'The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market: September 1997' by Grant Goddard


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An analysis of the radio broadcasting market in Tallinn, Estonia and recommendations to create a successful commercial music radio station, written by Grant Goddard in September 1997 for Wodlinger International.

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'The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market: September 1997' by Grant Goddard

  1. 1. THE TALLINN, ESTONIA RADIO MARKET by GRANT GODDARD www.grantgoddard.co.uk September 1997
  2. 2. MARKET OVERVIEW The most obvious problem with the radio market in Tallinn is that there are simply too many stations [see Table 1] for a population that Baltic Media Facts [BMF] defines as 360,000 (aged 12+). The next most obvious problem is that too many of the stations in Tallinn sound too similar. Without hearing the occasional ID or jingle on a station, it would be difficult to tell many of the competitors apart. State radio dominates the Tallinn market, as it does in most places where private radio is a relatively new phenomenon. Between them, the four state radio networks take almost half (44.5%) of all radio listening. That does not leave much radio listening for the commercial stations to fight over. This remaining 55.5% of listening is dominated by two commercial stations Raadio Kuku and Raadio Uuno - who together take a further 26.2% share of listening. Then there are a further 7 to 10 commercial stations in the market trying to survive by carving a slice of the remaining 29.3% available to them. [The exact number of stations is unclear. Several listed stations could not be heard on-air during my visit.] The problem is typified by Raadio Love, which achieves a 1% share. In Tallinn this means that it is listened to by an average of only 5000 people (12+) per day. Even in a week, the station reaches a total of only 18,000 people (12+). A commercial station cannot survive on these kind of figures. The several stations in the market with shares of less than 3% will have to increase their audience to economically viable levels or they will go out of business. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 2
  3. 3. RATINGS The raw ratings data collated by BMF is in itself not very revealing [see Table 2]. Two state radio stations - one in Estonian, one in Russian - top the ratings. The time spent listening [TSL] for these stations is relatively low, because the population in Tallinn is divided almost equally between Estonians and nonEstonians (mostly Russians). The Estonians listen to the Estonian-language stations, while the non-Estonians listen to the Russian-language stations. TABLE 1: TALLINN RADIO STATIONS station AM 612 Radio 4 [state 4] 1035 Vikerraadio [state 1] FM 88.0 88.3 88.8 89.6 90.6 91.5 91.9 94.0 94.5 95.4 96.6 97.2 97.8 98.4 99.0 99.3 100.0 100.7 101.2 101.6 103.1 103.5 104.1 106.2 106.6 language % share format Mar-May 97 Russian Estonian Finnish Vanalinna Radio Top Classics Pereraadio Europa Plus Raadio B3 Radio Mafia Russian 2.1% Estonian 1.3% Finnish Finnish Raadio 4 [state 4] Russian 17.0% Sky Plus Estonian Mega FM Estonian Raadio Uuno Estonian 10.2% Love Raadio Estonian/English 1.0% Sky Raadio Russian 9.3% Finnish Nomme Raadio Estonian Radio 100 Russian 3.1% Raadio Kuku Estonian 16.0% Finnish Raadio Kaks [state 2] Estonian 5.5% Raadio 7 Estonian Vikerraadio [state 1]/Raadio Tallinn 20.7% Vikerraadio [state 1] Estonian 20.7% Radio Nova Finnish Klassikaraadio [state 3] Estonian 1.3% [off-air ?] [off-air ?] christian music pop music pop music talk/music pop music pop music pop music pop music pop music [off-air ?] talk/music talk/music pop music Estonian music talk/music talk/music pop classical/talk source: monitoring, WRTH, Ray Ricci data: source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000 The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 3
  4. 4. TABLE 2: SHARE, CUME & T.S.L. Tallinn weekly share % Tallinn weekly reach % Tallinn hrs per week Estonia weekly reach % Vikerraadio [E state] 20.7 Raadio 4 [R state] 17.0 Raadio Kuku [E] 16.0 Raadio Uuno [E] 10.2 Raadio Sky [R] 9.3 Radio 2 [E state] 5.5 Raadio 100 [R] 3.1 Europa Plus [R] 2.1 Klassikaraadio [E state] 1.3 B3 [E] 1.3 Raadio Love [E] 1.0 30.3 30.0 29.3 20.1 20.9 18.6 13.9 7.8 6.6 6.5 5.0 5hr 11min 4hr 16min 3hr 60min* 2hr 34min 2hr 19min 1hr 23min 0hr 47min 0hr 32min 0hr 19min 0hr 19min 0hr 16min 36.6 21.3 12.6 17.7 8.2 32.2 8.0 3.0 4.7 7.6 3.3 other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 6.2 8.2 9.0 27.0 0hr 19min 0hr 41min 0hr 24min 1hr 42min 11.8 9.3 7.7 27.3 1.3 2.7 1.6 6.8 