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  • A recent study done by NREL in cooperation with both utilities and vendors shows the impact that a higher penetration on wind generation can have on the operation of the gridThe upper left is a typical dispatch curve with no windThe other charts show 10%, 20% and 30% wind penetrationYou can see the huge impact this can have on the operation of base load resources such as coal shown by the grey area.
  • Steven hauser presentation

    1. 1. A Smarter Grid: Building GRID 3.0<br />Marine Energy and Smart Grid Technology Workshop<br />May 10-11, 2010<br />Steve Hauser<br />VP, Grid Integration<br />[President Emeritus, <br />The GridWise Alliance]<br />
    2. 2. 2<br />Electricity System In the News Today<br />"this is the future of the utility."<br />"For the first time in the grid's 100-year history, consumers can understand exactly how much energy they are using and can participate in cost-saving programs,"<br />“You’re going to have more devices hooked up to the grid,” <br />“You have to make sure with these additional connecting points that they’re secure.”<br />
    3. 3. Today’s Electricity System<br />3<br /><ul><li>Production follows demand
    4. 4. Largely electromechanical
    5. 5. High carbon/low storage
    6. 6. Blind to distribution/demand
    7. 7. Very little information and control
    8. 8. Central planning, design and operation</li></li></ul><li>4<br />21st Century Electricity System<br /><ul><li>Information rich
    9. 9. Distributed design and operation
    10. 10. Clean tech priority
    11. 11. Ubiquitous storage
    12. 12. Automated operations
    13. 13. Highly differentiated energy services </li></li></ul><li>5<br />The Grid is Smart when…<br /> … your teenage daughter, who snuck out last night with the PHEV, plugged it in to recharge this morning and pressed “override” on your “smart charger” – paying $1.00 per kWh for daytime electricity. <br /> …luckily, your rooftop PV is providing most of the energy to recharge, and the extra battery in your garage is working overtime to provide regulation services to the utility at a premium rate…resulting in an overall net-zero cost to you.<br />...providing value to the local utility<br />…providing value to the consumer<br />…providing value to the local economy<br />…providing value to the environment<br />
    14. 14. Electricity System Framework for Change<br />GRID 3.0<br />Highly Differentiated Reliability<br />Grid Self- Optimization<br />End-to-EndAutomation<br />Clean ResourceOptimization<br />AutomatedEfficiency<br />Demand Management<br />visibility<br />DistributionAutomation<br />Electric VehicleManagement<br />Online Energy Efficiency &Management<br />Local Power Parks<br />control<br />Advanced Metering<br />DistributedRenewables<br />Load Curtailment<br />EmergencyPower<br />EE Programs<br />Capacity<br />Power Quality & Reliability<br />Energy Efficiency<br />Operational Efficiency<br />Clean Technology<br />Foundation / Infrastructure<br />
    15. 15. System of Systems Approach<br />7<br />Integrating Generation, Transmission, Distribution, and End-Use Applications<br />
    16. 16. Conceptual Paradigm Shift<br /><ul><li>More innovation
    17. 17. More information, more real time (visibility)
    18. 18. More connectivity
    19. 19. More consumer participation (control)
    20. 20. More automation (control)
    21. 21. More indigenous solutions
    22. 22. More customization/differentiation</li></li></ul><li>9<br />National Renewable Energy Laboratory Innovation for Our Energy Future<br />
    23. 23. Evolution of Smart Grid<br />More innovation<br />More information, more real time (visibility)<br />More connectivity<br />More automation (control)<br />More indigenous solutions<br />More customization/differentiation<br />
    24. 24. Optimizing the Cost of Smarter Grids<br />21stCentury<br />Power Quality & Reliability<br />Operational Efficiency<br />Clean Technology<br />Energy Efficiency<br />Capacity<br />Foundation / Infrastructure<br />
    25. 25. Capacity<br /><ul><li>Responsive demand
    26. 26. Defer and/or reduce production investments
    27. 27. Demand follows supply
    28. 28. High asset utilization
    29. 29. Reserve capacity
    30. 30. Must run plants
    31. 31. Microgrids/Consumer owned resources</li></li></ul><li>13<br />Capacity Challenges/Opportunities<br />15 % RERSERVE MARGIN<br />1,277,072 MW<br />AVERAGE SYSTEM CAPACITY <br />602,585 MW<br />
    32. 32. 14<br />Capacity Challenges/Opportunities<br />HOURS<br />
    33. 33. Grid Capacity Factors<br />Source: U.S. Department of Energy Smart Grid System Report – July 2009<br />
    34. 34. Transmission Capacity Added<br />16<br />Source: 2009 NERC Long Term Reliability Assessment<br />
