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1
Mining
                              Tires

Tire Weight: 12,000 Pounds
Pyrolysis Oil: 650 Gallons
Carbon Black: 7,000 Pounds
Steel: 2,000 Pounds




                                      2
Organic Portion of the VCR Carbon Black

The surface chemistry of a series of commercial rubber grade carbon black and CBp was
investigated by ESCA. In Figure 3 the C1s spectra of a commercial carbon black and of a
CBp are shown. The spectra were fitted to an asymmetric peak of graphitic carbon, a
peak from carbon in small aromatic compounds, three peaks for carbon with one, two
and three bonds to oxygen and finally to a Plasmon peak. In the C1s spectra of the
commercial carbon blacks in addition to graphitic and Plasmon peaks only very small
peaks of other carbon were observed, indicating that the surface of commercial carbon
blacks consists mostly of graphitic carbon. In contrast to the spectra of commercial
carbon blacks the c1s spectra of CBp showed a pronounced peak (c1) of carbons in small
aromatic compounds. The area of the c1 peak depends strongly on the vacuum
conversion process conditions. It is decreasing with increasing vacuum conversion
process temperature and decreasing vacuum conversion process pressure (Figure 4). The
c1 peak is assigned to vacuum conversion process carbon which is formed from
hydrocarbons adsorbed on the carbon black surface. The increase of the vacuum
conversion carbon deposited with increasing vacuum conversion pressure is easily
explained since the concentration of the vacuum conversion carbon forming
hydrocarbons in the gas phase increases with increasing pressure. An increase of
vacuum conversion temperature reduces the amount of hydrocarbons absorbed on the
surface on the carbon black which are precursors in vacuum conversion carbon
formation and therefore the amount of vacuum conversion carbon decreases with
increasing vacuum conversion temperature. Figure 4 also includes two CBp which were
produced by vacuum conversion at atmospheric pressure (100.0 kPa) at 500 degrees C in
commercial tire vacuum conversion plants: ECO2 Florida and Kobe,


Japan. The Kobe process also includes a
post vacuum conversion heat treatment of
the CBp at 600 degrees C. Comparison
with the CBp from vacuum conversion
showed that the vacuum conversion in
vacuum     significantly reduces    the
concentration of vacuum conversion
carbon on the CBp. A post vacuum
conversion heat treatment reduces the
amount of vacuum conversion




                                                                                          3
carbon deposited on CBp from atmospheric vacuum conversion. However, the
concentration of vacuum conversion carbon was still much higher than after vacuum
conversion.
The deposition of vacuum conversion carbon on the carbon black surface also influences
the surface morphology of CBp. Commercial rubber-grade carbon blacks have a rough
surface. CBp from vacuum conversion have a similar surface morphology whereas CBp
from atmospheric vacuum conversion have a smoother surface due to vacuum conversion
carbon deposited on the surface.

Inorganic Portion of the vacuum conversion Carbon Black
An important difference between commercial carbon blacks and CBp is the high
concentration of inorganic components in the latter. Commercial carbon blacks usually
contain less than 0.2% of ash, whereas the ash concentration in CBp can be as high as
15.0%. The most important sources for inorganic components in the CBp are usually
ZnO and S which are used as vulcanization catalyst and vulcanization agent,
respectively and sometimes mineral fillers as SiO2 and Al2O3.
The composition of the inorganic components in the CBp
depends on the pyrolysis conditions.
Diffractogramms of CBp from vacuum conversion at
0.3 kPa and different vacuum conversion
temperatures are presented in Figure 5. In spite of
the presence of silica and alumina, ZnO and ZnS
were the only crystalline inorganic compounds in
the CBp. The concentration of ZnO decreased with
increasing vacuum conversion temperature and
vacuum conversion pressure, whereas the
concentration of ZnS increased the same order. ZnS
is formed by reaction of S with ZnO: ZnO + S - > ZnS
+1/2 O2. S originates from decomposed organic
sulfur compounds. The formation of ZnS is
important, since ZnS forms individual particles and
ZnS has a much higher density than the organic part
of CBp which should allow a separation of Zn from
the CBp (e.g. by flotation).



