeholders with the provision of more detailed information on current grazing pressure. Both state and transition models for different rangeland communities developed as a part of the ESD concept served as a platform upon which to define the management impact and the linking of management recommendations. For example, at the Stipa-dominated loamy fan ecological site in the steppe zone, existing community changes can be reversed through such management changes as proper seasonal rotational grazing practices, while the two existing alternative states at the Caragana-dominated sandy valley bottom ecological site are very difficult to restore. These models will be the annex for land-use contracts as a reference for long and short-term rangeland monitoring, as stated in the Green Gold project document. The annual land-management plans for 2014 at these pilot soums are built on PUG-level plans that are developed by herders, instead of the existing planning system that is built on soum land managers’ plans developed in administrative offices. Step 4. Short-term monitoring of management impact: As a part of the ESD and PUG-based rangeland-management approach, there is a demand for user-friendly, replicable and reliable monitoring programme for short-term management impact as opposed to the existing five-year monitoring programme at ALAGAC run by professional companies through a tendering process. At the outset, soum APUG leaders from 15 selected soums were trained in the photo point monitoring methodology, along with the establishment of monitoring plots for PUG-level seasonal pastures, the preparation of photos and the creation of a baseline database for those soums. Photo point monitoring information is main tool for assessing soum and PUG-level pasture-management impact. Lessons learnt:  Local stakeholders and herders are aware of overgrazing problems and are willing to change range and herd-management practices, but they need support via practical, evidence-based recommendations and a favourable legal environment, and USDA technical expertise remains essential.  Significant progress has been made in imparting understanding to partners at the national, regional and local levels about ESD and PUG-based rangeland-management approaches, but more coordination meetings and lobbying for its approval are needed at the policy level.
  19. 19. 19 Output 2.3. New technologies for forage production with annuals and perennials and for pasture rehabilitation are developed and demonstrated in experiments for the new ecological conditions of the target areas of GG IV, are tested with PUGs and transferred to extension services for further up-scaling. Technological trials on annual and perennial forage crops and the impact of resting have been conducted at the MSUA. There is a need to update and develop new technologies for range and herd-management as part of the ESD and PUG-based rangeland-management approaches at the local level. 1. To begin with, we tested 10 forage species in 2013, including five annuals and five perennials, in three ecological zones of Undurshireet soum in Tuv aimag, Buyant soum in Khovd aimag and Naranbulag soum in Uvs aimag. Forage species were tested in previous phases of Green Gold predominantly in the forest steppe region, and results of old research findings by the Research Institute of Animal Husbandry were outdated and did not reflect the social and economic changes that had taken place in Mongolia in the past two decades. According to the results, annual species like Sudan grass and oats produced good yields in tested regions, and alfalfa flowered in the first year and produced yields in Naranbulag soum in the desert steppe zone, which was promising. However, experimental trials carried out by other researchers have elicited different results in the same ecological conditions. 2. A study of the impact of resting was conducted in three ecological zones - Ider soum in Zavkhan aimag representing the forest steppe zone, Zuun-Gobi soum in Uvs aimag and Durgun soum in Khovd aimag representing the desert steppe zone - covering sites with relatively similar potential but facing different grazing pressure (slight, moderate and heavy). According to the results, three months’ resting in the growing season elicited a positive change in foliar cover and standing biomass that is statistically significant in Ider soum in the forest steppe zone (which has a higher level of precipitation) but not statistically significant in the dryer areas of Durgun and Zuun-Gobi soums. 3. Under the fattening project, lambs and yearlings of native sheep breeds are fed two different diets in Undurshireet and Durgun soums. Fattening trials covered 20 lambs and 20 yearlings in each area, with 10 lambs and 10 yearlings used as controls. The animals in both the experimental and control groups were weighed and measured three times – at the outset of the trial, in the middle and at the end. Up to two animals in each control group and up to three animals in the experimental groups were slaughtered for meat evaluation. The results were reported in the document in accordance with the lamb- fattening protocols, methodologies and questionnaires. The pilot will be carried out over two subsequent stages: i) A feeding trial of ewes for 150 days with observations of changes in bodyweight; ii) Observation of the post-natal growth of lambs for two months. As the lamb-fattening and feeding experiments are ongoing, it is still too early to report on the results.
