PM 2.5

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A presentation comprising of the research work done by Ph.D student Roeland Jansen while at Fudan University, Shanghai.

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PM 2.5

  1. 1. Introduc)on  in  PM2.5  measurements  in     Urban  China   (中国城市空气颗粒物PM2.5监测简介)   Roeland  Jansen   PhD  Student,  Fudan  University   Green  Drinks  China,  Shanghai,  August  9,  2012  
  2. 2. My  presenta)on    •  Introduc)on  in  PM2.5   •  Why  people  talk  about  it?     – (为什么人们开始讨论?)   •  How  to  characterize  PM2.5?   – (PM2.5的特征是什么?)   •  Where  PM2.5  comes  from  and  where  it  goes?   – (PM2.5的来源和转化?)   •  Why  some  days  are  nice  and  most  days  are  not  so  nice?   – (为什么空气质量时好时坏?)   •  What  can  we  do  with  our  measurements?   – (我们如何进行监测?)  
  3. 3. Why  people  talk  about  PM2.5  and   what  are  they  talking  about?  (为什么人们开始讨论研究PM2.5     关于它的关键问题是什么?)
  4. 4. Effect  on  humans  (对人类的影响)  •  Most  harmful  for:     •  Elderly,     •  Children  (0-­‐7  years)  and     •  People  with  Asthma   •  People  with  heart  disease  •  Most  harmful  are  the   human  body  unknown  species  such  as   trace  elements  (=heavy  metals)  and  elemental  carbon  which  are   inside  PM2.5    •  Don t  do  any  physical  ac)vi)es  with  high  PM,  don t  go  running.   Instead  go  aXer  a  rain  period  or  period  with  strong  wind.  
  5. 5. Effect  on  the  Environment     (对环境的影响)  •  Dry  deposi)on:  gravity,  wind,  buildings,  trees  •  Wet  deposi)on:  rain,  snow,  etc.  
  6. 6. Global  warming  effect.  
  7. 7. What  does  PM  look  like?   (PM的结构?)   Aerodynamic  diameter   dp   PM10  dp  ≤  10  μm  (about  1/6  of  a  human  hair)   PM2.5  dp  ≤  2.5  μm  (about  1/24  of  a  human  hair)   Expressed  in  μg/m3   d  =  1  cm   I  =  1  cm3   Inside  are  up  to   10000  par)cles   This  means  that  every  breath  you   take  contains  about  5000000   par)cles  
  8. 8. What  does  PM  look  like?   Reprinted  from  Fu  et  al.,  2012  
  9. 9. Names  and  standards(命名和标准)  •  PM  =  par)culate  maber  •  PM  =  Aerosols  =  Par)cles  =  solid/liquid  dispersed   in  the  atmosphere  •  Standard  comes  from  Ministry  of  Environmental   Protec)on  (MEP)  and  is     •  Annual  Average  =  35  μg/m3  (2010  BJ:  75  and  SH:  50)1   •  Compare  Annual  Average  set  by  USA  MEP  is  15  μg/m3    1  Ministry  of  Environmental    Protec)on  and  Shanghai  Environmental  Monitoring  Center  
  10. 10. Where  does  PM2.5  come  from?   The  “Natural”  sources  (来源)  Sea:  NaCl   Desert:   SiO2  (=sand)   Vulcano:   Sulfate   Calcium   Aluminium  
  11. 11. Where  does  PM2.5  come  from?  The  human  or  “Anthropogenic”  sources  (=harmful)   NOx   SO2   VOC   OH   NH3  
  12. 12. Local  sources  and  transport  from   point  sources   Beijing   Xiamen  
  13. 13. Nice  day!  (晴空万里)     That s  why  some  days   are  nice  and  most  are   not  so  nice!  Not  so  nice  day!(天气阴霾)   Reprinted  from    Jacob  
  14. 14. Where  does  PM2.5  go?  (沉降过程)  •  Dry  deposi)on:  gravity,  wind,  buildings,  trees  •  Wet  deposi)on:  rain,  snow,  etc.  •  Chemical  conversion  by  oxida)on  •  Transport  in  the  Environment  
  15. 15. Transport  in  the  Environment   在 环 境 中 的 迁 移Picture  taken  at  278  km  height   Reprinted  from  NASA  (Science  vol.  300:  1103-­‐1104,  1996)  
  16. 16. Situa)on  in  China  