national national national national national national national E = Estonian-language R = Russian-language source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000 Estonia, 12+ population = 1,243,000 * listed as “3hr 60min” in Baltic Media Facts document Outside of Tallinn, Estonians outnumber non-Estonians. The last column in Table 2 shows that, across the country as a whole, the Estonian-language networks are stronger than in Tallinn, and the one Russian-language state network is relatively weaker across Estonia than it is in Tallinn. It should be noted that two Estonian-language stations - Sky Plus and Mega FM - are not included in these ratings data because they were launched after the spring 1997 survey dates. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 4
  5. 5. ANALYSIS BY AGE Once the ratings are analysed by age [see Table 3], you can begin to see more interesting information. High percentages indicate that a station’s appeal is successful in a specific age group. TABLE 3: CUME BY AGE ranked by age 30-39 reach % 12-19 reach % 20-29 reach % 30-39 Raadio Sky [R] 30.8 Raadio Kuku [E] 12.3 Raadio 4 [R state] 16.3 Raadio Uuno [E] 33.6 Raadio 100 [R] 14.7 Vikerraadio [E state] 12.5 Radio 2 [E state] 16.8 Europa Plus [R] 12.0 Raadio Love [E] 5.3 B3 [E] 12.8 Klassikaraadio [E state] 1.8 37.2 24.4 12.0 43.1 16.0 9.1 19.1 10.3 8.5 12.2 1.4 34.5 33.4 29.1 25.8 25.3 18.8 18.4 10.3 8.9 7.4 4.6 26.3 29.8 43.9 21.1 21.1 19.3 22.8 10.5 5.3 5.3 7.0 5.1 34.6 35.7 5.6 6.4 51.2 17.8 4.1 1.9 2.6 10.8 other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 11.9 10.9 14.1 46.6 5.0 4.9 7.5 35.0 5.3 5.3 7.0 24.6 4.2 9.6 6.3 8.7 10.1 7.6 14.6 58.5 reach % reach % 40-49 50+ E = Estonian-language R = Russian-language source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000 For the 50+ population, Vikerraadio is the Estonian-language station, listened to by 51% of them each week (ie: the entire population of 50+ Estonian nationals). Vikerraadio is a typical, speech-orientated state radio station, playing only the occasional piece of popular music. Most of the music played is Estonian. In a nine-hour period of monitoring, I heard only 13 international songs. Vikerraadio cannot be considered a competitor to a music station. Radio 4 is the Russian-language version of Vikerraadio, another speechdominated state station. Its listenership is strong in both the 50+ demographic (36% reach) and the 40-49 age group (44%). It too plays very little popular music - I heard only 21 international songs in a nine-hour period of monitoring, plus some Russian songs. Radio 4 is not a competitor to a music station. The other important station for the 50+ demographic is Raadio Kuku, a commercial Estonian-language station that appears to have modelled itself on The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 5
  6. 6. state radio. Kuku is largely speech-orientated, though it does not sound quite as “dry” as its state radio competitor, Vikerraadio. Music is only used as a “filler” between the features, interviews and conversations. There is one hour (10-11am) that is music-intensive, but during the rest of the ten-hour monitoring period, I heard only 20 international songs. Kuku is interesting because it is the only commercial station in the market to target an older audience. And its appeal is pretty broad with everyone over the age of 30 - it reaches 33% of the 30-39 group, 30% of the 40-49 group, and 35% of the 50+ group. So Kuku is not a competitor to a music format, but it does represent a competitor in its ability to reach a third of the 30-39 age group. At the other extreme of age, two stations - Russian-language Sky and Estonian-language Uuno - succeed in the 12-19 age group (Sky with 31%, Uuno with 34%) and in the 20-29 age group (Sky with 37%, Uuno with 43%). Uuno’s appeal drops off above the age of 30, but Sky achieves a high reach of 35% in the 30-39 age group. Uuno is a music-intensive station all day, playing about 14 songs per hour, even in drivetime. But almost everything it plays is new, and more than half of its songs are dance music. There is a smattering of rock-influenced songs and the occasional oldie (16 songs, all from the 1980s, in nine hours of monitoring), but essentially it is a 1990s music station, which is why it holds little interest for anyone over the age of 30. Sky is similarly a music-intensive station, playing 13 or 14 songs in most hours. Again, almost everything it plays is new music, and the majority of it is dance music. Like Uuno, there are only a handful of oldies - 9 songs, all but one from the 1980s, in nine hours of monitoring. Although it too is a 1990s stations, its success in the 