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Low Carbon Planning - An Arup Experience


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Tony Chan is a Certified Practicing Planner (Australia), has a Bachelor’s degree in Town Planning (Honours) and a Master’s degree in Built Environment (Sustainable Development) from the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia. He is also a LEED Accredited Practitioner and has accumulated over 15 years of project experiences in Australia, Hong Kong, Malaysia, China and India. He was a founding member of Arup’s Planning team in Shanghai and currently leads the team from there. His work focuses primarily on the integrated urban development, urban design and project management processes. His expertise lies in integrating master planning and urban design with associated strategies (Energy, Water, Transportation, Waste etc.) to address natural resource consumption and carbon reduction.

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Low Carbon Planning - An Arup Experience

  1. 1. 8th August 2013 Tony Chan Green Drinks China Low Carbon Developments in China- An Arup Experience
  2. 2. Driver - Climate Change/ Global Warming
  3. 3. Surging GHG Emissions – In 2010 CO2 emissions was the biggest amount on record (higher than the worse case scenario by IPCC) Increased future sea level rise – 2x more than projected by working group of AR4. As high as 2m by 2100. Global temperature increase – 2x temperature increase (5.2degrees C compared to 2.4 degrees before) Ocean Acidification – CO2 dissolving to form What’s happened since 2006?
  4. 4. Low Carbon Developments - China
  5. 5. 1985 Urbanization 24% 52% 2012
  6. 6. Based on current trends, by 2025: • Close to One Billion people in urban centres by 2025.
  7. 7. HSBC, 2011
  8. 8. HSBC, 2011
  9. 9. HSBC, 2011
  10. 10. Energy Consumption % increased between 2000-2010 340% 240%Electricity consumption CO2 Emission * Electricity consumption increased by 135% in 2012 compared to that in 2010 195%Oil consumption
  11. 11. Largest GHG emitter in total terms (29% of world’s total) Largest Energy Producer 2nd Largest Energy Consumer 2nd Largest Oil Consumer China - Carbon & Energy Use
  12. 12. Per Capita CO2 Emission by Sector in 2010(IEA, 2010)
  13. 13. Reduce Carbon Intensity by 40-45% by 2020 - compared to 2005 levels (State Council, 2009 – First time having specific carbon emissions target). 12th 5 Year Plan - Reduce Carbon Intensity by 17% by end 2015 China’s Carbon Targets
  14. 14. China High Speed Rail (>200km/hr average) – 9,300km (Dec 2012) Urban Metro Transit Systems – 17 cities (2013) Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Systems – About 30 systems nationally Alternative Fuel Systems & Energy Efficient Public Transport Initiatives
  15. 15. Urban Metro (excl Light Rail Systems) 4 lines in 3 cities 55 lines in 17 cities (excl HK) 87 lines in 25 cities 1995 2013 2015
  16. 16. Arup Sustainability Tools
  17. 17. Eco-Footprint, Integrated Resource Management Model + SPeAR & other Carbon Tools
  18. 18. • Sustainability Benefits Modelling The Adelaide City’s Integrated Design Commission appointed Arup, to evaluate the relative performance of three plausible development futures for a city block within Adelaide city and measured using Arup’s Optimix methodology. * Site Urban IQ
  19. 19. Indicators and Measures VIBRANCY HEALTH SMALL FOOTPRINT 23 measures under the 4 themes of vibrancy, health, smaller footprint and resilience. RESILIENCE
  20. 20. Associate typologies to model Assign factors based on indicators to typologies through GIS Calculation outputs of indicators based on typologies through GIS Build design scenarios in 3d Modeling process
  21. 21. Arup Case Studies – Ningbo Climate Resillience, Changxindian Zoning Plan, Shanghai Expo & Zero Carbon