                                                                                         4
V.C.R.




         V.C.R.




                  6
15” Trailer Tire
        made with
Green Carbon’s carbon black
Energy Star Helps Auto Plants Improve Energy Efficiency
Release date: 06/22/2010
Contact Information: Stacy Kika, kika.stacy@epa.gov, 202-564-0906,
Enesta Jones, jones.enesta@epa.gov, 202-564-7873


WASHINGTON – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program has
helped improve the energy efficiency of the auto manufacturing industry, which has cut
fossil fuel use by 12 percent and reduced greenhouse gases by more than 700,000 tons of
carbon dioxide, according to a recent report by the Nicholas Institute for Environmental
Policy Solutions at Duke University. The emissions reductions, which help to fight climate
change, equal the emissions from the electricity use of more than 80,000 homes for a year.

The report, Assessing Improvement in the Energy Efficiency of U.S. Auto Assembly Plants,
affirms EPA’s energy management strategy, particularly the importance of performance
measurement and recognition for top performance. The report also demonstrates that the
gap between top performing plants and others has closed and the performance of the
industry as a whole has improved.

Central to this energy management approach is the Energy Star Energy Performance
Indicator (EPI) for auto assembly plants, which enables industry to benchmark plant energy
performance against peers and over time. Energy Star EPIs exist or are under development
for more than 20 other industries. Across these industries, EPA has recognized nearly 60
manufacturing plants with the Energy Star label, representing savings of more than $500
million and more than 6 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually.

The U.S. industrial sector accounts for more than 30 percent of energy use in the United
States. If the energy efficiency of industrial facilities improved by 10 percent, EPA estimates
that Americans would save nearly $20 billion and reduce greenhouse gas emissions equal
to the emissions from the electricity use of more than 22 million homes for a year.
Hundreds of industrial companies across more than a dozen manufacturing industries are
working with EPA’s Energy Star program to develop strong energy management programs,
earn the Energy Star for their plants and achieve breakthrough improvements in energy
efficiency.




                                                                                                  8
9
Oil Distillation Unit
Heavy Oil sample results
Based on a recent True Boiling Point assay, the refinery fractions
were listed as follows

1)   IBP - 115 °F    LPG / Light Naphtha
2)   115 – 165 °F    Naphtha
3)   165 – 350 °F    Heavy Naphtha / Gasoline
4)   350 – 450 °F    Light Kerosene / Light Diesel
5)   450 – 525 °F    Kerosene / Diesel
6)   525 – 650 °F    Heavy Diesel
7)   650 – 800 °F    Light Gas Oil
8)   800 – 1000 °F   Heavy Gas Oil
9)   1000+ °F        Residual

Based on the simulated distillation run on your Heavy Oil Sample
2011070220, each fraction in approximate wt% would be :

1)   <1.0
2)   <1.0
3)   8.0
4)   5.0
5)   5.0
6)   9.0
7)   37.0
8)   33.0
9)   3.0
Light Oil sample results
Based on a recent True Boiling Point assay, the refinery fractions
were listed as follows

1)   IBP - 115 °F    LPG / Light Naphtha
2)   115 – 165 °F    Naphtha
3)   165 – 350 °F    Heavy Naphtha / Gasoline
4)   350 – 450 °F    Light Kerosene / Light Diesel
5)   450 – 525 °F    Kerosene / Diesel
6)   525 – 650 °F    Heavy Diesel
7)   650 – 800 °F    Light Gas Oil
8)   800 – 1000 °F   Heavy Gas Oil
9)   1000+ °F        Residual

Based on the simulated distillation run on your sample
2011060269, each fraction in approximate wt% would be :

1)   <1.0
2)   1.0
3)   22.0
4)   16.0
5)   14.0
6)   20.0
7)   18.0
8)   9.0
9)   <1.0
I have looked over the PIANO and Simulated Distillation reports for your recent oil sample on our Certificate
of Analysis 2011060269-001A. We have talked about the possibility of using this material as a diesel fuel or
refinery feedstock.