    35. 35. Source: 06-09 A National Assessment of Demand Response Potential<br />Potential for Demand Response<br />U.S. Summer Peak Demand Forecast by Scenario<br />
    36. 36. Reliability and Power Quality<br /><ul><li>Ubiquitous, universal, reliable HQ power
    37. 37. Modern digital loads demand greater Q
    38. 38. Local solutions not always optimal
    39. 39. Drive to higher differentiation in service
    40. 40. Identify and serve “critical” loads</li></li></ul><li>Heterogeneous Reliability<br />Source: Microgrids and Heterogeneous Power Quality and Reliability by Chris Marnay<br />
    41. 41. Critical Loads<br />
    42. 42. Energy Efficiency<br /><ul><li>Computers and servers
    43. 43. Power supply and management
    44. 44. Information and telecom infrastructure
    45. 45. Motors and motor systems
    46. 46. Lighting and lighting systems
    47. 47. Sensors/Controllers
    48. 48. Alternative energy resources
    49. 49. Smart Grid
    50. 50. Transportation systems
    51. 51. General infrastructure</li></li></ul><li>Source: Semi-Conductor Technologies: The Potential to Revolutionize U.S. Energy Productivity – Rpt E094<br />ACEEE Study on EE Potential<br />Scenarios of US Electricity Growth<br />
    52. 52. Operational Efficiency<br /><ul><li>Automating processes and systems
    53. 53. Demand supplied ancillary services
    54. 54. Reducing energy losses
    55. 55. Reducing theft
    56. 56. Enhanced decision tools
    57. 57. Reduced outages
    58. 58. Workforce productivity</li></li></ul><li>Aging Assets<br />24<br />Source: GE Energy Lunch and Learn Series<br />
    59. 59. Grid Inefficiency<br />25<br />
    60. 60. Projected Spinning Reserve Requirements<br />26<br />Source: NREL Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, January 2010<br />
    61. 61. Increasing Ramp Requirements<br />27<br /> Source: 2009 NERC Long Term Reliability Assessment<br />
    62. 62. Clean Technology<br /><ul><li>Possibly greatest change (speed & scale)
    63. 63. RPS/carbon tax
    64. 64. Technology Innovation
    65. 65. Solar/Wind/Etc
    66. 66. Storage
    67. 67. PHEV and beyond
    68. 68. Fuel Cells/Advanced Nuclear/Etc.</li></li></ul><li>US Carbon Goals<br /><ul><li>17% reduction below 2005 levels in 2020
    69. 69. 30% reduction below 2005 levels in 2025
    70. 70. 42% reduction below 2005 levels in 2030
    71. 71. 83% reduction below 2005 levels by 2050</li></li></ul><li>Source: 2009 Scenario Reliability Assessment<br />Capacity Expansion<br />
    72. 72. High RE Penetration Impacts on Operation<br />Western Wind and Solar Integration Study<br />
    73. 73. Accommodating RE Variability<br />8MW connected to substation<br />High Variability due to clouds<br /> Xcel Energy – Alamosa System<br />
    74. 74. Our Vision of a 21st Century Grid<br />A 21st Century Grid must substantially increase the use of existing production assets<br /> Over 1,000 GW of production assets serve our national power needs, but many of these expensive assets are used only a few times each year. Some are almost never used. We must plan, design, build and operate a system that is much more effective at using these assets.<br />A 21st Century Grid must readily accommodate new generation, transmission, distribution and consumer technologies<br /> Our ever evolving digital society is already placing unique and difficult demands on our grid. Growing environmental concerns will drive a diversity of cleaner sources of power. These and unanticipated future needs demand that we plan, design, build and operate a “plug and play” grid that maximizes flexibility, extensibility and adaptability.<br />A 21st Century Grid must actively identify and extract energy efficiency throughout the system<br /> Maximizing energy efficiency from generation to load is critical in meeting our carbon reduction goals. We must plan, design, build and operate a grid that will proactively “mine” carbon throughout, targeting both static and dynamic changes to the system.<br />A 21st Century Grid must be operated in a highly efficient and highly automated manner.<br /> As the grid rapidly increases in complexity, we must plan, design, build and operate a system that is much more automated; sensing changes, responding and adjusting in near real time—eventually becoming an adaptive self-healing system. <br />A 21st Century Grid must be able to highly differentiate the reliability requirements of consumers<br /> Our future, increasingly digital, economy will require higher levels of reliability and power quality. The cost of providing this service will be prohibitive if applied universally. We must plan, design, build and operate a grid that provides for variation in the quality of power while creating a grid that is absolute in providing for critical loads.<br />
    75. 75. 34<br />