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Parking Lighting Energy Efficiency Webinar


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A May 31,2013 webinar on parking lighting

Paul Wessel, Green Parking Council, reflects on the Commercial Building Energy Alliance and the launch of the Lighting Energy Efficiency in Parking Campaign.

Michael Myer from the DOE's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory explains the specifications that the DOE has created for parking lot and garage lighting.

Gary Cudney, President of Carl Walker, Inc. offers perspective on the challenges and opportunities that parking facility owners and operators face as they look to implement energy efficient lighting technologies.

Published in: Technology, Business
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Parking Lighting Energy Efficiency Webinar

  1. 1. Parking Lighting EfficiencyA Green Parking Council Webinar – May 31st, 2012
  2. 2. Michael MyerPacific Northwest National LaboratoryMichael Myer is a lighting engineer experienced in architectural lighting design andknowledge specializing in sustainable lighting design, controls, and new technologies.He received an MS in Lighting from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and has beenLighting Certified (LC) by the National Council on Qualifications for the LightingProfessions (NCQLP). Within the lab, Mr. Myer works on different lighting-relatedprojects including: Rulemaking and Standards Work; Commercial Lighting Solutions;the Energy Alliances; and the National Accounts.
  3. 3. Program Name or Ancillary Text Parking Council, May 31, 2012Review of CBEA Parking Lot andStructure Lighting SpecificationsMichael Myer - PNNL
  4. 4. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 PNNL• Overview– Focus on site (parking lot) lighting– Only allows LEDs• Per Alliance members request– Sets a power density– Sets a minimum illuminance– Warranty information– Life extrapolation requirements• Target energy savings of 50% ormore
  5. 5. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 Values in table are minimum values2. Horizontal illuminance is on the parking surface3. Vertical illuminance is taken 5’ above finished grade (AFG)Main Parking AreaAmbient Condition Horizontal Illuminance Vertical IlluminanceLighting Zone 2 0.50 fc 0.25 fcLighting Zone 3 0.75 fc 0.40 fcLighting Zone 4 1.00 fc 0.50 fcIlluminance Requirements in the SpecificationIlluminanceWhat is required?
  6. 6. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 is required?Perimeter ParkingFront AisleParking Lot AreasLoading/Rear DriveSource: PNNL
  7. 7. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 is required?Notes:1. Values in table are minimum values2. Horizontal illuminance is on the parking surfaceOther Parking AreasAmbientConditionPerimeterParkingFront Aisle Entry Drives, LoadingAreas, Rear DrivesLighting Zone 2 0.20 fc 1.00 fc 0.20 fcLighting Zone 3 0.40 fc 1.50 fc 0.40 fcLighting Zone 4 0.50 fc 2.00 fc 0.50 fcIlluminance Requirements in the Specification
  8. 8. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 Power DensityComparison of Power DensityZone CBEASpecASHRAE/IESNAStd. 90.1-2007ASHRAE/IESNAStd. 90.1-2010CATitle 24-2008All Zones 0.15 W/sf4 0.08 W/sf 0.13 W/sf 0.115 W/sf+1,030W3 0.06 W/sf 0.10 W/sf 0.092 W/sf+770W2 0.05 W/sf 0.06 W/sf 0.045 W/sf+510WLimiting LPD → Energy SavingsConsult specific code for all requirements
  9. 9. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 in PracticeLeavenworth, KSHighlights:• Walmart• 500,000 sq feet (parking area)• 92 LED luminaires– GE Evolve• Pole height 37’ AFG• Avg: 1.27 fc Min: 0.8 fc (initial)• Payback: 6 – 10 years• Cost of electricity: ≈$0.06 / kWh• ≈60% energy savings compared tostandard design• 0.04 W/SFSource: GE
  10. 10. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 in PracticeManchester, NHHighlights:• T.J. Maxx (Anchor)• 150,000 sq feet (parking area)• 25 LED luminaires– BetaLED Edge• Pole height 33’ AFG• Avg: 2.03 fc Min: 1.03 fc (initial)• Payback: 3 – 10 years• Cost of electricity: ≈$0.14 / kWh• 63% energy savings compared toprevious installation design• 0.04 W/SFSource: PNNL
  11. 11. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 in PracticeFalls Church, VAHighlights:• Safeway (Anchor)• 127,450 sq feet (parking area)• 55 LED luminaires– Cooper Lighting• Pole height 30’ AFG• Avg: 2.97 fc Min: 0.9 fc (initial)• Payback:– 3.5 years against 1,000W MH– 6.5 years against 400W PMH (alternate option)• Cost of electricity: $0.096 / kWh• Energy savings:– 75% compared to 1,000W MH– 40% compared to 400W PMH (alternate option)• 0.05 W/SFSource: PNNL