The Simulated Distillation shows the boiling range of your material to be 109 °F to 1025 °F with a midpoint of
508 °F. This is wider than the boiling range of a #2 diesel which typically run about 350 °F to 700 °F.

The PIANO analysis gives us some insight into the composition of the oil sample. The dark straw color,
aromatic odor, and (low) 24.5 ° API Gravity are all non characteristic for #2 diesel fuel. The Paraffin content
is 3.6 wt% and Iso-paraffin content is 51.8 wt%. This is inverse of what we typically see for diesel fuels.
Aromatic content at 18.0 wt % is typical of diesel. Both Olefin content at 5.1 wt% and Naphthenic (Cyclo-
paraffin) content at 21.6 wt% are a little high for diesel fuels. Basically the PIANO analysis is telling us that
we are looking at a used or similarly recovered refined distillate.

Ruling out the possibility of using this product directly as a #2 diesel fuel, it is still very likely that it would
interest a refiner as a feedstock. With that in mind, it is best to approach the refiner and directly determine
the analytical needs required to submit the product. Typically, in conjunction with the distillation and
composition, refiners would want to know acidity, sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, chloride, metals,
viscosity, sediment, and water to name a few additional analyses. As you can see, it would save money to
determine what is actually required.

We can certainly help you with any additional analyses that you may require. Thank you for your business
and feel free to contact me if you have any further questions.
________________________________________
Tom Benz
Assistant Hydrocarbon Laboratory Manager



SPL, Inc.
8820 Interchange Drive | Houston, TX 77054
P: 713.660.0901 x 182 | F: 713.660.6035
tbenz@spl-inc.com
Green Carbon
  Products produced from reclaimed carbon black.


Hoses




   OTR Tires
Green Carbon’s Carbon
  Black Advantages

 • Abundant, No Cost
   Feedstock
 • Not Tied to the Cost of
   Oil
 • Standard Passenger Tire
   Produces 7.5 Pounds of
   Environmentally Friendly
   “Green” Carbon Black
 • Tire Processing Facilities
   Can Easily be Located
   near or at Tire Plants

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10. green carbon, inc fred taylor & phil wilson