  22. 22. Urban System Plan National Urban System Plan Provincial Urban System Plan Proposed Low Carbon & Sustainable Zoning Codes 3. Originality Urban Masterplan City Urban System Plan City Masterplan Regulatory Plan Site Plan Indicators Detailed Plan Green Building Renewable Energy Water Resource Microclimate Green Infrastructure 1. Land Use 2. Land Area 3. Plot Ratio 4. Building Density 5. Building Height 6. Greening Rate 7. Car Parking
  23. 23. World Bank Climate Resilient City - Ningbo
  24. 24. Developed an Urban Resilience Methodology: Hazard Assessment. Risks like temperature rise, precipitation, etc. at different climate change scenarios were quantitatively forecasted. City Vulnerability Assessment explored five qualitative indicators – people, infrastructure, economy, environment and government to represent the overall city to examine the city’s ability against identified risks. Gap Analysis had two comprehensive inventories – natural disaster and policy and program. 70 plus recommendations were identified with priority needs for short, medium and long-term World Bank – Ningbo Climate Resilience Project
  25. 25. Changxindian Zoning Plan, Beijing
  26. 26. 50%reduction in CO2 emission compared to BAU Domestic water use to be less than 110 litres/ p/d Reduce domestic waste generation to 0.8kg/p/day 100%of residents within 400m of public transport stops At least 15%of energy supply from renewable energy At least 15% of residential development for social housing Changxing Low Carbon Community Setting targets
  27. 27. Innovative Zoning Plan 500 hectares site south-west of Beijing city Innovative approach to incorporate low carbon & sustainable planning conditions into statutory zoning plans. First of its kind in the China urban planning system.
  28. 28. Shanghai World Expo Site – Low Carbon Strategy Plan
  29. 29. Urban Best Practice Area (UBPA) – 0.15km2 Shanghai World Expo Site – 5.3km2 0 300 600 1500m Shanghai EXPO UBPA
  30. 30. Building Infrastructure Transportation Energy Supply Energy saving Energy supply structure Energy use Operation energy cost Fuel cost Carbon sink Energy consumption Emission Green space carbon sink • Preparing Low Carbon Indicators and Construction Guidelines plus Cost-Benefit Analysis. • LEED ND (Platinum) for UBPA site • Start Up Area – Urban Best Practice Area (UBPA) Site as well as Overall Low Carbon Strategy for entire Expo site (5km2).
  31. 31. Low carbon park management • Low carbon plan • Land development indicator • Carbon emission monitoring • Energy management • Carbon trade • Educational promotion Low carbon business • Business carbon emission report • Employee low carbon handbook • Energy saving incentives Low carbon living • Residents low carbon handbook • Low carbon life style  Operation management Community planning • Community services • Accessible facilities • Open space • Public transport • Public services Regional energy supply • Clean energy ratio Transportation • Public transport ratio • Non motorised transport • Pedestrian paths Building energy • New building • Existing building • Green building ratio Renewable energy • Renewable energy ratio Low carbon development • Local policy tackling climate change • Local green building standards • Total emission • Emission per unit area • Energy consumption per building area Water • Water saving equipments • Non-traditional water source • Rainwater sink and use • Surface water quality Green space • Plant ratio • Local plant index Waste reuse • Living waste collection • Construction waste recycling Microclimate • Heat island Building material • Recyclable material ratio • Reusable material ratio • Construction material produced within 500km 4 categories、41 indicators Local policy Carbon Effect * Note: indicators assessed in UBPA marked in red Low Carbon Indicator System
  32. 32. New buildings energy saving rate 60% Existing buildings energy saving rate 55% Reused water use ratio 15% Renewable energy ratio 20% Rainwater Infiltration and use 85% Open Space ratio 40% Green buildings proportion 100% Buildings Energy supply Water Green space Low Carbon Measures in the UBPA Site
