SDCs_prelimaryresearch_ASEF

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Prepared by Ms. Ella Antonio, Earth Council.

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SDCs_prelimaryresearch_ASEF

  1. 1. ASIA AND PACIFICINSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Integration and Coordination Situation and Issues Ella S. Antonio Earth Council Asia-Pacific
  2. 2. SD INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKMulti-stakeholder Inter-Governmental Non-State Actors at theGlobal SD Body sidelinesRegional Regional Regional Inter-Governmental Regional Multi-stakeholder Process Non-State Actors atProcess Regional Process Process the sidelines SD Bodies Regional Regional Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder Inter-Governmental Process Process Non-State Actors at Process Process Sub-Regional the sidelines SD Bodies Regional Regional Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder & Multi- Process Process stakeholder Process Governmental Process National and National and Local Local SD Bodies Bodies Ideal Set-Up Current Set-Up in AsPac
  3. 3. ESD BODIES AT VARIOUS LEVELS Europe AsPac LatAm AfricaGlobal SD Body UNCSD (UNDESA) UNECE, ESCAP, ESCWA ECLAC, UNDP- ECA,, UNDP- EC, UNDP UNDP-AP, UNEP-ROAP LatAm, UNEP- AfricaRegionalESD Regional Regional Europe UNEP-ROWA ROLAC UNEP-ROAProcess Bodies Process UNEP-ROE ASEAN, GMS SAARC, SACEP, SPREP, c/o Ingeborg NEASPEC, CAREC, NI NI Regional Regional Sub-Regional ESD ICSD, Process Bodies Process Sub-regional branches of ESCAP, UNEP, UNDP National/Local National/Local National/Local National/Local Regional Regional ESD Body ESD Body ESD Body ESD Body National/Local Process Process ESD Bodies UNDP CT UNDP CT UNDP CT UNDP CT
  4. 4. ASPAC REGIONAL ESD BODIES ESCAP/ESCWA UNDP UNEPFunction Forum for governments to Advocates for change; Helps governments review & discuss economic & connects countries to translate global social issues; strengthen knowledge, experience and environmental commitments regional cooperation; resources; leads into national action; create promote sustainable programming of GEF & partnerships and economic & social climate-related funds; leads constituency for development; strengthen UN country team. environmental actions institutional capacitiesFocus/ Macroeconomic policy; Governance; Poverty MEAs; Regional social development; trade & Reduction and MDG; Crisis environmental issuesPriority investment; transport; Prevention/Recovery;Themes environment & SD; disaster Environment & Energy; risk reduction HIV/AIDS
  5. 5. ASPAC REGIONAL ESD BODIES ESCAP/ESCWA UNDP UNEP Committee on Environment & Division of RegionalFocal Unit N/A Development/ EDD Cooperation/Regional OfficesMembership ESCAP – 62; ECWA - 14 AP -62; -WA-14 ROAP - 47 ; ROWA - 12 Inter-agency mtgs, Regional Inter-agency mtg; RegionalHorizontal Regional consultation meetings; Coordination Mechanism & Bureaus; inter-nationalIntegration MCED; direct CS participation consultations, MCED consultations Upstream_ECOSOC Upstream: ECOSOC Upstream: Governing Council; Downstream: sub-regional Downstream: sub-regional Downstream: sub-regionalVertical offices; countries offices; countries offices; Environment MinistersIntegration Form: Consultation Form: Consultation Form: projects through UNDP meetings; project thru UNDP meetings; projects at country level Institutionalized w/ StructureStakeholder Consultative mtgs/fora e.g. Consultative mechanism (MG Stakeholder Branch; MGParticipation AsPac Business Forum Stakeholder Forum)
  6. 6. NOTES ON REGIONAL ESD BODIES• There are many more relevant and related regional bodies that deal with ESD (e.g. other UN programs, regional IFIs)• Overlaps among the bodies are very apparent• Many attempts to coordinate and harmonize agenda/activities but their effectiveness is not readily discernible• Representation or integration of initiatives is possible (e.g. UNEP by UNDP at country level) = One UN• Despite the regional bodies, DESA goes straight to countries and vice-versa on UNCSD matters.