  • 1. 1
  • 2. Mining Tires Tire Weight: 12,000 Pounds Pyrolysis Oil: 650 Gallons Carbon Black: 7,000 Pounds Steel: 2,000 Pounds 2
  • 3. Organic Portion of the VCR Carbon Black The surface chemistry of a series of commercial rubber grade carbon black and CBp was investigated by ESCA. In Figure 3 the C1s spectra of a commercial carbon black and of a CBp are shown. The spectra were fitted to an asymmetric peak of graphitic carbon, a peak from carbon in small aromatic compounds, three peaks for carbon with one, two and three bonds to oxygen and finally to a Plasmon peak. In the C1s spectra of the commercial carbon blacks in addition to graphitic and Plasmon peaks only very small peaks of other carbon were observed, indicating that the surface of commercial carbon blacks consists mostly of graphitic carbon. In contrast to the spectra of commercial carbon blacks the c1s spectra of CBp showed a pronounced peak (c1) of carbons in small aromatic compounds. The area of the c1 peak depends strongly on the vacuum conversion process conditions. It is decreasing with increasing vacuum conversion process temperature and decreasing vacuum conversion process pressure (Figure 4). The c1 peak is assigned to vacuum conversion process carbon which is formed from hydrocarbons adsorbed on the carbon black surface. The increase of the vacuum conversion carbon deposited with increasing vacuum conversion pressure is easily explained since the concentration of the vacuum conversion carbon forming hydrocarbons in the gas phase increases with increasing pressure. An increase of vacuum conversion temperature reduces the amount of hydrocarbons absorbed on the surface on the carbon black which are precursors in vacuum conversion carbon formation and therefore the amount of vacuum conversion carbon decreases with increasing vacuum conversion temperature. Figure 4 also includes two CBp which were produced by vacuum conversion at atmospheric pressure (100.0 kPa) at 500 degrees C in commercial tire vacuum conversion plants: ECO2 Florida and Kobe, Japan. The Kobe process also includes a post vacuum conversion heat treatment of the CBp at 600 degrees C. Comparison with the CBp from vacuum conversion showed that the vacuum conversion in vacuum significantly reduces the concentration of vacuum conversion carbon on the CBp. A post vacuum conversion heat treatment reduces the amount of vacuum conversion 3
  • 4. carbon deposited on CBp from atmospheric vacuum conversion. However, the concentration of vacuum conversion carbon was still much higher than after vacuum conversion. The deposition of vacuum conversion carbon on the carbon black surface also influences the surface morphology of CBp. Commercial rubber-grade carbon blacks have a rough surface. CBp from vacuum conversion have a similar surface morphology whereas CBp from atmospheric vacuum conversion have a smoother surface due to vacuum conversion carbon deposited on the surface. Inorganic Portion of the vacuum conversion Carbon Black An important difference between commercial carbon blacks and CBp is the high concentration of inorganic components in the latter. Commercial carbon blacks usually contain less than 0.2% of ash, whereas the ash concentration in CBp can be as high as 15.0%. The most important sources for inorganic components in the CBp are usually ZnO and S which are used as vulcanization catalyst and vulcanization agent, respectively and sometimes mineral fillers as SiO2 and Al2O3. The composition of the inorganic components in the CBp depends on the pyrolysis conditions. Diffractogramms of CBp from vacuum conversion at 0.3 kPa and different vacuum conversion temperatures are presented in Figure 5. In spite of the presence of silica and alumina, ZnO and ZnS were the only crystalline inorganic compounds in the CBp. The concentration of ZnO decreased with increasing vacuum conversion temperature and vacuum conversion pressure, whereas the concentration of ZnS increased the same order. ZnS is formed by reaction of S with ZnO: ZnO + S - > ZnS +1/2 O2. S originates from decomposed organic sulfur compounds. The formation of ZnS is important, since ZnS forms individual particles and ZnS has a much higher density than the organic part of CBp which should allow a separation of Zn from the CBp (e.g. by flotation). 4
  • 5.
  • 6. V.C.R. V.C.R. 6
  • 7. 15” Trailer Tire made with Green Carbon’s carbon black
