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Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil Process - Fractions, Derivatives and Product Uses


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One of our previous infographics looked at an overview of the complexity in the palm oil / palm kernel oil supply chain. RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certified oil still remains a market niche (16% of total palm oil production now RSPO certified); keeping physical oil separated from non certified oil can be very difficult and impossible depending on where you are based and the types of process and products used. If the world just used crude palm oil, tracing physical sustainable palm oil would be simpler.

We now delve a little deeper into the supply chain, identifying the various processes along the supply chain. Included are examples of product applications with a key that describes the various products and processes e.g Fractionation, Hydrogenation, distillation, IE Palm Stearin, RBD Palm Kernel Stearin, Emulsifier etc.

The product examples we provide do not cover all individual products that palm or palm kernel oil are used in. All main refinery processes are covered; however further blending and manufacturing processes do take place passed what is shown in this graphic.

- Palm Oil Mill Process
- Crushing
- Refining RBD
- Fractionation
- Interesterification
- Hydrogenation
- Glycerolysis
- Distillation

- RBD Palm Oil
- RBD Palm Olein
- RBD Palm Stearin
- Double Olein (or Super Olein)
- Palm Mid Fraction
- Double Stearin
- Mid Stearin
- Palm Kernel Expeller
- RBD Palm Kernel Oil
- RBD Palm Kernel Olein
- RBD Palm Kernel Stearin
- Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD)
- Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillates (PKFAD)
- Oleochemicals
- Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO)
- Emulsifier
- Hydrogenated Palm Olein
- Hydrogenated Double Olein
- Hydrogenated Palm Oil
- Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Olein
- IE Palm
- IE Palm Olein
- IE Palm Stearin

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Palm Oil, Palm Kernel Oil Process - Fractions, Derivatives and Product Uses

  1. 1. Oil Palm: Fractions & Derivatives Palm Oil process Distillation Refining InteresterificationIE Palm Hydrogenation Glycerolysis Hydrogenated Palm Oil Oil Palm Fruit Oil Palm Mill Palm Kernel Emulsifier Emulsifier RBD Palm Oil Oleochemicals Palm Fatty Acid Distillates Fractionation 80% 20% 50% 50% 40% 60% RBD Palm Stearin Fractionation RBD Palm Olein Interesterification Interesterification IE Palm Olein IE Palm Stearin Mid Stearin Double Stearin Fractionation Palm Mid Fraction Hydrogenated Double Olein Glycerolysis Hydrogenation Double Olein Hydrogenation Glycerolysis Hydrogenated Palm Olein Emulsifier Crude Palm Oil Process ProductKey:
  2. 2. Oil Palm: Fractions & Derivatives Palm Kernel Oil process Oil Palm Fruit Palm Kernel Oil Palm Mill Crude Palm Oil Crushing Palm Kernel Expeller Crude Palm Kernel Oil Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillates Oleochemicals Distillation Refining RBD Palm Kernel Oil Hydrogenation Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil 40%60% Refining RBD Palm Kernel Stearin Hydrogenation Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Olein RBD Palm Kernel Olein Fractionation Process ProductKey:
  3. 3. Mill Process Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs) are sterilized and stripped. The fruit is pressed to separate the oil from the ‘cake’ (a mixture of kernel and fibre). The oil is then purified and clarified. Crushing The kernel is cracked to remove the palm kernel shell (Palm Kernel Expeller or PKE) and the kernel is crushed and pressed to produce Palm Kernel Oil or PKO. Refining (RBD: Refinined, Bleached & Deodorised) Oil is refined to remove colour, odour and flavour. Fractionation Liquid Palm Olein and solid Palm Stearin are separated. This is achieved by using crystallisation techniques followed by a membrane filter process. Interesterification (IE) Oils are reformulated to produce different properties. Carbon chains are separated from the glycerine anchor and reattached in a different formation to create oils with improved properties for specific uses in the food industry. Hydrogenation A means of increasing the melting point of oils using Hydrogen gas. Glycerolysis The process of creating emulsifiers by adding glycerine. Emulsifiers facilitate the mixture of oil and water. Distillation A method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatility of components in a liquid mixture. Processes g HyHyydrdroggeen gass. aadddddining glycycerine. oil and wwater. tures basedd onon differences in aa l quq mixture StearinOlein
  4. 4. RBD Palm Oil Melting point: 35°C Properties: balanced fatty acid composition Uses: bakery fats, biscuit fat, foodservice frying oils RBD Palm Olein Melting point: 20°C Properties: liquid at room temperature Uses: snack food manufacture, cooking oils RBD Palm Stearin: Melting point:: 48°C Properties: solid at room temperature Uses: pastry fats, margarines, soap manufacture Double Olein (or Super Olein) Melting point: 10°C Properties: liquid frying oil, a good replacement for hydrogenated fat, good resistance to oxidation Uses: foodservice frying oils Palm Mid Fraction Melting point: 25-30°C Properties: solid at low temperature but melts quickly Uses: ganache type confectionery fillings, biscuit fillings, frying oil Double Stearin Melting point: 60-62°C Properties: very hard, easy to flake or powder Uses: soup dry mixes, cake dry mixes Mid Stearin Melting point: 30°C Properties: mid range melting point Uses: hard Stock for margarine Palm Kernel Expeller (PKE) Properties: good source of fibre and minerals including phosphorous, copper, zinc and manganese Uses: animal feed Products
  5. 5. RBD Palm Kernel Oil Melting point: 26-28°C Properties: highly saturated fat, semi-solid at room temperature, good melting properties, good lathering properties Uses: confectionery, ice cream, soap formulas RBD Palm Kernel Olein Melting point: 22-25°C Properties: low melting point, generally hydrogenated Uses: coffee whiteners RBD Palm Kernel Stearin Melting point: 32-33°C Properties: low melting point, good oxidative stability Uses: confectionery, biscuit cream, ice cream, chocolate coatings Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) Uses: animal feed, detergents Palm Kernel Fatty Acid Distillates (PKFAD) Uses: animal feed, detergents Oleochemicals: Properties: a replacement for petrochemicals Uses: detergent, biofuel Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Oil (HPKO) Melting point: 36ºC Properties: high in saturates, rapid melt down for good flavour release Uses: ice cream, confectionery, chocolate coatings, soap, cosmetics, biofuel Emulsifier Properties: facilitates the mixture of oil and water, significantly improving the texture of many foods. Also helps to maintain quality and freshness, preventing the growth of mould which would happen if the oil and fat separate. Uses: margarine, low fat spread, biscuits, cakes, ice cream, bread, etc. Products
  6. 6. Hydrogenated Palm Olein Melting Point: 42ºC Properties: good melting properties Uses: dairy fat alternatives Hydrogenated Double Olein Melting Point: 36ºC Properties: good melting properties Uses: confectionery fillings Hydrogenated Palm Oil Melting Point: 42ºC-65ºC Properties: high melting point Uses: distilled emulsifier manufacture, flaked and powdered Fats Hydrogenated Palm Kernel Olein Melting Point: 41ºC Properties: High Stability, able to powder Uses: confectionery coatings, coffee creamers and whiteners IE Palm Melting Point: 42ºC Properties: improved crystallisation Uses: dry mixes IE Palm Olein Melting Point: 38ºC Properties: improved crystallisation Uses: confectionery, biscuit filling fats IE Palm Stearin Melting Point: 50ºC Properties: flaked fats Uses: pizza dough Products