30-39 age group probably arises from two factors: Russians are generally more tolerant of dance music at older ages; and there are fewer Russian-language music stations in Tallinn from which Russians can make a choice. Radio 100 is a Russian-language station with a predominantly speechorientated output. News is very important, with two bulletins each hour throughout the day, and a lot of discussion programmes and analysis. There is some music, but only as a “filler” between talk items. There are about 7 or 8 songs per hour, and the music policy is very loose, with songs from the 60s, 70s, 80s and 90s. A surprising number of these songs are genuine “hits”. This fact, combined with an almost total absence of dance music (and a leaning towards rock), gives the station its maximum appeal in the 30-39 age group (25% reach). If the station ever decided to drop the emphasis on news and speech programming, and instead to concentrate solely on music, it could be a real competitor. In the meantime, its haphazard music policy (including a solid of hour of strange Russian music between 3 and 4pm) severely limits its appeal. Radio 2 is the Estonian-language state radio station for popular music. Its problem is that there are some hours dominated by talk and features. The 0900 hour has only 5 songs, the 1200 hour has 8 songs and the 1300 hour The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 6
  7. 7. has 7 songs. If you want to listen to music alone, there are better stations to choose from. When Radio 2 does play music, it does not seem to have a consistent policy. The morning drive show is almost free of dance music, the daytime includes a lot of dance, the 1500 hour is only dance, and the 1600 hour is only modern rock. Plus there is a relatively large dose of Estonian songs throughout the day, many of which sound like folk music, rather than pop music. Radio 2 is a failed hybrid format. If you want an Estonian-language music station, you listen to Uuno. If you want an Estonian-language speech station, you listen to Kuku. The station’s failure is emphasised by the figures in table 1 that show Radio 2 does very well outside of Tallinn, where Kuku does not reach and where Uuno’s coverage is more patchy. Even in Tallinn, Radio 2 has a noteworthy reach figure (19%), but its TSL is only 1hr 23min because its programming is not enticing enough to make listeners stay very long. Europa Plus is a straightforward relay of the Moscow station with local commercials inserted. The programming is very music-intensive, dominated by new songs, mixing pop, rock and dance music in equal proportions. There are usually two oldies per hour - from the 60s, 70s or 80s - which are genuine big hits. Additionally, Europa Plus plays a lot of new Russian pop music, which is not heard on the other Tallinn stations. Its appeal, as in Russia, is broad across many age groups. In the Tallinn market, its quota of dance music is lower than that of its competitors. B3 is a poor copy of Uuno. Lots of music, lots of dance music, more Estonian music than its competitors, and a few oldies from the 1970s or 1980s. The oldies are quite big hits but many artists (ELO, Abba, Olivia Newton-John) sound out of place in a predominantly dance music station. Mega FM is entirely dominated by new dance music. Nevertheless, it still plays the occasional rock song, but not one song I heard was older than 1995. Mega did play one song that sounded suspiciously like Tony Bennett, but I think it was a mistake on the part of the DJ. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 7
  8. 8. ANALYSIS BY AGE INDEX In Table 4, each station’s weekly audience has been apportioned to each age group from which it derives. This enables a direct comparison of the audiences, without regard to how great or small is the total audience of each station. TABLE 4: CUME BY AGE - INDEXED ranked by age 30-39 percentage of each station’s weekly reach in each age group 12-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50+ Raadio Love [E] 11 Raadio 100 [R] 12 Raadio Sky [R] 17 Europa Plus [R] 18 Raadio Uuno [E] 19 B3 [E] 22 Raadio Kuku [E] 5 Raadio 4 [R state] 6 Radio 2 [E state] 10 Vikerraadio [E state] 5 Klassikaraadio [E state] 4 28 18 29 21 35 30 13 6 16 5 4 28 26 24 18 18 17 16 14 13 9 8 17 24 20 21 17 13 16 23 19 10 17 17 20 11 21 11 17 50 50 40 72 67 other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 18 10 19 26 32 21 25 28 14 7 13 19 9 10 13 14 27 52 31 13 population 12 16 14 16 42 E = Estonian-language R = Russian-language source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000 The similarity of the audiences of Kuku, Raadio 4 and Vikerraadio is highlighted once again, since more than 50% of their audience is aged 50+ (a massive 72% in Vikerraadio’s case). But how interested are advertisers in such a predominantly “old” audience? At the other extreme, Uuno and B3 draw more of their audience from the 12-19 and 20-29 age groups than their competitors - not surprising, given their devotion to dance music. The interesting aspect of this table is the gap in the middle, where there are no figures over 30%. No station is targeting specifically the 30-39 or 40-49 age groups. The pleasant surprise is that Raadio Love comes out on top of the 30The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 8