  7. 7. ASPAC SUB-REGIONAL ESD BODIES ASEAN SAARC ICSDCoverage Southeast Asia/10 nations South Asia / 8 nations Central Asia/ 5 nationsFocus Economic, social, cultural Economic & social Economic, environment & development; ESD development natural resourcesObjective/ Accelerate economic growth, Strengthen cooperation on Regional cooperation inFunction social progress, & cultural economic growth & social environmental protection and development; promote progress; strengthen SD; solve problems related to regional peace & stability collective self-reliance Aral crisisVertical Country participation; Country participation; Country participation;Integration representation in regional & representation in regional and representation in regional and global bodies global bodies global bodiesHorizontal Regular summit & meetings Meetings of heads of states & Annual meeting of heads ofIntegration of foreign ministers, standing Council of Foreign Ministers; states and other functional Standing Committee; project committees Action CommitteesParticipation CS affiliation Guide Consultation meetings Consultation meetingsmechanism
  8. 8. ASPAC SUB-REGIONAL ESD PROGRAMS NEASPEC SPREP SACEP GMSCoverage Northeast Asia/ 6 Pacific/ 25 island South Asia Southeast Asia and nations states Yunnan provinceCreator/Year ESCAP/1993 ESCAP/1982 Member govts/ 1982 ADB/1992Objective/ Address Promote ESD in the Cooperate in Envt in Implement projectsFunction environmental region; focus on CC, the context of SD in e.g. transport, problems; promote Biodiversity, Waste (waste mgt; CC energy, envt.,HRD, common policy Mgt adaptation, data mgt) agriculture dialogueVertical Participation of Country participation; Governing Council; Feeds into ASEAN,Integration Environment Ministries; representation in feed into regional and ESCAP and sub- reports/inputs to ESCAP regional and global global bodies/mtgs regional bodies bodies/mtgsHorizontal Meetings of officials; Consultation Sectoral workingIntegration national focal points Annual meetings meetings grps; ministerial mtgsParticipation Consultation Consultationmechanism Not clear Consultation meetings meetings meetings
  9. 9. NOTES ON SUB-REGIONAL BODIES• Many more sub-regional bodies (e.g. UNDP, UNEP, MRC) and programs (e.g. CAREC) that deal with ESD exist• There are very little integration and coordination activities these bodies and programs. Perhaps these are unnecessary in some cases but there may be room for cooperation for better efficiency and effectiveness.• National positions on ESD issues are brought directly to global• Linkages of many sub-regional bodies to regional bodies are hazy.
  10. 10. ASPAC NATIONAL SD BODIES MultistakeholderPhilippines Philippine Council for Sustainable Development 1992 Minister, Planning Japan Japan Council for Sustainable Development 1996 Tri-sectoralMongolia National Council for Sustainable Development 1996 Prime MinisterUzbekistan National Commission for Sustainable Development 1997 Deputy PMKazakhstan Council for Sustainable Development 1998 Prime MinisterKyrgyztan National Council on Sustainable Human Development 1998 President Korea Korea Presidential Commission for Green Growth 2000;2009 Pres; Private Sector Nepal National Commission for Sustainable Development 2002 - Vietnam National Council for Sustainable Development 2005 Deputy PM Thailand National Council for Sustainable Development - - Governmental (Inter-Agency) Russia Inter-Agency WG on Sustainable Development 1996 Minister, EconomyTajikistan National Commission for Sustainable Development 1998 Prime Minister Iran National Council for Sustainable Development - - All Other Formations are Governmental; some are inter-Agency
  11. 11. NOTES ON NATIONAL ESD BODIES• Only few bodies are consistent with A21 prescription. Many of these bodies are inactive• Most ESD bodies are led by governments so vertical and horizontal linkages are strong• Governmental bodies are mostly led by the environment ministry; a few by ministries of development/planning (e.g., China, Phil, Vietnam), hence limited participation of social & economic sectors• SD are sensitive to changes in leadership and availability of funds (e.g. Korea, Japan, Mongolia)• Parallel bodies, often superior than the NCSDs, are created (e.g. CC bodies)• Most formulated NSDS but many are not implementing it fully/well
  12. 12. CHALLENGES FACED BY NON-STATE ACTORS• Some countries do not have developed or vibrant civil society • Limited democratic spaces; limited engagement • Lack of recognition and encouragement from government • Low capability, maturity, expertise to engage governments• Mechanisms for representation, feedback and accountability remain weak at all levels.• Inadequate and unsustained financing• Limited access to information