  12. 12. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012• Overview– Fluorescent, induction, LED– Sets a power density– Sets a minimum illuminance– Warranty information• Under revision (incorporating newstandards)• Target energy savings of 40% beforeadding in controls• Works with federal tax deduction(179D) – IRS allows a pass through–– www.lightingtaxdeduction.comDOE CBEA – Parking PNNL
  13. 13. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 OverviewEnergy ConservationEnergy Conservation1. 0.18 W/sfBackground1. EPAct 40% Parking StructureLPD: 0.182. Parking Structures are coveredby EPAct deductionInternal Revenue Bulletin:2008-14 Section 6.APPLICATION OF THEINTERIM LIGHTING RULE TOUNCONDITIONED GARAGESPACESource: PNNL
  14. 14. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 OverviewTechnologiesFluorescent LEDInductionSource: PNNL
  15. 15. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 OverviewLighting RequirementsArea of Structure Horizontal1IlluminanceRequirementVertical2IlluminanceRequirementUniformityMax:MinCovered Parking Areas 2.0 (Min) 1.2 7:1Ramps (Day) 2.0 (Min) 1.0 10:1Ramps (Night) 2.0 (Min) 0.5 10:1Vehicle Entry (Day)3 60.0 (Min) 30.0 10:1Vehicle Entry (Night) 1.0 (Min) 1.2 10:1Uncovered (Top Deck) 0.75 (Min) 0.4 10:11. Measured on parking surface2. Vertical measurements at 5’ AFG3. Contributions from the sun should be factored in
  16. 16. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 Structure SpecificationControlsSource: PNNL
  17. 17. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 Sample Usage DataThursday, January of DayDaily Fixture AmperagePRELIMINARY DATA – Dept. of Labor
  18. 18. Green Parking Council Webinar, May 31, 2012 Sample Usage DataSaturday, January 29PRELIMINARY DATA – Dept. of Labor0. of DayDaily Fixture Amperage
  19. 19. GARY L. CUDNEY, P.E.Carl Walker, Inc.Gary Cudney, P.E. is President of Carl Walker, Inc., a specialist in parking structuredesign, restoration, and parking studies and operations consulting serving clientsnationally. During his 28 years in parking consulting, he has developed wide-rangingexpertise in parking planning, sustainable and green parking design, functionaldesign, lighting, security, revenue control systems, and structural engineering.
  20. 20. Parking Lighting Efficiency WebinarGary Cudney, P.E.,
  21. 21. • Carl Walker Green Garage Demonstrator Sites• City of Ann Arbor South 5th Avenue Underground• Colorado State University (CSU) Lake StreetGreen Parking Council (GPC)
  22. 22. Parking Lighting Used to be Easy!High Pressure Sodium“Before”Metal Halide“After”
  23. 23. Parking Lighting Used to be Easy!High Pressure Sodium(HPS)“Before”Metal Halide (MH)“After”With Painted Ceiling
  24. 24. Parking Structure Lighting Options Today• Fluorescent – T8 or T5• Induction• LED• HPS & MH not used muchParking LightingInductionLEDFluorescentLED
  25. 25. • HID No Longer the Light of Choice• A Lot of Interest in LED & Induction• Fluorescent still seems most popular• Install Demo Fixtures• Have Lighting Analysis Performed• Consider Wireless Control Technology• Time of Day• Photocell• Motion Detector• Instant On / OffParking Structure Lighting Trends
  26. 26. • IESNA RP-20-98 Garage Illuminance• Minimum Horizontal 1.0 fc on the floor• Non-Parking Ramps 2.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night• Entrance Areas 50.0 fc day / 1.0 fc night• Max/MinUniformity Ratio 10:1 (Horizontal)• 5.0 fc Average w/ 4:1 Avg/Min RatioLighting Design CriteriaSingle Row LayoutNot PreferredDouble Row LayoutPreferred
  27. 27. • Parking Structure Lighting• Replace HID with fluorescent, induction, or LED• Fact Sheet: Very good comparison matrix of technologies• CBEA Performance Spec• Efficient, yet well lit parking• Promoting photocell and motion detector control• Five year warranty• Parking Lot Lighting• Replace HID with LED• Fact Sheet: Very good overview of LED system features• Illuminance levels based on type of use and location• Reduce light trespassUS DOE CBEA Campaign