  17. 17. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990  30  25  20  15  10   5   0   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  18. 18. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990-­‐2008  30  25  20  15  10   5   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  19. 19. Energy  use  (1.000  TWh)  1990-­‐2008  30   160   140  25   146   120  20   100  15   80   60  10   40   5   20   0   20   7   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  
  20. 20. PopulaGon  Growth  from  1990-­‐2008  (million)  and  in  %   100  1400   90  1200   80   70  1000   60   800   50   600   40   30   400   20   200   17   22   10   0   5   0   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD/World  Bank  
  21. 21. Energy  use  (kWh)  per  capita  1990-­‐2008  in  %  90000   130  80000   Effect  with  Increasing  wealth     110  70000   111   90  60000   70  50000  40000   50  30000   30  20000   10  10000   -­‐2   1   0   -­‐10   1990   2008   1990   2008   1990   2008   China   US   EU   Data  from  OECD,  IEA  and  World  Bank  
  22. 22. Economics  and  rela)on  with  the   Environment  •  Increase  in  Energy  needs  is  supplied  by  Coal   factories(煤矿厂供应了不断增加的能量需求):   •  Burning  Coal  is  a  major  contribu)on  to  Air  Pollu)on   •  70%  of  the  Energy  in  China  is  from  Coal   •  Every  7  to  10  days  a  new  Coal  factory  opens   •  30%  of  the  world  (2003)  •  Increase  in  traffic  •  Increase  in  Agriculture  •  All  have  a  big  impact  on  the  environment  
  23. 23. Why  China  is/was  so  bad?   (为什么中国污染这么严重?)  •  Lack  of  Environmental  awareness  for  decades;   –  (数十年来缺少环保意识)  •  Low  efficiency  of  Coal  factories;   –  (煤矿工厂能效利用率低下)  •  High-­‐pollu)ng  vehicles;   –  (车辆尾气污染严重)  •  Economic  growth  more  important  than  the  Environment?   –  (经济发展利益高于环境利益)  •  But  things  are  changing…   –  (然而情况正在改变…….)  
  24. 24. Sample  and  analyze  PM2.5   (PM2.5的采样和分析)  
  25. 25. Filter  measurements  (过滤器监测)   PM2.5 Inlet MassConc=  Mass  before-­‐  Mass  aXer   (Mass  24hr-­‐Mass  t0)  /  airflow   Eg:   3020  ug  –  1100  ug  /  1  m3/hr     =  80  ug/m3  Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) Flow control Air Pump
  26. 26. What’s  inside  a  PM2.5?     (PM2.5的组成)  
  27. 27. Filter     PM2.5 Inlet Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) Flow control Air Pump
  28. 28. Filter   PM2.5 Inlet Very  Harmful!!  Collected  aerosol  mass  M  on  filter  (eg  24  hrs) General  composi)on   Flow control Air Pump
  29. 29. Measurements  in  Shanghai   (PM2.5在上海的监测情况)  •  24  sta)ons  to  monitor  PM2.5   – (有24所监测站)  •  Scien)sts  es)mate  that  ~50%  of  PM2.5  comes  from   vehicle  exhaust.   – (据科学家估计有约50%的PM2.5来自于汽车尾气)  •  Each  sta)on  costs  about  80.000  –  380.000  RMB   – (每所监测站的平均费用在80.000  –  380.000  元)  •  Hourly  data  (available  for  public)   – (实时数据(对公众开放))  
  30. 30. Towards  a  solu)on?  What  does  the  government  do  (政府有何措施?):  •  liminate  150.000  high-­‐pollu)ng  cars  by  2014;   E ( – 到2014年淘汰150000辆重污染型汽车)  • mprove  fuel  oil,  gasoline  and  diesel  quality;     I ( – 提升燃油,汽油,柴油的质量)  •  ower  the  amount  of  sulfur  in  gasoline;   L ( – 减少汽油中的含硫量)  •  ontrol  of  dust  in  construc)on  sites;   C ( – 有效控制建筑工地的扬尘)  •  oal-­‐fired  boilers  replaced  with  cleaner  energy  hea)ng;   C ( – 用清洁能源代替燃烧煤矿资源)  
  31. 31. Fudan:  4th  Teaching  building  
  32. 32. Our  current  research:  Visibility  
  33. 33. Reprinted  from  Malm,  1999.  
  34. 34. Hangzhou  site  in  ZheJiang  Uni  
  35. 35. App  •  hbp://air.fresh-­‐ideas.cc/en/  
  36. 36. SCIENCE:   Thank  you!   And  special  thanks   to  Annie  (刘佳)    

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