  33. 33. 18 buildings (unchanged or modified) within UBPA 14 Low carbon technologies currently in use: • Solar panel electricity generation • Solar panel hot water • Solar panel cooling • Vertical wind power electricity generation • Horizontal wind power electricity generation • Biomass fuel • Fuel cell electricity generation • River water-source heat pump • Building material energy saving • Building structure energy saving • Ventilation system energy saving • LED lighting energy saving • Rainwater collection and reuse • Waste recycling
  34. 34. Zero Carbon Building Projects
  35. 35. 20 years of learning & sharing on Zero Carbon Masterplans & Projects HK Science Park Barangaroo Sydney Vanke Green Building Park Beijing Upton Square Jubilee Wharf, Penryn BowZED ZEDfactory Stratford City Barratt GreenhouseKingspan Lighthouse Earth Centre Conference Building Hanham Hall BedZED Dongtan Samsung Zero Energy House Pennbury Eco- town HK CIC ZCB
  36. 36. Moving research into delivery • 20 years of testing: what works + what does not • Economics is key to moving forward • Mass adoption cannot afford BAU+10% cost • Identifying combinations to solve this • Partnering for implementation demo • Deliver real examples for changing policies, codes & expectations HK Science Park Barangaroo Sydney
  37. 37. Hong Kong CIC Zero Carbon Architect: Ronald Lu & Partners • On site zero-carbon • Passive before active systems • Nat vent for 34% yr
  38. 38. D-01 ZCBuilding Strategies Output of PV panels
  39. 39. Energy Modelling for ZCB Passive  Design Ac-ve  Design Low  &  Zero  Carbon  Technologies Photovoltaic  Panels  and   Biodiesel  used  to  supply     remaining  energy  needs
  40. 40. Beijing Green Building Park - Visitors Centre Client : Vanke Architect: Ian Bogle Conference, exhibition, R&D offices • Carbon Neutral • BREEAM ‘Outstanding’ • Advanced passive design • Natural Ventilation for 40% year Mech plant 25% of BAU size Energy Reduction ‘Super-insulation’ • Triple glazing • High air-tightness • Night passive cooling • Low energy design fitout • Stack vent for high heat gain rooms 增加自然通风时段 Increase Natural Vent 增加自然通风时段 Increase Natural Vent Energy Systems • Micro-renewable CHP • Activated thermal mass • Labyrinth for ventilation pre-conditioning • Very low pressure pumps fans
  41. 41. Comparison between Visitors Centre reduced size of plant compared with a business-as-usual base-case. 4300m2 GFA Summer 34ºC 65% RH Uses: Visitor facilities Conference Exhibition R&D offices PAU m3/s Chiller kW Heat Rejection kW Boiler /CHP kW(th) 4300m2 GFA Summer 34ºC 65% RH Uses: Visitor facilities Conference Exhibition R&D offices Base-case 6.75 549 127 W/m2 671 437 101 W/m2 Design 4.47 100 23 W/m2 143 126 29 W/m2 Reductions -34% -82% -78% -71%
  42. 42. Set quantifiable & verifiable targets separately with specialist advice & training for each stage Maintaining Innovation Through to Delivery • Client ……..…..............…………… • Design team …...........……... • Detailed designers….. .... • Construction Managers....... • Contractors ….……… • Suppliers …………
  43. 43. Hong Kong 40 Storey Office Tower - Zero Carbon for Zero extra Capital Cost Aims to rewrite: • Rewrite conventional design principles • Rewrite Passive design principles • Rewrite Fitout standards • Rewrite planning & policy • Rewrite building environmental Assessment method • Rewrite expectations for all the stakeholders  And establish a new standard for sustainability. What’s next? Carbon Negative? Can this be naturally ventilated? Integrated Arup design scope including:  Concept design  Fitout brief  Building planning  Initial cost advice  Detailed design  Construction drawings & specifications  Review of site works  Checking commissioning on behalf of developer
  44. 44. Conclusion • Has to be a greater sense of urgency. • What we have been doing and are planning to do is not enough • There are no quick fixes and a lot to be done globally, regionally and locally. • Challenges abound but also lots of opportunities. • Technology is already here. Collectively we can play our part in this immense challenge.