  • 8. Energy Star Helps Auto Plants Improve Energy Efficiency Release date: 06/22/2010 Contact Information: Stacy Kika, kika.stacy@epa.gov, 202-564-0906, Enesta Jones, jones.enesta@epa.gov, 202-564-7873 WASHINGTON – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Energy Star program has helped improve the energy efficiency of the auto manufacturing industry, which has cut fossil fuel use by 12 percent and reduced greenhouse gases by more than 700,000 tons of carbon dioxide, according to a recent report by the Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions at Duke University. The emissions reductions, which help to fight climate change, equal the emissions from the electricity use of more than 80,000 homes for a year. The report, Assessing Improvement in the Energy Efficiency of U.S. Auto Assembly Plants, affirms EPA’s energy management strategy, particularly the importance of performance measurement and recognition for top performance. The report also demonstrates that the gap between top performing plants and others has closed and the performance of the industry as a whole has improved. Central to this energy management approach is the Energy Star Energy Performance Indicator (EPI) for auto assembly plants, which enables industry to benchmark plant energy performance against peers and over time. Energy Star EPIs exist or are under development for more than 20 other industries. Across these industries, EPA has recognized nearly 60 manufacturing plants with the Energy Star label, representing savings of more than $500 million and more than 6 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent annually. The U.S. industrial sector accounts for more than 30 percent of energy use in the United States. If the energy efficiency of industrial facilities improved by 10 percent, EPA estimates that Americans would save nearly $20 billion and reduce greenhouse gas emissions equal to the emissions from the electricity use of more than 22 million homes for a year. Hundreds of industrial companies across more than a dozen manufacturing industries are working with EPA’s Energy Star program to develop strong energy management programs, earn the Energy Star for their plants and achieve breakthrough improvements in energy efficiency. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 11. Heavy Oil sample results Based on a recent True Boiling Point assay, the refinery fractions were listed as follows 1) IBP - 115 °F LPG / Light Naphtha 2) 115 – 165 °F Naphtha 3) 165 – 350 °F Heavy Naphtha / Gasoline 4) 350 – 450 °F Light Kerosene / Light Diesel 5) 450 – 525 °F Kerosene / Diesel 6) 525 – 650 °F Heavy Diesel 7) 650 – 800 °F Light Gas Oil 8) 800 – 1000 °F Heavy Gas Oil 9) 1000+ °F Residual Based on the simulated distillation run on your Heavy Oil Sample 2011070220, each fraction in approximate wt% would be : 1) <1.0 2) <1.0 3) 8.0 4) 5.0 5) 5.0 6) 9.0 7) 37.0 8) 33.0 9) 3.0
  • 12. Light Oil sample results Based on a recent True Boiling Point assay, the refinery fractions were listed as follows 1) IBP - 115 °F LPG / Light Naphtha 2) 115 – 165 °F Naphtha 3) 165 – 350 °F Heavy Naphtha / Gasoline 4) 350 – 450 °F Light Kerosene / Light Diesel 5) 450 – 525 °F Kerosene / Diesel 6) 525 – 650 °F Heavy Diesel 7) 650 – 800 °F Light Gas Oil 8) 800 – 1000 °F Heavy Gas Oil 9) 1000+ °F Residual Based on the simulated distillation run on your sample 2011060269, each fraction in approximate wt% would be : 1) <1.0 2) 1.0 3) 22.0 4) 16.0 5) 14.0 6) 20.0 7) 18.0 8) 9.0 9) <1.0
  • 13. I have looked over the PIANO and Simulated Distillation reports for your recent oil sample on our Certificate of Analysis 2011060269-001A. We have talked about the possibility of using this material as a diesel fuel or refinery feedstock. The Simulated Distillation shows the boiling range of your material to be 109 °F to 1025 °F with a midpoint of 508 °F. This is wider than the boiling range of a #2 diesel which typically run about 350 °F to 700 °F. The PIANO analysis gives us some insight into the composition of the oil sample. The dark straw color, aromatic odor, and (low) 24.5 ° API Gravity are all non characteristic for #2 diesel fuel. The Paraffin content is 3.6 wt% and Iso-paraffin content is 51.8 wt%. This is inverse of what we typically see for diesel fuels. Aromatic content at 18.0 wt % is typical of diesel. Both Olefin content at 5.1 wt% and Naphthenic (Cyclo- paraffin) content at 21.6 wt% are a little high for diesel fuels. Basically the PIANO analysis is telling us that we are looking at a used or similarly recovered refined distillate. Ruling out the possibility of using this product directly as a #2 diesel fuel, it is still very likely that it would interest a refiner as a feedstock. With that in mind, it is best to approach the refiner and directly determine the analytical needs required to submit the product. Typically, in conjunction with the distillation and composition, refiners would want to know acidity, sulfur, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, chloride, metals, viscosity, sediment, and water to name a few additional analyses. As you can see, it would save money to determine what is actually required. We can certainly help you with any additional analyses that you may require. Thank you for your business and feel free to contact me if you have any further questions. ________________________________________ Tom Benz Assistant Hydrocarbon Laboratory Manager SPL, Inc. 8820 Interchange Drive | Houston, TX 77054 P: 713.660.0901 x 182 | F: 713.660.6035 tbenz@spl-inc.com
  • 14. Green Carbon Products produced from reclaimed carbon black. Hoses OTR Tires
  • 15.
  • 16. Green Carbon’s Carbon Black Advantages • Abundant, No Cost Feedstock • Not Tied to the Cost of Oil • Standard Passenger Tire Produces 7.5 Pounds of Environmentally Friendly “Green” Carbon Black • Tire Processing Facilities Can Easily be Located near or at Tire Plants