  28. 28. • Improved Security  Less Crime• Enhanced Perception  More Revenue• Reduced Energy  40%+ Cost Savings• Longer Lamp Life  Less Maintenance• Other Financial Incentives• Local & State Credits and Rebates• Utility Company Rebates (Database at• EPAct of 2005 Tax Deductions of 30¢-60¢/SF• Very Short Payback Period (2 – 4 Years) for Conversions• Manufacturers Finance or Lease for No Upfront CostBenefits of New Lighting Options
  29. 29. • Cost to Implement• Technological Concerns• LED: Uncertain Life, Quality of Offshore Suppliers, Glare,Poor Uniformity of Early Luminaries, Highest 1st Cost• Induction: Lower Lumen Output, Replace Entire Fixtureat End of Lamp Life, Quality of Offshore Suppliers• Fluorescent: Old Technology (Lower Quality Perception),Mercury Disposal, Cold Weather Lumen Depreciation, MoreMaintenance Than LED or Induction• Control Technology• Concerns of Operational Complexity, Security, and Liability• Waiting for “Better LED” (Cost, Glare & Illumination)Obstacles to Lighting Upgrades
  30. 30. Lighting 10-Year Life Cycle Cost AnalysisFloor Area = 240,000 SF, 750 Covered Spaces, Lights on 24/7Assume conduit and electrical panels reused and 1 for 1 Replacement of Existing MHCaution: Results will vary depending on fixtures selected, environment/climate, labor costs, electricity costs, structure type, etc.Type of Light175 W MHExistingT8 3-LampFluorescentT8 3-LampFluorescentw/ WirelessController 100-W LEDECO ParkingLights 100-WInduction# of Fixtures 300 300 300 300 300Fixture Input Wattage 210 11135-76-111(Avg = 64) 103 98Average Illuminance (fc) 6.5 6.7 2.2 - 6.7 5.6 4.3Power Density (W/SF) 0.26 0.14 0.5 - 0.14 0.13 0.12Maintained Lumens 9,750 10,600 10,600 7,000 6,250Efficacy (Lumens/W) 46.4 95.4 95.4 67.9 63.8Lamp Life (Hours/Years) 15,000 / 1.71 36,000 / 4.1 36,000 / 4.1 50,000 / 5.7 100,000 / 11.4400Fixture Installed Unit Cost Existing $275 $430 $550 $400Total Fixture First Cost Existing $82,500 $129,000 $165,000 $120,000Total Fixture Cost /Space Existing $110 $172 $220 $160Energy Cost @ 15¢/KWH $827,800 $437,600 $252,300 $406,000 $386,300Maintenance Cost $135,000 $43,200 $98,900 $210,000 $150,000Total 10-Year LCC $962,800 $480,800 $351,200 $616,000 $536,300Energy Savings / Year Existing $39,000 $57,600 $42,200 $44,200Payback Period in Years N/A 2.1 2.2 3.9 2.7NOTE: Tax Incentives and Utility Company Rebates Not Included Due to Locational Variability
  31. 31. High Pressure Sodium LightingHigh Pressure Sodium Advantages High Pressure Sodium DisadvantagesLower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in ParkingMatch Existing Facilities…If NotRetrofitted AlreadyYellowish Light ColorLower Operating Cost Than Metal Halide Shorter Lamp Life than Newer TechnologyHigher Lamp Cost than FluorescentHigher Energy ConsumptionHigher Life Cycle Operating Cost
  32. 32. Metal Halide LightingMetal Halide Advantages Metal Halide DisadvantagesLower First Cost Nearing Obsolescence in Parking (TBD)Match Existing Facilities…If NotRetrofitted AlreadyHighest Energy ConsumptionWhite Light Higher Life Cycle Operating CostShorter Lamp Life than Newer TechnologyHigher Lamp Cost than Fluorescent
  33. 33. Fluorescent LightingFluorescent Advantages Fluorescent DisadvantagesLowest First Cost Perception of Lower Quality – Some PoorQuality Fixtures on the MarketLowest life Cycle Operating Cost Reduced Illuminance in Cold WeatherWhite Light Disposal of Lamps with MercuryLow Energy Consumption More Maintenance (Cleaning, Gasket)Lowest Lamp CostLong Lamp LifeInstant On / Off For LightingManagement
  34. 34. LED LightingLED Advantages LED DisadvantagesLow Energy Consumption Highest First CostLong Life…But, a Moving Target Replace Entire Fixture When LED’s FailWhite Light Some Poor Quality Foreign LED’sNo Mercury Disposal Light Distribution: Glare, Little Up Light,Less UniformGreat in Cold Climates Little History…Rapid ChangeInstant On / Off For LightingManagementLumens per Watt is too Low
  35. 35. Induction LightingInduction Advantages Induction DisadvantagesLow Energy Consumption Higher First Cost than FluorescentLong Lamp Life More Fixtures Required Due to LowLight OutputWhite Light Lumens per Watt is too LowGreat in Cold Climates Some Poor Quality Foreign LampsInstant On / Off For LightingManagementGood Light Distribution
  36. 36. Questions
  37. 37. Thank You Presenters!
  38. 38. This webinar and additional supplemental materials will be available at: more information please contact:Michael Myer: michael.myer@pnnl.govGary Cudney: gcudney@carlwalker.comPaul Wessel: pwessel@greenparkingcouncil.orgIf you have any suggestions for future webinars please email me