  13. 13. STRENGTHENING THE REGIONAL/SUB-REGIONAL SD BODIES/MECHANISMS• Consider in the over-all reform of SD institutional framework Strengthen connections and interaction among various levels (vertical) Clarify functions and focus areas of each level Promote subsidiarity principle (e.g. localized issues, monitoring thru SD targets/indicators)
  14. 14. STRENGTHENING THE NATIONAL SD MECHANISM• Create independent and self-sustaining SD body that is legally directly linked to government (address leadership, influence and funding issues)• Enable its substantive content strategic, useful & consistent with A21 • Entry point is NSDS where vision and goals are spelled out (SDG) • Monitor & Evaluate (SD targets/indicators)• Promote NCSD networking/exchanges Provide venue for exchange of knowledge & experiences Regular regional and global meetings of NCSDs levels Cooperative undertakings (joint projects) among NCSDs
  15. 15. PROMOTE ACTIVE AND MEANINGFUL PARTICIPATION OF NON-STATE ACTORS• Provide access to adequate and sustained resources including establishing deliberate financing scheme to sustain CS capacity building• Provide incentives for participation of non-state actors in NCSD and NSDS matters• Develop the mechanisms for vertical and horizontal representation and feedback• Establish accountability mechanisms• Ensure access to information; establish regional Principle 10 Convention• Maintain CS independence and flexibility
  16. 16. SD INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORKMulti-stakeholder Inter-Governmental Non-State Actors at theGlobal SD Body sidelinesRegional Regional Regional Inter-Governmental Regional Multi-stakeholder Process Non-State Actors atProcess Regional Process Process the sidelines SD Bodies Regional Regional Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder Inter-Governmental Process Process Non-State Actors at Process Process Sub-Regional the sidelines SD Bodies Regional Regional Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder & Multi- Process Process stakeholder Process Governmental Process National and National and Local Local SD Bodies Bodies Ideal Set-Up Current Set-Up in AsPac
  17. 17. Option: Asia Pacific SD Council • Composed of representatives of ESCAPMulti-stakeholderGlobal SD Body (secretariat), UNEP ROAP, Sub-Regional Bodies, none-state actors, and other relevant entitiesRegional Regional Multi-stakeholder • Roles (through the members)Process Regional Process SD Bodies • Global-sub-regional linkage and coordination • Thematic (e.g. CC) and geographical (5 sub- Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder regions & AsPac region) integration, Process Process Sub-Regional coordination, facilitation and monitoring SD Bodies • Regional Knowledge, Information and Education Center Regional Regional • Sub-regional exchanges Multi- Process Process stakeholder • Regional studies and researches National and Local SD Bodies • Data banking and analysis
  18. 18. Option: Sub-Regional SD Councils • Composed of representatives of Sub-Multi-stakeholderGlobal SD Body Regional Bodies, none-state actors, other relevant entities (e.g. IFIs) and sub-regional programsRegional Regional • Roles Multi-stakeholderProcess Regional Process SD Bodies • Regional-National linkage and coordination • Thematic (e.g. CC) and geographical (national) integration, coordination, Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder facilitation and monitoring Process Process Sub-Regional SD Bodies • Sub-regional Knowledge, Information and Education Center (closely linked to Regional) Regional Regional • National exchanges Multi- Process Process stakeholder National and • Sub-regional studies and researches Local SD Bodies • Data banking and analysis
  19. 19. Create/Strengthen: National and Local SD Councils • Multi-stakeholder; multi-sector Multi-stakeholder Global SD Body • Roles • Mechanism for Global-Regional-National-Local linkages, integration and coordination Regional • Means for cooperative action and forging Regional Multi-stakeholder commitment Process Regional Process SD Bodies • Voice /Advocate of sustainability • Venue for resolving inter-sectoral issues/conflicts Regional Regional Multi-stakeholder • Vehicle for education, information dissemination Process Process Sub-Regional and awareness raising (National Knowledge, SD Bodies Information and Education Center) • Mechanism for formulating, monitoring and Regional assessing implementation of national SD Regional Multi- strategies Process Process stakeholder National and • Thematic (e.g. CC) and geographical (local) Local SD Bodies facilitation and monitoring and evaluation
  20. 20. Would all these be politically tenable?If not, what other options are available?

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