  9. 9. 39 age group. We can state: “a higher proportion (28%) of Love’s weekly audience is made up of 30-39 year olds than any other station”. Despite Love’s overall small audience, it already shows signs of picking up a distinctive audience that has been neglected by its competitors. There is clearly space in the market for such a station that serves 30-39 year olds as its prime target. These people are too young to be interested in the state radio stations and their clones. But these people are also too old to be interested in the dance music that dominates so many of the commercial stations (both Estonian-language and Russian-language). Love can be programmed to fill this gap in the market more successfully. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 9
  10. 10. RUSSIAN versus ESTONIAN It is obvious that the Estonian-language stations are targeted at the Estonian population, and the Russian-language stations are targeted at the nonEstonian population. But how much crossover exists? How much do Russians listen to the Estonian-language stations? And vice versa? TABLE 5: NATIONALITY weekly share % weekly share % ratio in Estonian in non-Estonian + = more Estonian population population - = more non-Estonian Raadio Kuku [E] Vikerraadio [E state] Radio 2 [E state] Klassikaraadio [E state] B3 [E] Raadio Uuno [E] Raadio Love [E] population Raadio 100 [R] Raadio Sky [R] Europa Plus [R] Raadio 4 [R state] other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 26.1 33.3 8.5 1.9 1.9 15.2 1.3 1.9 3.2 1.3 0.4 0.4 3.3 0.6 0.5 1.2 0.2 1.5 6.8 20.5 4.8 38.8 2.0 0.9 0.9 4.6 0.3 5.3 2.5 9.9 +13.7 +10.4 + 6.5 + 4.8 + 4.8 + 4.6 + 2.2 ± 1.0 - 13.6 - 17.1 - 24.0 - 25.9 + - 6.7 5.9 2.8 2.2 E = Estonian-language R = Russian-language source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000, Estonian = 178,000, non-Estonian = 182,000 The figures in Table 5 show, for each Estonian-language station, the ratio of listening to it by Estonians to non-Estonians. Each week, the listening to Kuku by Estonians is 13.7 times the amount of listening to Kuku by non-Estonians. This is not surprising since Kuku is a speech-orientated station. The same applies to Vikerraadio, whose listening by Estonians is 10.4 times its listening by non-Estonians. At the other end of the table, listening to the Russian-language speechdominated station, Raadio 4, is in a ratio of 25.9 non-Estonians to 1 Estonian. Europa Plus has a similar ratio of 24:1. The other two Russian-language stations have marginally lower ratios. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 10
  11. 11. Two facts become clear from these figures. Russians are far more likely to listen to Estonian-language stations, than Estonians are to listen to Russianlanguage stations. This makes political sense. Given Estonia’s history, the Soviet annexation, the relatively recent independence, and the huge choice of Estonian-language media, why would Estonians now need to listen to Russianlanguage radio? The other fact that appears is that Raadio Love has a more balanced audience of Estonians to non-Estonians than any other station, despite the fact that there is no Russian spoken on-air, nor Russian music played. Why is this? One: because there is no Russian-language music station that does not play a substantial amount of dance music. Love is the last resort. Two: because there is no Russian-language music station targeting the “middle-age” groups. Again, Love is the best option. Three: because there is very little DJ talk on Love, so that Russians can enjoy the music, without having to suffer too much Estonian-language talk. Four: Love does not play much Estonian music, which is a turn-off for Russians. There is much to be gained by developing an Estonian-language music station in the market that can also appeal to the non-Estonian population. The reach and share figures for Love could increase dramatically, if it could maintain or improve its present listening ratio of 2:1 Estonians to non-Estonian. The other stations are only broadcasting to half of Tallinn’s population. Love can target the whole of Tallinn, without having to compromise its product in any way (ie: no Russian language would need to be aired). The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 11
