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An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. It describes, explains, or tells something about the noun.

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  1. 1. Parts of Speech ADJECTIVES Sam An Teng November 2013 Copyright © All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What is Adjective? • An adjective is a word that modifies a noun or pronoun. It describes, explains, or tells something about the noun. Most adjectives answer the questions: What kind? Which one? and How much/many? • For examples, • happy girl (which girl?) • his desk (which desk?) • that boy (which boy?) • five books (How many book?)
  3. 3. Kinds of Adjectives • There are seven kinds of adjectives: – Descriptive adjectives, – Quantitative adjectives, – Proper adjectives, – Possessive adjectives, – Demonstrative adjectives, – Interrogative adjectives, and – Relative adjectives.
  4. 4. Kinds of Adjectives [1] Descriptive adjectives Descriptive adjectives tell quality/condition, appearances/looks, personality, feeling, shape, size, touch, and color. For examples, rich, poor, healthy, beautiful, handsome, pretty, helpful, friendly, kind, industrious, distressed, painful, excited, oval, round, rectangle, big, small, narrow, smooth, rough, bumpy, sandy, brown, cyan, purple, white, black, blue, blur...
  5. 5. Kinds of Adjectives [2] Quantitative adjectives Quantitative adjectives (or adjective of numbers) tells the number or amount. The quantitative adjectives are classified into 3 smaller groups: (i) Definite numeral adjectives: They tells the number (cardinal) and order (ordinal). For examples, • Cardinal: one, two, three, hundred, million... • Ordinal: first, second, third, hundredth, millionth...
  6. 6. Kinds of Adjectives *2+ Quantitative adjectives (cont’d) (ii) Indefinite numeral adjectives: They tell the amount, but not the exact ones. They are: some, any, a lot of, much, many, plenty, large amount of, a great deal of... (iii) Distributive numeral adjectives: They tell the number which refers to one at a time. They are: each, every, either, neither. For examples, • Each student has an ID Card. • Either staff can represent the group. • Neither policeman are allowed to torture suspects.
  7. 7. Kinds of Adjectives [3] Proper adjectives Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns. Just like proper nouns, they start with a capital letter. They normally answer the adjective question, "What kind?" Look at the examples, • Proper Noun: America, Japan, Cambodia ... • Proper Adjective: American, Japanese, Cambodian...
  8. 8. Kinds of Adjectives [4] Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives restrict the ownership or possession of nouns. They are: my, our, your, his, her, its, and their. For examples, • I visited their hometown. • I left my book at home.
  9. 9. Kinds of Adjectives [5] Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjectives point out which nouns. They are: this, that, these, and those. For examples, • This book is not mine. • I want that T-shirt. • These cars are brand new. • Those motorbikes are second hand.
  10. 10. Kinds of Adjectives [6] Interrogative adjectives Interrogative adjectives introduce direct or indirect questions. They are: what, which, and whose. For examples, • He asked which way I should go. • He wondered what problems we are having. • Whose book is this? • Which subjects should he take? • What requirements do you need?
  11. 11. Kinds of Adjectives [7] Relative adjectives Relative adjectives introduce clauses and modify the nouns that follow. They are: whose, whichever, and whatever. For examples, • The student whose work is admired works very hard. • Carry whatever foods you can. • He will choose whichever solution is practical.
  12. 12. Positions of Adjectives • We place or put adjectives in three main positions: before nouns, after linking verbs, and after nouns (in some cases only). [1] Before nouns • Adjectives are placed before nouns so that they modify nouns. For examples, • She is a hard-working student. • It is a big and expensive house.
  13. 13. Positions of Adjectives [2] After linking verbs • Adjectives are placed after linking verbs and they complete the meaning of the subjects. For examples, • She looks unhappy. • They are friendly and helpful.
  14. 14. Positions of Adjectives [3] After nouns • However, adjectives in some cases, adjective phrases, and adjective clauses may be placed after the nouns they modify. For examples, • It is not easy to make everyone satisfied. • I don't know the man who is standing over there. (adjective clause) • I don't know the man standing over there. (adjective phrase/particle phrase)
  15. 15. Functions of Adjectives • Adjectives perform two roles in sentences: modifying nouns and pronouns. [1] Modifying nouns For examples, • I prefer red apples. • It was a cold, gray, and ominous dawn. [2] Modifying pronouns For examples, • He is friendly. • He is the happiest one.
  16. 16. Related Topics: • • • • Nouns Pronouns Verbs Adjectives • • • • Adverbs Conjunctions Prepositions Interjections My Blogs: • To read more free lessons, please click the links below: – –
  17. 17. MY BOOKS ON KINDLE STORE Grammar & Composition: Parts of Speech in English English Grammar: The Verb Tenses Phrases and Clauses in English Short stories: He Deserves! Sympathy and Love