  20. 20. 20 Lessons learnt:  As a result of the experiences collaborating with RIAH and the frequent, unexpected decisions that caused risks, we will not collaborate with RIAH in 2014.  Instead of running of separate experiments with scientists we will focus in 2014 on more participatory, on life experiments at PUG and herder group level.  We need to provide herders with more reliable information on the feasibility of local- breed lamb-fattening and associated cost-benefit analyses to avoid over-expectations on the part of herders. Output 2.4. The human and institutional capacities for the interpretation of existing data and the independent adaptation of rangeland management and forage production to present and future challenges are developed. Capacity development of the younger generation of rangeland researchers and lecturers through a Young Researchers’ Club: As today 74 member has been registered from 8 different universities and research institutes and most of researchers (70 percent) are from NUM and MSUA that indicates a relatively good collaboration between GG and these 2 university that was created in previous phases. So as we see there is a demand to outreach a researchers working on ecosystem components such as soil, vegetation and herding at the research institutes of Geo ecology, Geography and RIAH. The gender balance of club members looks good having 36 female (49 percent) and 38 male (51 female). The only 33 percent of club members are PhD and master students who has an interest to continue their research showing the demand for strengthening of club activities. Secondly, we set up a Face Book group through which young researchers could exchange information where 165 members are registered. As today, very few PhD and master students studying in abroad (Tunga SG, Lkhagva Ariuna) do active posting latest articles, reports and initiatives on rangeland ecology. We will work more creatively in 2014 for more efficient use of Face Book network instead of using for just an announcement. Competitive research grant program for exchange: We aim to improve the competitiveness of young researchers via the aforementioned programme to enable them to gain international scholarships. We had planned to spend the budget for individual research of young researchers by calling for competitive research grant proposals among young people specialising in rangeland-related fields. It was an open call, and by announcing it before the summer we hoped young researchers would use this opportunity for the field research this year. Unfortunately, the funding disbursement was late this year, hence there was not enough time for researchers to plan and submit proposals. Because of this, we received eight grant proposals. After discussion with the PCU, selection was made based on rationale, the significance of proposed research and the expected outcomes. Out of the eight grant proposals, we decided to fund four based on feedback from the PCU suggesting changes to the proposals and budgets. Based on our experience, we need to improve their data-analysis skills, which will be included in our agenda for next year.
  21. 21. 21 Curriculum/syllabus development of rangeland-management courses at MSUA: A team of teachers at the School of Biological Resources and Management, MSUA, conducted a review of the rangeland management curriculum used for different specialisations, including land managers, rangeland managers, environmental inspectors and agronomists. By way of comparison, the pasture management curriculum of similar universities and colleges in Russia and the US were examined. Based on the review findings, a stakeholder meeting was organised under the topic “Curriculum Renovation Needs”, in which a representatives from the Directory Board of MSUA, the School of Agrobiology, the School of Biological Resources and Management, the Animal Nutrition and Rangeland Department, the School of Natural Sciences, the School of Ecology, Technology and Development, the Agriculture University of Darkhan, the Ministry of Industry and Agriculture of Mongolia, ALAGAC, and Green Gold. With the aim of developing the same level of understanding about the need to improve the syllabus and training materials, and present requirement land managers skills and knowledge graduates MSUA, Green Gold organized in cooperation with ALAGAC on case studies of ESD and PUG based land management in Undurshireet soum. As a result of coordination meetings among different faculties, changes to the rangeland- management syllabus have been approved. Based on discussions and consultations, two textbooks on rangeland management and animal nutrition have been selected and are being translated. Lessons learnt:  The participation of young researchers in club activities is not that as high as we had expected, so there is a need to progress in accordance with their needs and demands.  A researchers’ grant program could be focused on topics related to rangeland ecology and management linked to the ESD and PUG-based management approach and herders’ needs. Outcome 3 The agricultural Extension Service delivers useful services (knowledge and services) to all herders (f/m). Output 3.1 Framework of the Government Extension Service is streamlined Output 3.2 Content: Relevant extension messages and services are elaborated, tested and used (f/m). Output 3.3 Dissemination: herders are reached via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages (f/m). Output 3.4 Linking up: significant number of APUG’s have cooperation agreements with the state Extension Service (AHBUs) at Soum level International tendering of the extension component has successfully completed and out of 4 candidates, the Consortium of UniQuest (consulting service under Queensland University of Australia) and Mongolian Association for Sustainable Development (NGO) was selected. The