  12. 12. TWO MARKETS The almost equal division of Tallinn’s population into Estonians and nonEstonians is so important that it makes some sense to draw up two completely separate sets of ratings - one for the Estonian population in Tallinn, the other for the non-Estonians in Tallinn. These figures are represented in Table 6. TABLE 6: NATIONALITY: TWO MARKETS ESTONIAN NATIONALITY ONLY Tallinn Tallinn Tallinn weekly weekly hrs per share % reach % week Vikerraadio [E state] Raadio Kuku [E] Raadio Uuno [E] Radio 2 [E state] Klassikaraadio [E state] B3 [E] Raadio Love [E] other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 33.3 26.1 15.2 8.5 1.9 1.9 1.3 55.7 50.4 29.3 33.1 10.0 8.6 5.3 9hr 49min 7hr 41min 4hr 29min 2hr 30min 0hr 33min 0hr 34min 0hr 21min 2.0 0.9 0.9 4.6 10.3 6.6 9.0 22.5 0hr 35min 0hr 15min 0hr 17min 1hr 21min NON-ESTONIAN NATIONALITY ONLY Tallinn Tallinn Tallinn weekly weekly hrs per share % reach % week Raadio 4 [R state] Raadio Sky [R] Raadio 100 [R] Europa Plus [R] 38.8 20.5 6.8 4.8 52.2 37.9 23.9 11.6 8hr 01min 4hr 14min 1hr 24min 0hr 60min* other local stations foreign stations more than 1 station CDs/cassettes 0.3 5.3 2.5 9.9 2.3 9.8 9.0 31.4 0hr 3min 1hr 6min 0hr 32min 2hr 3min E = Estonian-language R = Russian-language source: Baltic Media Facts, 26Feb97-3Jun97 Tallinn, 12+ population = 360,000, Estonian = 178,000, non-Estonian = 182,000 * listed as “0hr 60min” in Baltic Media Facts document The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 12
  13. 13. These show even more graphically that the Estonian market is dominated by Vikerraadio and Kuku, who between them have a 59% share of listening. In their own market, these two stations have very respectable TSL’s of 9hr 49min and 7hr 41min respectively. In the Russian market, Raadio 4 and Sky dominate, with a similar combined 59% share of listening. Their TSL’s are 8hr 01min and 4hr 14min respectively. Two other interesting facts arise from the non-Estonian table. Russians spend more than twice as much time as Estonians listening to CDs and cassettes. Perhaps this is because they are offered little choice in Russian-language music stations that all have similar dance-orientated formats. Secondly, there is a notable 5% share of listening to “foreign” stations - probably Russianlanguage AM stations from Moscow (though some Russian radio transmitters bordering the Baltic states have become silent in recent months, so that this figure may diminish in future). The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 13
  14. 14. RAADIO LOVE It makes sense to target the station primarily at the 30-39 years old Estonian population, with secondary targets in the 20-29 and 40-49 Estonian population. The residual target should be the non-Estonian population in these same age groups. This can be achieved by simultaneously: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) playing no contemporary dance music (which over-30s dislike); playing no contemporary rock music (which over-30s dislike); playing no new songs (which are unfamiliar to everybody); playing genuine hit songs from the 60s to the 90s; majoring in 80s music (which is the important era for 30-39 year olds); playing no Estonian or Russian music (each of which is an irritant to the other); 7) playing the hits of Central/Northern Europe, not the hits of the US; 8) continuing the “more music, less talk” philosophy; 9) executing the same music format 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These policies will make the station entirely distinctive in the market if executed correctly. They will also have the effect of creating a station that appeals to the neglected 30-39 age group. Listening to the station, there are other areas within programming that I feel could be changed or improved, to the station’s advantage: 10) stop the English-language news bulletins. The English-speaking population in Tallinn is minimal, and the station’s prime objective is to improve its ratings. Expatriates are not surveyed by BMF; 11) stop the English-language IDs. All IDs should be in Estonian; 12) more jingles that say the station name and frequency; 13) more station IDs on-air; 14) a good “news in”/”news bed”/”news out” is needed [listen to Mega FM’s]; 15) newsreaders need to make the news sound interesting and “hot”; 16) the mic used for newsreaders pops terribly (lack of pop shield?); 17) introduce “liners” on-air; 18) use only one station name consistently. Is it “Raadio Love” or “Love Raadio” or “Love 98 FM”? Decide, and use it everywhere on-air and offair; 19) respect the music. DON’T cut songs short and DON’T talk all over them. SUGGESTED ACTION PLAN The path for action can be divided into two distinct parts: A) THE MUSIC. This encompasses points numbered 1 to 9 above; B) THE PROGRAMMING. Points 10 to 19 above. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 14