  22. 22. 22 contract was signed in November 2013, and during the inception period of two months, 2 main activities were accomplished: inception workshop and development of Yearly Operation Plan for 2014. The inception workshop aimed to facilitate initial exchange of key stakeholders of the Green Gold project on the implementation approach and activities of the component. The workshop has resulted in following outcomes: 1. Common understanding of the extension needs and opportunities in the Green Gold project established: All participants agreed that, in accordance with the core objectives of Green Gold, the core objective of extension is sustainable use of rangeland pastures. Based on the suggestions of the Applied Research Component and representatives of the Aimag Federations of Pasture User Groups (AFPUG) as well as group work results, the workshop concluded that sustainable pasture management (SPM) requires the following conditions in herder communities:  Use (and ownership if legislation would allow) of pasture areas is regulated through the Pasture User Group (PUG)-structure in every soum:  Overgrazing is minimized through maintenance of stock density in relation to the carrying capacity;  Pasture degradation is minimized through strict regulation of a pasture use plan, which is to enable rotational grazing in balance with natural restoration of pasture areas. 2. The extension approach proposed by UQ for GG Phase IV reviewed and agreed: The participants of the workshop fully agreed that, given the ineffectiveness of the current extension system, a new approach of extension service delivery is needed. Such an approach should overcome the following challenges:  Herders have limited access to extension services e.g. due to distance from soum centre, and irregular extension activities of AHBUs;  Many herders have limited experience and training being herders; and  The natural and business environments of herders are rapidly changing. These challenges undermine the priority of extension activities for developing management skills among herders that improve their motivation and capacity to seek and absorb new information, to experiment with new approaches, to plan, analyze and evaluate their farm operations systematically, and to make informed decisions regarding farm and livestock management as well as finances, along with transfer of technical contents. With improved critical skills, herders will be able to reflect on their current situation, challenges and opportunities, set concrete goals, and actively seek, learn about, experiment with and adopt solutions in order to reach their goals. Another priority of extension services should be facilitation of access. Herders may learn about new livestock management approaches, but they need to know how to access the means necessary for adopting these approaches. Extension services should improve herders’ access to information (interpersonal, mediated and through ICTs), learning opportunities, exchange opportunities, services, inputs and markets. 3. Target areas and activities for 2014 identified: While the target activities were largely identified at the workshop, as highlighted above, the target areas were defined in the follow-up stage, which involved intensive exchange between the components of GG Phase IV. In 2014, the Extension component will be piloted in 20 soums of Khovd, Uws and Bayan-Ulgii aimags.
  23. 23. 23 Yearly Operational Plan for 2014 was developed and the immediate task of the project team is to complete a Participatory Needs and Opportunities by the end of February 2013, and based on the findings of the study, to develop detailed work plans for each of the 20 activities included in the YOP. Outcome 4 Income of yak herders has increased. Output 4.1 Herders and PUG’ are organized to market yak-down Output 4.2 APUG’s and Cooperatives have market-links Output 4.3 Organized PUG’s apply semi-processing of yak down for increased income Output 4.4 Domestic processing companies exporting value added products Marketing component of the Green Gold was tendered internationally and out of 6 applicants, Consortium of German companies, GFA and GEFAK was selected. The Inception workshop of GFA/GEFAK consortium was held on 28 November 2013 in Ulaanbaatar. The main objectives were to discuss the proposed project approach, to introduce relevant issues as well as instruments and methods for implementation, to discuss and agree the outline plan of activities for 2014. To start with GFA/GEFAK is undertaking an extensive field assessment to analyze the actual and potential production of yak down and