  15. 15. THE MUSIC The system for changing the music policy of the station would be divided into three successive steps: i) IDENTIFICATION of specific songs that fit the format, the target audience and the market. A total of 600 to 700 songs could be identified, which would then form the total playlist for the station. No newly released songs would be added. No “supplementary” songs would be played. Purely 600 to 700 songs rotated evenly across the station’s output. ii) ACQUISITION of these songs. Some songs may already exist in the station’s library. It needs to be checked whether such songs are in the library in the correct version (ie: not a later re-recording by the artist), the correct mix (ie: an AC-type mix, and not a dance or rock remix), and the correct length (ie: not the 7-minute album version, but the 4-minute single edit). Those songs that are not in the station’s library need to be purchased. Some of these can be bought from record stores in the US or Canada (where CDs retail cheaply). Some may only be available on various artist compilation CDs released in Western Europe (the UK releases more compilation CDs than any other country in the world). Some titles can probably only be purchased on Russian/Bulgarian pirate CDs (which may be available in Tallinn market). iii) IMPLEMENTATION of the songs. A clock (or several clocks) need to be established that play the appropriate number of songs each hour from each category (for example: 70s, 80s, 90s songs) and in a precise order. The clock has to take into account the stop sets established in the traffic system for commercials, and it needs to accommodate other fixed points such as news bulletins, weather reports and announcements. A system (computerised or manual) has to be established in the studio to rotate the songs correctly. The DJs have to be trained how to use it. Rules have to be established to cope with various “what if” situations. A monitoring system needs to be introduced to enable the PD to check that the DJs are correctly following the system. This requires a certain amount of on-site work in Tallinn, preparing the systems, training the staff, and then holding their hand when the new system is implemented on day X. But none of this can be done until the two earlier stages, IDENTIFICATION and ACQUISITION, have been successfully completed. The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 15
  16. 16. THE PROGRAMMING The “negatives” in the list (ie: don’t do this..., don’t do that....) can be implemented locally. The positives (ie: do “liners”) are much harder to implement. My experience is that a lot of this has to be done “on the ground” at the station, working with the relevant staff, discussing with them the principles of radio programming, training them, and encouraging them to put what they have learnt into effect. It is not easy work, and the speed at which it is accomplished depends largely upon the calibre of the local staff involved. ESTONIAN 104.1 100.7 V K I U K K E U R R A D I O Tallinn weekly share (%) 21 lots of talk lots of music X talk in drive music in drive X 16 97.2 U U N O 10 X 1 - - 17 X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X X lots of dance some dance no dance X X X 4 9 X X X X _______ 100.0 90.6 R E A U D R I O O P A 1 0 P 0 L U S 3 X 2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X lots of rock some rock no rock X lots of AC some AC no AC Estonian music Russian music RUSSIAN 94.5 95.4 R S A K A Y D I O 91.5 B 3 2 lots of currents lots of 90s lots of 80s lots of 70s lots of 60s lots of hits some hits no hits __________ 95.4 96.6 S M K E Y G A P L F U M S X 101.6 R A A D I O X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X coherent policy consistent policy X X X X X X X X X X X competitor X X X X X X The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard X X X X X page 16 X X
  17. 17. Grant Goddard is a media analyst / radio specialist / radio consultant with thirty years of experience in the broadcasting industry, having held senior management and consultancy roles within the commercial media sector in the United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. Details at http://www.grantgoddard.co.uk The Tallinn, Estonia Radio Market ©1997 Grant Goddard page 17