camel wool in the project region. The results will be incorporated into the study of the value chains for yak down and camel wool and will be used to plan the activities of the marketing component. The study consists of following segments: Actual supply capacity of raw materials  Quantity of livestock resource (herd structure regarding sex, age, colours), numbers of relevant herders, and supply capacity of raw materials,  Methods of preparation (combing, cutting, working capacity, productivity),  Sales channels of raw materials (domestic processors, changes, chinese buyers and sales through herder organizations (APUGs, cooperatives),  PUGs and cooperatives, soum and aimag-level Federations of PUGs (status, activities, establishment, members and management, role in the supply chain) Quality system in the supply chain  Awareness among herders and herder organizations about quality of raw material,  Knowledge about influence of harvesting method on quality,  Knowledge about influence of quality on processing and production of final products,  Knowledge on sorting (by age and sex, colors, etc. ), first processing and breeding Potential and conditions for increase of supply capacity and quality  Willingness of herders to intensify and improve harvesting from existing animals  Perspectives to increase the herds of yak and camel  Expectations of herders regarding other actors in the value chain
  24. 24. 24 Partnership building between herders and processors  Past practices regarding cooperation agreements between herders and processors: volumes, terms, payments, sanctions etc.  Practices preferred by herders  Best practices and experiences Needs for qualification and consultation  Training of herders on combing, sorting, first processing (subjects, methods, schedules), quality issues,  Training and consultation of cooperatives, PUGs and APUGs on institutional strengthening, improved role in the value chain, and quality issues.  Other expectations from the project, soum and Aimag administration
  25. 25. 25 Annex 1: Financial report 2013 ex. rate 1837.44 No. Component 2013 Budget (CHF) Spent Balance Balance MNT Total 2,500,000.00 2,833,287.25 -333,287.25 5,205,995,324.64 Total spent (paid by Project) 1,912,164.45 3,513,487,447.01 1 Collective action 91% 1,288,000.00 1,175,155.81 112,844.19 2,159,278,291.53 1.1. PUGs have successfully negotiated land use contracts (LUCs) (m.grant) 650,743.00 680,662.78 -29,919.78 1,250,677,018.48 1.2. APUGs are successfully accessing public and private funding (cap.b) 337,382.00 300,696.88 36,685.12 552,512,475.19 1.3. Change of marketed volume and turnover of livestock products in cooperatives (cap.b) 224,549.00 189,985.33 34,563.67 349,086,644.76 1.4 Women’s increased participation in the PUG system (cap.b) 75,326.00 3,810.82 71,515.18 7,002,153.10 2 Applied Agricultural Research 75% 620,000.00 462,296.70 157,703.30 849,442,448.45 2.1. Human and institutional research capacity is created (f/m) 108,000.00 69,584.59 38,415.41 127,857,509.05 2.2. ESD is firmly introduced as the standard of range monitoring of Mongolia 199,000.00 171,280.18 27,719.82 314,717,053.94 2.3. New technologies for forage production and range rehabilitation developed 143,000.00 104,952.96 38,047.04 192,844,766.82 2.4. Institutional capacities for interpretation of land use database is developed 170,000.00 116,478.97 53,521.03 214,023,118.64 3 Agricultural Extension 2326% 20,000.00 465,201.31 -445,201.31 854,779,495.05 3.1. Framework of the Government Extension Service is streamlined 48,734.91 -48,734.91 89,547,473.03 3.2. Content: Relevant extension messages and services are elaborated, tested and used (f/m) 20,000.00 13,466.40 6,533.60 24,743,702.02 3.3. Dissemination: herders are reached via the PUG system with relevant and tested extension messages (f/m) - - - - 3.4 Linking up: significant number of APUG’s have cooperation agreements with the state Extension Service (AHBUs) at Soum level - 403,000.00 -403,000.00 740,488,320.00 4 Market Access 1112% 20,000.00 222,415.01 -202,415.01 408,674,235.97 4.1. Herders and PUG’s are organized to market yak down 10,000.00 415.01 9,584.99 762,555.97 4.2. APUG’s and Cooperatives have market-links 10,000.00 - 10,000.00 - 4.3. Organized PUG’s apply semi- processing of yak down for increased income - - - - 4.4. Domestic processing companies exporting value added products - 222,000.00 -222,000.00 407,911,680.00 5 Management 81% 222,000.00 180,089.33 41,910.67 330,903,338.52 5.1. Payroll 130,000.00 102,956.50 27,043.50 189,176,391.36 5.2. Training & capacity development 16,000.00 20,916.98 -4,916.98 38,433,695.73
  26. 26. 26 5.3. Investments / Equipment 8,000.00 10,380.96 -2,380.96 19,074,391.14 5.4. Office running costs 12,000.00 19,865.90 -7,865.90 36,502,399.30 5.5. Travelling costs for local monitoring & coordination 40,000.00 15,348.62 24,651.38 28,202,168.33 5.6. Advocacy and policy lobbying 16,000.00 10,620.37 5,379.63 19,514,292.65 6 Expatriate Payroll 66% 275,000.00 181,250.00 93,750.00 333,036,000.00 7 Expatriate local costs 76% 55,000.00 41,558.49 13,441.51 76,361,231.87 8 Mid-term review - - - - 9 Income & exchange difference - 105,320.60 -105,320.60 193,520,283.26

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